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The Psychedelic Experience Forum (Tripper's FAQ, Psychedelic Library and Rules) READ BEFORE POSTING!
    #4451297 - 07/25/05 05:46 PM (11 years, 5 months ago)

Please read this whole thread, and not just the first post. There are links to AMAZING resources. USE THEM.

N00bs, this is the thread you've been looking for.

Vets, send the n00bs here. :wink:

Welcome to the Psychedelic Experience Forum.

The old Trip Tips and General Questions Forums have been combined and we have added a Trip Reports subforum.

This should keep all trip related discussion in one Place. Also, each thread will likely, get more responses.

Following this post are IMPORTANT posts about the Tripper's FAQ and The Psychedelic Library where you can download trip related mp3's videos and ebooks..


Here's the rules... FOR NOW...

Annom said:
:mushroom2:  Welcome to General Questions!    :mushroom2:

This forum is designed for questions and discussions about  Psychedelic Mushrooms and the following other psychedelics:  LSDMescaline, DMTAyahuascaLSA(Morning Glory and Hawaiian Baby Woodrose), Marijuana and  Salvia.

Questions and discussions about other drugs are not allowed in this forum.

Frequently Asked Questions
If you are looking for basic information on a certain type of drug or class of drugs, please use the  Search function, visit  Erowid and read the General Magic Mushrooms FAQ and The Shroomery Trippers FAQ before you post. Add specific questions to a pre-existing thread. Here is a list of FAQ's and links to a thread where you can discuss the topic:
Sources to illegal substances are not allowed in this forum. The legal status of all items will be determined under United States law. There will be absolutly no talk of selling illegal substances.
The Shroomery is proud to be sponsored by some of the best companies in the business. Their continued support is what makes this page possible, and the quality and service they provide to the community is consistently top-notch. If you're in the market for a product which one of our sponsors provides, we strongly recommend that you look to them first. You'll be assured timely service at a reasonable price, and by supporting our  sponsors you'll be helping to support The Shroomery as well. The Shroomery's Sponsors.

Dosage advice
Dosage advice is allowed in this forum. Remember that you have to take responsibility for your actions. We make every effort to ensure accurate information, but you should not take what is said as undisputed fact. Everyone is free to post here.

For questions about proper dosage concerning all different strains of mushrooms check out The Magic Mushroom Dosage Calculator.
General dose charts can often be found at The Vaults of Erowid.

If you have dosed an unknown substance or quantity, or are in any way concerned about a possible overdose or life-threatening experience, please find your nearest Poison Control Center  or call 800.222.1222. Don't take the chance, get a professional opinion!

Useful links

From the original Trip Tips FAQ:

Some highly acclaimed reading:

We have a new sub-forum, the trip reports forum, in this forum you can post your trip reports and discus your psychedelic experience. Trip reports can offer insight into a psychedelic experience and give people ideas about what they may want to try out when they take their own journey into the alternate reality. Therefore, if you're going to write a trip report, please post them in the new sub-forum. 

Please show respect for your fellow shroomerite: we may not always agree about everything, a friendly debate is a great way to share our collective knowledge, but please be civil. There will be no name calling , flaming, trolling, stalking, or general harassment of any user in this forum. People come here to learn and share their knowledge, not to be harassed, just think of the golden rule.

Any of the actions above will result in a warning and/or a 24 hour ban in extreme cases for a first time offender, subsequent flaming will result in an immediate ban.

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Re: The Psychedelic Experience Forum (Tripper's FAQ, Psychedelic Library and Rules) READ THIS FIRST! [Re: Rose]
    #4660298 - 09/14/05 03:54 PM (11 years, 4 months ago)

Tripper's FAQ:
Please discuss the Tripper's FAQ in THIS thread VVV


Cervantes said:
Tripper's FAQ WIKI:
:scrambled:<blink>WE'RE ALWAYS UNDER CONSTRUCTION:scrambled:</blink>
Keep checking back for updates.

Welcome to the Tripper's FAQ Thread.

First, before reading or editing the FAQ, please read a few:

They are called
ESSENTIAL LINKS for a reason. Read them. If you eat, grow or share mushrooms with others, you must know what you are doing.

Stop the spread of misinformation. Spread knowledge. Trip safe and trip smart.

The Tripper's FAQ is a WIKI.

A WIKI is a website...
... Just click "EDIT PAGE". :smile:

Please help by visiting and adding to the Wiki. Add whatever you can.
Any Misinformation will be deleted.

I'm sure everyone who has tripped can add something important to the [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ[/gradient] [gradient:#FF9900,#33CC33]WIKI[/gradient]. Go ahead, it's yours.


If you don't like something about the [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ[/gradient], don't complain, FIX IT.

I DON'T CARE WHAT YOU ADD, as long as it is helpful.

You can also help by participating in the FAQ Discussion threads... where we all can discuss each question and its answer(s) in depth.

Thanks everyone for your help so far! There wouldn't be a [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ[/gradient] without you. Most of the FAQ questions (over 80%) have thorough answers. Questions labeled with a bullet point, or an "*", still need work. Please add to the questions that need it most.

[gradient:#663366,#FF3300]ESSENTIAL LINKS[/gradient]

Mushroom Dosage Calculator

Toxicology of Mushrooms

[gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]The[/gradient] [gradient:#FF0033,#0033FF]Psyc[/gradient][gradient:#CC9900,#0033FF]hede[/gradient][gradient:#CCFF00,#0033FF]lic E[/gradient][gradient:#006633,#0033FF]xper[/gradient][gradient:#333399,#0033FF]ien[/gradient][gradient:#990099,#0033FF]ce[/gradient] by Timothy Leary
A MUST READ! This link is gold, Timothy Leary's Psychedelic Experience ONLINE!!! Tim Leary was the guru of LSD, and he wrote many books. The Psychedelic Experience is the handbook for many trippers around the world. [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]The[/gradient] [gradient:#FF0033,#0033FF]Psyc[/gradient][gradient:#CC9900,#0033FF]hede[/gradient][gradient:#CCFF00,#0033FF]lic E[/gradient][gradient:#006633,#0033FF]xper[/gradient][gradient:#333399,#0033FF]ien[/gradient][gradient:#990099,#0033FF]ce[/gradient] contains a translation of The Tibetan Book of the Dead. :smile:

The [gradient:#FF0033,#0033FF]Psyc[/gradient][gradient:#CC9900,#0033FF]hede[/gradient][gradient:#CCFF00,#0033FF]lic E[/gradient][gradient:#006633,#0033FF]xper[/gradient][gradient:#333399,#0033FF]ien[/gradient][gradient:#990099,#0033FF]ce[/gradient] FAQ
If Leary's book is too long, this is a short, overview of Tim Leary's "Psychedelic Experience". It covers most important points.

More Leary Information

Deepman's Psychadellic Library: MP3's Guided Trips, music and speaches by Tim Leary, Albert Hoffman, Terrance McKenna... The Grateful Dead and many other tripper friendly MP3's
Deepman, Learyfan (among others) have shared a lot of classic MP3's and Video with all of us. Follow this link, if you want something to listen to, or watch especially during a trip. There are also, MANY links to  great Tripping Literature. :smile:

[gradient:#336600,#666633]Recordings of Terrance McKenna[/gradient]
Many hours of McKenna speeches. Like Leary, Terrance McKenna was a well known psychedelic philosopher and shaman. Terrance McKenna is not as easy for newbie trippers to approach as Leary. In his books and lectures, he often takes on very difficult topics. Terrance definitely was a brilliant man. Thank God there are so many recordings of him... although his voice may take a little getting used to.

[gradient:#336600,#666633]More McKenna Information[/gradient]

Aldous Huxley's The Doors of Perception
* A poetic look into the mescaline trip as experienced by renowned intellectual Aldous Huxley. A wonderful introduction to psychedelic thought in general.   

Albert Hoffman's LSD: My Problem Child
LSD inventor Albert Hoffman describes his experiences during the formative stages of the psychedelic thought and experience in the 20th century.

Handbook of Therapeutic use of LSD 25
Although it was formulated around LSD psychotherapy it offers valuable insights to the aspiring psychonaut.  Well, there it is... start reading!

Spiritual & Ritual use of Psychoactives

Comments on the Psilocybin Mushroom
by Elfstone
A cool, but slightly incomplete article that in some ways picks up where McKenna left off. Very informative. It also contains a cool interactive project. I hope he updates this article some day.

D.M. Turner's Essential Psychedelic Guide
This practical guide is very informative and accurate. (D.M. Turner's Essential Psychedelic Guide) It's more concise and easier to navigate/understand than, say, the Vaults of Erowid or Shulgin's books. Of course it leaves out a lot of points that more lengthy resources might go after. (Thanks DadeMurphy for this link)

A Beginner's Approach to Psychedelic Mushrooms

How to Avoid a Bad Trip

Working with Difficult Psychedelic Experiences
by Maps.org

If you are new to tripping, please pick a few (any) of these above links and read 'em from start to finish. Read up before you ever trip... if you can. It is good to know a thing or two about tripping before you actually trip. The more you know, the more you might understand... and enjoy.

You can learn a lot from a mushroom.


Discussion threads and answers, are often subjective. Please take the information contained in the Tripper's FAQ with a grain of salt. Many answers are not FACT, just opinion. There is much to be learned about the science of tripping.

[gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ[/gradient]

1. Are magic mushrooms safe for me to eat?

2. Are contaminated/rotten/wild mushrooms safe for me to eat?

3. What is the history of magic mushrooms?

4. Why are mushrooms legal in some countries and illegal in others?

5. I am tripping for the first time, what do I need to know?

6. What size dose should I take? Is dosage the same for first time trippers and experienced trippers?

7. Why Trip?

8. How do I trip?

9. How long does a mushroom trip last?

10. How often can I trip on mushrooms?

11. What are some of the things to avoid while tripping?

12. What do the different trip levels (1-5) mean?

13. What are the best ways for me to injest mushrooms and what are the differences between the different methods of injestion?

14. What is a trip guide? Do I need one or am I one?

15. What is all this stuff about set and setting?

16. Why do people trip in nature?

17. Is tripping with others a good idea?

18. Should I trip alone?

19. Is tripping in public a good idea?

20. Should I trip with sober people?

21. What is some good tripping music?

22. Should I watch television or movies while tripping? What are some good shows to watch?

23. What are some good trip toys?

24. What is, and how can I avoid/reduce come up anxiety?

25. Why do some people throw up while coming up and, can it be avoided, controled?

26. How do I avoid a bad trip?

27. How do I stay positive during a trip?

28. What if I take too much?

*29. Can I redose, and if so, when? Needs more info

30. What is the link between spirituality and tripping?

31. Does tripping let you reach enlightenment? For how long? What is enlightenment?

32. What is ego loss?

33. What can meditation do for me while tripping?

*34. What are hallucinations really, and what do they look like? Needs more info

*35. Can you talk to mushrooms? Can they talk to you? Needs more info

36. What is and how do I control tripper's paranoia?

37. How can I stop a trip (ie: sober up)?

38. What is comedown anxiety and how can it be avoided/reduced?

*39. How to I reintegrate into sobriety? What is a mushroom hangover like? Needs more info

40. Why are trips so hard to talk about after they are over?

*41. Will tripping affect my dreams and daily life? Needs more info

42. How will a mushroom trip change me? What if I want to stay the same?

*43. What are flashbacks? Needs more info

*44. Why do only a select group of people like to trip? Needs more info

45. What things about mushrooms/tripping are most often misunderstood?

46. Is it true that psychedelics can trigger mental illness?

*47. Can I trip and never come back on mushrooms? Needs more info

48. How many mushrooms would I have to eat to die?

49. Do magic mushrooms harm my liver?

50. Has anyone ever died from eating magic mushrooms?

*51. How have trippers and tripping changed modern society? Needs more info

*52. Is it safe to combine mushrooms with other drugs? Which drugs? Needs more info

53. How can I use my trips to help in sober life?

Any [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ[/gradient] Questions that are missing? Are there any redundant or worthless questions? Any suggestions? I can't emphasize it enough. This is a Shroomery FAQ. Your opinions are a huge part of this FAQ. Actively participate in the discussion threads.

IF YOU WISH TO HELP WITH THE [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ:[/gradient]


If you have experience tripping and you've read some of the
[gradient:#663366,#FF3300]ESSENTIAL LINKS[/gradient], go to the [gradient:#FF9900,#33CC33]WIKI[/gradient]: and start making the [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ[/gradient].

Edit whenever you feel like it, do as much as you like.

Report or fix any broken [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ[/gradient] links you find.

Also, feel free to look for interesting, or informative links that pertain to certain questions. Look for links that would help answer, or provide a cool footnote to a subject. Post any links you think will help. Post any good Shroomery links you stumble over, but pay attention to other links from other sites as well.

That does it for the introduction to the [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ WIKI[/gradient] And remember...
... :scrambled: WE'RE ALL UNDER CONSTRUCTION:scrambled:

Keep participating in the discussion threads. Keep adding to the [gradient:#0099FF,#0033FF]Tripper's FAQ[/gradient]


Still don't understand what a [gradient:#FF9900,#33CC33]WIKI[/gradient] is? This link explains it very well.


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Re: The Psychedelic Experience Forum (Tripper's FAQ, PsychedeliciLibrary and Rules) READ THIS FIRST! [Re: Rose]
    #4660309 - 09/14/05 03:56 PM (11 years, 4 months ago)

Deepman's Psychedelic Culture Library.... Download Classic Tripping MP3's, Videos and Books!!!

To discuss the library, or report tech issues, please follow this link VVV


Cervantes said:

Deepman's Psychedelic Culture Library is NOW OPEN!!

Check it out!

Deepman, Learyfan (and others) have shared a lot of classic MP3's ebooks and Video for the hippie inside all of us. Most of the material is not copywritten but make sure you already OWN a copy of anything which IS copywritten BEFORE you download it. :smile:

I especially enjoy Tim Leary's guided trips... early in a trip (right before peak), put one of his albums on, and he'll guide you like an old pro. :smile:

It is very fun.

"Turn On, Tune In, Drop Out" is a great (and VERY famous) guided trip, as is, "How To Operate Your Brain". I also love, "You can be Anyone, This Time Around". Those 3 albums are WONDERFUL to trip to... especially when tripping with n00bs. Let Leary be your guide! Check them out.

Tim Leary's great but don't forget Deepman's Psychedelic Culture Library also includes works by:

William S. Burroughs, Neal Cassady, Ram Dass, Antonio Escohotado, Jerry Garcia, Stan Grof, Gerald Heard, Albert Hofmann, Abbie Hoffman, Aldous Huxley, Laura Huxley, Jack Kerouac, Ken Kesey, John Lilly, Terence McKenna, Ralph Metzner, Jim Morrison, Jonathan Ott, Alexander Shulgin, Ann Shulgin, Paul Stamets, Rick Strassman, Hunter S. Thompson, Alan Watts, Robert Anton Wilson, The Beatles, Jimi Hendrix, Pink Floyd
etc., etc., etc.


:gd_icon: :gd_icon: :gd_icon:Live Grateful Dead and Phish Recordings!
:gd_icon: :gd_icon: :gd_icon:


Many recordings of Alan Watts


Recordings of Terence McKenna
Many hours of McKenna speeches. Like Leary, Terence McKenna was a well known psychedelic philosopher and shaman. Terence McKenna is not as easy for newbie trippers to approach as Leary. In his books and lectures, he often takes on very difficult topics. Terence definitely was a brilliant man. Thank God there are so many recordings of him... although his voice may take a little getting used to.


Here  is another great audio archive, with more Terence McKenna, Albert Hoffman, Robert Anton Wilson and many others (Sorry, no Leary). Enjoy! :grin:


And if you still haven't looked at the Psychedelic Culture Library, you REALLY should. THIS IS A GREAT COLLECTION! :smile: :smile:

It should be your first stop, all the files listed below, and many others are available to download. Thanks Deepman and Learyfan!

Right now the server is pretty limited and it can get overloaded. Check back from time to time, if you can't get in.

Here's more info about Deepman's Psychedelic Culture Library.

I'll let Deepman and Learyfan speak for themselves.

As discussed in this thread!


Deepman said:
Dear Shroomerites,

As some of you already know, Learyfan and I have been working for the last few months in a conjoined effort to create a psychedelic culture library, a one-stop site where one could find writings by Abbie Hoffman, Alexander Shulgin, Alan Watts, Terence Mckenna, Jimi Hendrix... in just one place. We have collected a lot writings, interviews, spots, pics, and music by the people who created what we call the psychedelic movement.

Now, we don't have the means to actually create a site like that in a way say like Erowid, but we've managed to create a little FTP site for your pleasure where you'll find all these items I just listed. Since this FTP server is running on the personal computer of a collaborator, we have a very limited bandwidth for now, and must ask you for some patience if it doesn't run properly for you. We can only have 4 connections at a time for now :sad:

We hope this will be a great source of information for all of you, and that it will help the community. It is our intention to spread quality info for those who need it and want to expand their knowledge.

Now, we have created some rules for the security of all those involved in this project and for your own safety too:

- We can only accept 4 connections at a time for now. If everything works out right and we get enough donations we'll increase the bandwidth ASAP.

-Anyone can access our FTP, we don't want this to be a VIP thing. So no need for user/pass. If we run into problems we might make it private, which creates the next rule:

-ABSOLUTELY no hacking or cracking of the server. If we suspect someone has hacked or is trying to crack the server we WILL close it to the public and create accounts on a personal basis. Please DON'T try to hack it, it's a personal computer used for work on a daily basis.

-We accept donations in the form of any relevant document to the subject of this library. We also accept donations on monetary form, which would be used to increase bandwidth and not for personal purposes.

-The habitual legalities are applicable: You may NOT download anything from this server if you don't already own a legal copy of said document . This server is meant for you to have access to a backup electronic copy of your document. Please don't break any of your local laws by downloading from the server. You're solely responsible of your actions in this matter, we can and will not take any responsibility if you don't agree with these terms of use.
If you own the copyrights to some document or know it's copyrighted please drop me a PM and I'll unshare it immediately.

If you have any doubt please PM me and I'll try to answer ASAP. Also PM your suggestions, it will be greatly appreciated. Thank you all for your time, and have a shroomy day!!  :mushroom2: :mushroom2:

Server's URL:


Learyfan said:
Alright, it's finally unveiled.  :cool:  Deepman, I want to thank you for hosting this FTP site for all the Shroomerites.  The coolest thing about it, IMO, is the fact that it's mostly audio and video.  I am a huge fan of audio and Deepman has the world's biggest online collection of audio lectures, interviews and albums by such psychedelic and semi-psychedelic legends such as......


William S. Burroughs, Neal Cassady, Ram Dass, Antonio Escohotado, Jerry Garcia, Stan Grof, Gerald Heard, Albert Hofmann, Abbie Hoffman, Aldous Huxley, Laura Huxley, Jack Kerouac, Ken Kesey, Timothy Leary, John Lilly, Terence McKenna, Ralph Metzner, Jim Morrison, Jonathan Ott, Alexander Shulgin, Ann Shulgin, Paul Stamets, Rick Strassman, Hunter S. Thompson, Alan Watts, Robert Anton Wilson, The Beatles, Jimi Hendrix, Pink Floyd
etc., etc., etc.

I would like to add that at least as far as audio goes, very few things on Deepman's FTP site are copy written.  For instance, above I mentioned Hendrix, Floyd and The Beatles.  What Deepman has from these bands are not the albums, but rather rare interviews.  There is almost no music on the FTP.  The only full album available is George Harrison's Wonderwall Music from 1968, only because of the fact that it's been out of print for almost 20 years.  Anyway, this is something that I've wanted to see available to Shroomerites since I joined and I want to thank Deepman for making it happen.  I hope the limited access you guys will have won't be too much of a problem.  Like Deepman said, hopefully one of you Shroomerites can help by making a mirror site available or something like that. 

Anyway, try your luck.  Hopefully you will be granted access to the voices, images and words of the psychedelic movement's greatest icons.  If not, try again soon.  BTW, if anyone has any audio or video of Owsley Stanley, Nick Sand, Humphrey Osmond, Al Hubbard, Abram Hoffer, Gordon Wasson or anyone, please let Deepman or at least me, know.


You can also, try these links:

Learyfan said:
I'm making a new thread so that the Leary mp3s can be more easily accessible, to take out the broken links and to upload a new album for you.  Here they are..........
"Pursuit Of Pleasure" interview on NBC (early 60?s)  Leary conversation with William S. Burroughs, Brion Gysin, Les Levine and Robert Anton Wilson
Leary introduces Terence McKenna  Leary - "From Psychedelics To Cybernetics"
Leary?s appearance on "Space Ghost Coast To Coast"
Revolting Cocks feat. Leary - "Gila Copter"
Leary introduces Babes In Toyland
Psychic TV feat. Leary - "Tune In Turn Out" Timothy Leary vs. Nardwuar
Timothy Leary vs. Nardwuar full interview  (Real Audio) Short video clip about Leary



Gamera said:
Wanted to throw up another couple of links:

Altered States and the Spiritual Awakening conference 2003 and 2004

Palenque Norte Burning Man lectures 2003 and 2004

Good stuff.


If you DL from any of these links, and you think these files should be shared, try sharing them on Soulseek!

Soulseek is a file sharing (p2p) program... and it has a 24/7 chat room called "Shroomery"... join it ANY time. If you can't see it, click "Create Room" type "Shroomery" and, you will be taken there. It is always open, and people are ALWAYS there... even if you have to click "Create Room" :wink:

As discussed in this thread:

To avoid legal issues, be sure to only share legally sharable files... or at the very least, trust who you trade with.

If we can get these files onto Soulseek, we shall cure our broken link and limited bandwidth DL woes!

You can download Soulseek here:

Check it out!

As you can see, bandwidth is very limited for the time being so if you care to DONATE or HOST this library, please PM Learyfan or Deepman. Also SHARE your files on SoulSeek once you DL them so these files can be shared quickly, and widely!

This is gonna' be fucking cool!


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Re: The Psychedelic Experience Forum (Tripper's FAQ, Psychedelic Library and Rules) READ THIS FIRST! [Re: Rose]
    #4665878 - 09/15/05 05:36 PM (11 years, 4 months ago)

How Hallucinogenic Drugs Work


mjshroomer said:

Often I am asked this question as are the other moderators on this forum, and also many of those who visit here are constantly asking this question. So I have scanned an old published paper with the reference. This is from 1987 so it is 18-years-old and some of the info may have drastically been rewritten since but this is a standard paper on the subject used by many other articles in their references to how these drugs interrelate with the human condition and mind.
How Hallucinogenic Drugs Work Barry L. Jacobs (1987, "How Hallucinogenic Drugs Work", American Scientist vol. 75:386-392) The site of action for hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD has now been identified. They act in the brain at a specific receptor subtype for the chemical neurotransmitter serotonin. My primary purpose here is to summarize the recent data which have led to this conclusion. This article is an update of an article which appeared in American Scientist in 1979 and which should be consulted for detailed background information (1). Hallucinogenic drugs have been revered in many societies for their use in religious rites or as medicinal agents. Their use in modern Western societies has been much more controversial. On the one hand, they are considered to be dangerous drugs: the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs has placed them in Schedule I, the most restrictive class. The general public has also had a negative attitude towards them, in part because of their association with the antiwar and counter cultural movement of the 1960s. On the positive side, hallucinogenic drugs are considered by some to be a liberating vehicle for exploration of the hidden recesses of the mind (Fig. 1). Figure 1. Hallucinogenic drugs have been both revered and reviled by humans for centuries. Used by primitive societies as medicinal and inspirational agents, they are classified as dangerous drugs by the US government. Their ability to heighten and distort mental processes has made them objects of interest to both artists and scientists. This drawing made by a professional artist after he recovered from LSD intoxication shows how a hallucinogen can alter a person's sense of space and placement of body parts. (From Psychopharmacology, edited by Robert A. Levitt.) Scientists have been interested in this drug group for several reasons. Because they produce profound changes in perception and affect, hallucinogenic drugs might provide some insight into these basic psychological processes. Similarly, some consider them to be of particular interest form a mental health perspective since they are psychotomimetic - that is, their effects mimic certain aspects of the major psychoses. Finally, because these impressive effects are often produced by minute quantities (microgram amounts in the case of LSD), hallucinogenic drugs are of particular interest to those who study the brain; their potency implies that the drugs act with specificity at particular sites within the brain. Although a large number of drugs may be considered psychoactive (i.e., influencing psychological processes such as perception, emotion, memory and attention), only a small group are generally identified as hallucinogenic: LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), Psilocin, mescaline, and their congeners. The grouping of these drugs is not arbitrary or simply for the sake of convenience. They can be considered members of the same drug class for two important reasons. First, they elicit a common set of effects (2): sensory-perceptual (distorted time sense; altered sensations of colours, sounds, and shapes, ultimately developing into complex, often multimodal hallucinations; and synesthesia, or mixing of senses); psychic (dreamlike feelings; depersonalisation; and rapid and often profound alternations of affects such as depression or elation); and somatic (dizziness, tingling skin, weakness, tremor, nausea, and increased reflexes). Second, and perhaps more important, these drugs display cross-tolerance - that is, a decrease efficacy of one drug taken shortly after another drug (e.g., 3, 4). Thus, if a person has a full-blown hallucinatory experience following ingestion of LSD, the normal hallucinatory response to mescaline of DOM taken the next day will be dramatically blunted or abolished. Therefore, even though it may be argued, and perhaps correctly so, that drugs such as marijuana and phencyclidine (PCP, or "angel dust") should also be classified as hallucinogenic, they do not belong to the class of LSD-like drugs since they show no evidence of cross-tolerance with them. Not only is evidence of cross-tolerance important for grouping drugs, but it provides presumptive evidence for a common biological site of action and encourages the strategy of searching for a single site in the brain shared by all of the drugs in the class. From a strictly molecular point of view, it is not obvious that this should be the case, since the various drugs are structurally dissimilar (fig. 2): LSD is an ergot derivative; mescaline and DOM are phenylethylamines; and Psilocin and DMT are indoleamines. However, as we shall see, evidence from basic biological studies does indeed support a common site of action for all of them.Figure 2. Although hallucinogenic drugs are grouped together by their tendency to elicit common psychic, somatic, and sensory-perceptual effects and by their display of cross-tolerance, they differ in molecular structure. Representatives of the three major classes are LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), an ergot derivative; mescaline and DOM (2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine), which are phenylethylamines; and psilocin and DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine), which are indoleamines.
Before proceeding, it will be helpful to trace briefly the events which permit brain cells (neurons) to influence each other. Most neurons in the mammalian brain communicate chemically, as shown diagrammatical in figure 3. Chemicals (neurotransmitters) are released from the axon terminals of one neuron and cross a small gap (synapse) between neurons to forum a chemical bond with a protein receptor produces either excitation or inhibition of the target neuron. If all the inputs to the target neuron summate to produce a sufficient level of excitation at the cell body, the neuron fires or discharges an action potential which propagates down tot the axon, repeating the cycle of release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic gap.
A surprisingly large number of substances are thought to mediate chemical neurotransmission in the brain (somewhere between 20 and 50), and additional ones are still being discovered. Many of them are relatively simple molecules, either amino acids or derivatives of amino acids, while others are more complex peptides. A major breakthrough took place in the 1960's, when, using an anatomical method called fluorescence histochemistry, a group of Swedish investigators mapped the location of neurons in the brain that utilize norepeniphrine, dopamine, and serotonin for chemical neurotransmission (5,6). Specification of the location of the cell bodies, axon pathways, and terminals of each of these groups of neurons permitted maps based on neurochemical identify to be drawn. No only did this facilitate the development of more meaningful "wiring diagrams" of the brain, but it attorded scientists the opportunity to study and manipulate particular groups of neurons. The neurons that we shall be examining in detail, those containing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT), have their cell bodies (the point where an action potential is initiated) in a primitive part of the brain called the brainstem (Fig. 4)), which is known to control many basic physiological processes such as respiration and functioning of the cardiovascular system. From this site of origin, the axons of serotonergic neurons project to virtually all portions of the brain, including the most recently evolved neocortex. One complication of this simple picture of chemical neurotransmission that is of special relevance to our story is the fact that each neurotransmitter can act at more than one type of receptor. It is assumed that these receptor subtypes exist for the purpose of diversifying the cellular effects of any given neurotransmitter. Thus, serotonin acts as 5-HT1A, 5HT1B, possibly 5-HT1C, and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the brain (Fig. 5). Because the protein molecules, which constitute receptor sites, have slightly different conformations for each subtype, drugs can be developed to stimulate (or block) a particular receptor subtype. This preferential action presumably does not occur under normal physiological conditions, since the endogenous neurotransmitter is active at all the receptor subtypes.Hallucinogens and Serotonin Much of the research on hallucinogenic drugs has focussed on brain serotonin. There are two major reasons for this. First it was discovered early on that many of the major hallucinogens had a molecular structure similar to that of serotonin. Second, animal studies examining brain neurochemistry following administration of hallucinogens invariably reported changes in serotonin. It is not surprising that much of the brain and a number of its neurotransmitters react to the administration of these powerful drugs. However, the only reliable and consistent change common to all LSD-like hallucinogens is seen in brain serotonin, manifesting itself as changes in synthesis, release, catabolism, or receptor action (7). It is well known that he hallucinatory experience is a varied and complex one - in fact, this is one of the hallmarks of hallucinations. Therefore, it may appear naive to speak of these effects being mediated by a single specific neurotransmitter system. However, we are talking about the primary (or initiating) site of action of hallucinogenic drugs. Once a drug acts upon the brain and many of its constituent neurochemical systems. Thus the brain serotonin system acts as a trigger for a multitude of changes whose elaboration generates the hallucinatory experience Research on the role of serotonin in the action of hallucinogenic drugs has gone through three distinct phases, The first phase was initiated in the mid-1950s. It was based on the then recently discovered fact that the LSD molecule was structurally similar to that of serotonin. Investigators correctly reasoned that this might imply that l.SD's effects were mediated by an action on the neurotransmission of serotonin in the brain. Unfortunately, the level of technical expertise in the field of brain research was so primitive at that time that this hypothesis had to be tested on peripheral tissue (i.e., outside the brain), Two different groups of scientist reported that LSD exerted a powerful blockade of serotonin's biological action (8, 9). This hypothesis was quickly challenged, however, by studies employing brom-LSD a close structural analogue of LSD with a single bromine atom attached to it (10). Brom-LSD was less potent as LSD in blocking the action of serotonin in the periphery, but it did not cause hallucinogenic activity in humans We now know that the action of a drug at one site in the body does not necessarily generalize to the drug's action at another site, especially when one site is in the brain and the other is not. In the second phase, the action of hallucinogenic drugs on the brain was examined directly. This work was begun by Daniel Freed man at Yale University in the 1960s. In his neurochemical studies he reported that the administration of hallucinogenic drugs to animals increased the level of brain serotonin and decreased the level of serotonin's metabolic by-products (11). This pattern of results implied that neurons utilizing serotonin for neurotransmission were being turned off or inhibited by the drugs. Technical advances in the mid-1960s permitted the direct testing of this hypothesis. As mentioned above, a group of Swedish investigators had mapped the location of the cell bodies, axons and terminals of several neurotransmitter systems in the brain, including serotonin. With this information in hand, the next logical step was to insert a recording microelectrode into the brain- stem areas where serotonin neurons are most densely aggregated and to administer a hallucinogenic drug. When George Aghajanian at Yale University did this in anaesthetized rats, he found that the characteristically slow (1 or 2 action potentials/second) and highly regular pattern of electrical activity of these neurons was dramatically suppressed by injections of LSD(12). This supported the theory that I so and related hallucinogens acted by directly suppressing the activity of serotonin neurons themselves-the so-called presynaptic hypothesis. Although the hypothesis is attractively parsimonious, there are a number of experimental findings at variance with it. For example, our studies of serotonin neurons in awake, freely moving cats have found that the behavioural effects of LSD (e.g., limb flicking, grooming, head shakes, investigatory and play behaviour, and constant eye movements) greatly outlast the suppression of neuronal activity produced by the drug. Furthermore, animals given repeated doses of LSD ultimately develop tolerance, displaying little or no behavioural response, yet the magnitude of the concomitant suppression of serotonin neuronal activity is undiminished (13). Finally, and perhaps most importantly, some of the major hallucinogens, such as mescaline and DOM, produce robust behavioural effects in spite of failure to suppress significantly serotonin neuronal activity (14). Behavioural pharmacology studies by James Appel at the University of South Carolina also question the presynaptic hypothesis. If the hallucinogenic drugs act by suppressing the activity of brain serotonin neurons, then prior destruction of these neurons (or depletion of serotonin from its axon terminal storage sites) should make the drugs behaviourally inactive, because the system is already maximally suppressed. To the contrary, such manipulations if anything enhance, rather than diminish, the behavioural effects of LSD and related hallucinogens in animals (15-17). Similar results have also been reported in studies on humans (18, 19). These enhanced effects in animals and humans are probably attributable to a proliferation of serotonin receptor sites on the target neurons to which serotonin neurons project. This phenomenon, which often follows neuronal destruction or neurotransmitter depletion, is called "denervation supersensitivity," and the increase in the number of receptor sites appears to be a compensatory response to the decreased input. In this way, synaptic homeostasis is maintained.Postsynaptic action of hallucinogens If hallucinogenic drugs do not exert their important action directly on serotonin neurons, is there an alternative hypothesis which still preserves the concept of a serotonin-like effect? The answer is yes, and the data supporting it represent the third (and current) phase of research on serotonin and hallucinogenic drug action. The hypothesis proposes that LSD and related drugs act directly at receptor sites on serotonin target neurons; Serotonin is known to exert both excitatory and inhibitory actions at these sites. One of the most compelling aspects of the data which support this postsynaptic hypothesis is their convergent nature and the number of different laboratories which have contributed to them. A simple behavioral study was one of the first things that suggested to us the importance of the postsynaptic actions of hallucinogenic drugs (20). We found that the administration of lsd to rats elicited a constellation of behavioral effects that had been shown in previous studies to be produced exclusively by the administration of serotonin or drugs that mimicked its action. Furthermore, the fact that ISO could also elicit this "serotonin syndrome" in animals whose brains were depleted of serotonin demonstrated that LSD acted direct-ly upon serotonin receptors, rather than indirectly through the release of axon terminal stores of serotonin. We also found that neurotoxin-induced destruction of serotonin axon terminals enhanced this behavioral response to lsd (denervation supersensitivity, once again attributable to a proliferation of postsynaptic serotonin receptors). An important extension and generalization of these studies demonstrated that both mescaline and pom also produced the serotonin syndrome (21). Studies employing radioactively labeled compounds that bind to particular receptors with great specificity and high affinity also point to the importance of postsynaptic serotonin receptors in hallucinogenic drug action. With repeated administration, we found that LSD became less and less effective in eliciting the behavioral syndrome in rats (20. 22). This change was accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of serotonin binding sites available on postsynaptic neurons. The specificity of the effect is demonstrated by the fact that no change was found in the availability of receptors for dopamine, another brain neurotransmitter. Recently, these results have been confirmed and extended in an important way. Repeated administration of LSD to rats was found to decrease the availability of the 5-HT: receptor subtype. Binding at the 5-HT, subtypes was unchanged (23). Figure 4. All of the cell bodies of neurons containing serotonin are found in the brainstem, a primitive part of the brain that controls many basic physiological processes. The cross section shown here is the brain of a monkey. From the brainstem these neurons send their axons great distances to influence virtually all the major areas of the mammalian central nervous system, including the neocortex, the most recently evolved portion of the brain. The enlargement on the right of a section of the visual neocortex displays the extent to which serotonin axon fibers penetrate the various layers of the neocortex. (After refs 37 and 38.) Additional evidence favoring the postsynaptic hy-(Hypothesis comes from studies employing monoamine oxidase inhibitors (maois), which are widely used to treat depression in humans. One of the changes that prolonged administration of these drugs produces is a decrease in the number of serotonin receptor binding sites in the brain (24). Irwin Lucki and Alan Frazer at the University of Pennsylvania found that when rats were treated for a number of days with maois and then given drugs, independent of their structure, exert their critical action at a 5-HT2 receptor site (36). They took a series of 22 drugs whose potency to elicit hallucinations in humans was known. The drugs were drawn from the three different structural groups of hallucinogenic drugs: ergot, phenyl ethylamine, and indoleamines. Employing radioactively labelled compounds =, they examined the affinity of these drugs for binding to 5-HT2 receptor sites in brain tissue taken from rat cerebral cortex. They found that the correlation coefficient of human hallucinogenic potency and affinity for binding was nearly perfect. This strongly supports the hypothesis that the strength of a drug's action at the 5-HT2 receptor site predicts its potency in evoking hallucinations in humans. Figure 3. Hallucinogenic drugs become involved in the processes by which brain cells neurons interact. Such an interaction takes place when one neuron contacts another chemically across a minute synaptic gap. There are many neurotransmitters that mediate synaptic transmission in the brain, but the one that hallucinogens seem to affect most readily is serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). This drawing shows an axon terminal of a serotonin-containing neuron (presynaptic neuron) contacting the cell body of one of its target neurons (postsynaptic neuron). Tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin, is brought to the presynaptic neuron through the blood. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan inside the axon terminal and stored in vesicles. When an action potential, generated in the cell body of the neuron, invades the axon terminal, the vesicles release their contents into the synaptic gap and interact with receptors embedded within the postsyinaptic neuron to produce either excitation or inhibition.A critical experiment remains to be carried out as the ultimate test of the hypothesis. Will pre-treatment of human subjects with drugs that are highly specific antagonists of serotonin's action at the 5-HT2 site block, or markedly attenuate, the hallucinogenic effects of LSD, mescaline, DOM, Psilocin, and DMT? We may have to wait a long time for an answer to this question because of federal restrictions on such experiments. Figure 5. The picture of chemical neurotransmission shown in Figure 3 is complicated by the fact that the receptors in postsynaptic neurons can be of several different types. This schematic representation demonstrates how a molecule or serotonin (5-HT) might interact with three different types of serotonin receptors (5-HTIA, 5-HTIB and 5-HT2). Current research indicates that LSD and other hallucinogenic drugs exercise their critical action on serotonin neurotransmission by binding to the 5-HT2 receptor subtype.Figure 6. The indole nucleus structure of the serotonin molecule is similar to that of the hallucinogenic drugs LSD, psilocin, and DMT shown in Figure 2. It is this similarity that originally led researchers (0 theorize that LSD was involved in the neurotransmission of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin and the Brain Data from a variety of different sources lead to the conclusion that hallucinogenic drugs exert their critical action at a specific serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT2. (Depending on the particular brain area, the action may be either excitatory or inhibitory.) This does not preclude the possible involvement of other neurotransmitters in the action of hallucinogenic drugs. In fact, structural differences in the drug molecules are probably responsible for variations in the phenomenological! Effects produced by them,A major remaining issue is how this triggering action of hallucinogenic drugs at 5-HT; receptors evokes the experience we identify as a hallucination-that is, changes the sensory-perceptual, psychic, and somatic domains. As further progress is made in elucidating the neural substrates of emotion, perception, and other processes, we will better understand how a change in the modulatory influence exerted by serotonin at its receptor sites throughout the central nervous system mediates hallucinogenesis. Recent anatomical studies indicate that tilt 3-HT; receptors are abundantly localized in neocortical, limbic, and brainstem sites. In addition, noninvasive scanning techniques for studying brain function in conscious humans, such .is positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), are proving invaluable to research on psychoactive drugs. Finally, we may ask what functions are subserved by the other receptor sites where serotonin acts. Recent evidence indicates that one of these sites (5-HT1A) may be important in producing anxiety, while another may be critical in the development of migraines. It is important to remember that under normal conditions serotonin exerts an equal action at all of its receptor sites. However, when one site is selectively activated or blocked, whether by drugs, endogenous biological factors, or environmental toxins, it leads to a perturbation which may be manifested as anxiety, migraines, or hallucinations.


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Re: The Psychedelic Experience Forum (Tripper's FAQ, Psychedelic Library and Rules) READ THIS FIRST! [Re: Rose]
    #4665898 - 09/15/05 05:40 PM (11 years, 4 months ago)

This thread has been closed.

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Re: The Psychedelic Experience Forum (Tripper's FAQ, Psychedelic Library and Rules) READ BEFORE POSTING! [Re: Rose]
    #23714244 - 10/06/16 09:54 PM (3 months, 12 days ago)

I've been taking ecstasy for the past  days and I'm wondering if that would dull the effects of 3.5 grams of shrooms cuz I'm guessing it would

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Re: The Psychedelic Experience Forum (Tripper's FAQ, Psychedelic Library and Rules) READ BEFORE POSTING! [Re: Trill321og]
    #23714447 - 10/06/16 11:09 PM (3 months, 12 days ago)

Why is this open? Huh?


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Re: The Psychedelic Experience Forum (Tripper's FAQ, Psychedelic Library and Rules) READ BEFORE POSTING! [Re: Kinshino]
    #23714633 - 10/07/16 12:36 AM (3 months, 12 days ago)

'Tis a psychodelicious blast from the past!

endless source, endless river - river of no shape, river of no water - drifting invisibly from place to place

Primal's simple tested teks and projects: :awesomenod: Grain Prep :awesomenod: Tea Tek :awesomenod: Potency Project! :awesomenod:

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