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OfflineLightningfractal
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Registered: 06/24/03
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mushrooms psysiological effects?
    #2840574 - 06/29/04 06:07 PM (12 years, 9 months ago)

I know someone that gets massive leg cramping whenever they eat shrooms. What are the physical effects of mushrooms, and why would you say this happens? Is there a way to prevent this without them giving up mushrooms altogether?

Thx in advance.


--------------------
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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Registered: 07/22/99
Posts: 13,774
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Re: mushrooms psysiological effects? [Re: Lightningfractal]
    #2841586 - 06/30/04 12:02 AM (12 years, 9 months ago)



If yu are experiencing cramps or loss of muscular control than you have eaten more shroms then your body can handle.

Here are the clinical recorded effect of the mushrooms.
From John Alen, Magic Mushrooms of australia and New Zealand.

PSYCHOACTIVE EFFECTS OF PSILOCYBIAN MUSHROOMS
Symptoms produced by eating fresh hallucinogenic mushrooms begin to occur within 15 to 30 minutes after ingestion (or from 5 to 10 minutes when prepared in the form of tea or soup). Symptoms persist for up to four to six hours after ingestion. In 1960, Clinical effects for psilocybine intoxication in humans was reported as being Hollister et al., 1962):


"0-30 minutes - Slight nausea, giddiness (light-headed), abdominal discomfort, weakness, muscle aches and twitches, shivering, anxiety, restlessness, and a numbness of lips.

30-60 minutes - Visual effects (blurring, brighter colors, sharper outlines, longer after-images, visual patterns with closed eyes). Increased hearing, yawning, sweating, facial flushing. Decreased concentration and attention, slow thinking, feelings of unreality, depersonalization, dreamy state. Inco-ordination, tremulous speech.

60-120 minutes - Increased visual effects (colored patterns and shapes, mostly with eyes closed). Wave-motion of viewed surfaces. Impaired distant perception. Euphoria, increased perception, and a slowed passage of time.

120-240 minutes - Waning and nearly complete resolution of above effects. Returning to normal within 4-12 hours. Other effects often include: Decreased salivation and appetite; uncontrollable laughter; transient sexual feelings and synesthesias (e.g., `seeing' sounds)."


For comparison with the clinical experience described above, the following is an excerpt from one of R. Gordon Wasson's experience with psilocybin mushrooms:


"The mushrooms take effect differently with different persons. For example, some seem to experience only a divine euphoria, which may translate itself into uncontrollable laughter. In my case I experienced hallucinations. What I was seeing was more clearly seen than anything I had seen before. At last I was seeing with the eye of the soul, not through the coarse lenses of my natural eyes. Moreover, what I was seeing was impregnated with weighty meaning: I was awe-struck."

PSILOCYBIAN MUSHROOM POISONING
Ancient or historic evidence of cerebral mycetisms induced by the accidental ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms has been documented in various parts of the world. Early reports of intoxication attributed to the unintentional consumption of these fungi come from China in the 3rd century A.D., Japan during the eleventh century A.D., Great Britain in both l799 and in the early l800's, in the United States around the early l900's and in France in the early l960's.

It is of interest to note a report from Japan that there were over 366 accidental ingestions of psilocybin mushrooms reported in l929; these incidents were reported by people foraging for wild edible mushrooms.

In Africa during the l940's a number of unintentional intoxications occurred when mind-altering mushrooms were inadvertently sold as a source of food by children in public markets.

It must be noted that outside of a few intoxications caused by Psilocybe cubensis (in Africa), and one caused by Psilocybe semilanceata (in England in the late 1700's), the majority of all intoxications which occurred prior to the recreational use of these species, were caused by various species of Panaeolus with the exception of Japan and the Northeastern United States, where some of the inebriations were the result of ingesting various species of Gymnopilus.

Published reports describing symptoms attributed to Panaeolus intoxications, were often written in a similar manner. Subjective effects included:




"...drowsiness, lightheadedness, an inability to walk, a staggering gait, giggliness, much hilarity, inappropriate speech, uncontrollable laughter, euphoria and acting as if one were on a bender." On the other hand, occasionally terrifying, visual and psychological disturbances have been known to result from accidental or deliberate ingestion of Psilocybe cubensis or P. semilanceata, which sometimes result in emergency room treatment.

In a paper published in 1958, Dr. Sam Stein briefly mentioned similar observations when Panaeolus and Psilocybe fungi were used in the treatment of a single patient. Mushroom extracts used by Dr. Stein were obtained from dried specimens of Panaeolus venenosus (=Panaeolus subbalteatus), and Psilocybe caerulescens. Further investigations were carried out in 1959 by Stein and some of his colleagues who revealed that the subjective effects caused by the ingestion of Panaeolus species were more tranquil and less hallucinogenic than the effects produced by the ingestion of certain species of Psilocybe.

The fear of poisoning by physically toxic mushrooms is the main cause of mycophobia (a fear of mushrooms) throughout the world. Many of the deadly poisonous species of mushrooms macroscopically resemble some of the hallucinogenic mushrooms in the genus Psilocybe. For example, three species of deadly poisonous Galerina's, and Conocybe filaris, which are extremely poisonous mushrooms, are commonly found in mulched gardens in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and other regions of the world, and have been observed sharing the same habitat as Psilocybe baeocystis, Psilocybe cyanescens, and Psilocybe stuntzii.

Another example of misidentification involves Chlorophyllum molybdites also known as "green gills" or "Morgans" Lepiota. According to Stephen Peele, curator of the Florida Mycology Research Center, it is often picked in Florida and mistaken for Psilocybe cubensis (personal communication to J.W. Allen). Chlorophyllum molybdites is considered toxic but not deadly. This species is common in Australia and may occasionally be mistaken as Psilocybe cubensis. Peele also claimed that in Tampa, Florida, over 90% of all mushroom poisonings were the result of ingesting C. molybdites. While two children in California developed a "mydriasis-fever-convulsions" syndrome after ingesting mushrooms taken from a lawn habitat, another in the state of Washington was reported to have died due to complications following the suspected consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms. Also, three children were reportedly mildly poisoned after accidentally grazing on lawn specimens of Panaeolina foenisecii, however, in a recent study of the literature, it was suggested by Allen and Merlin (1992b), that this species is not psychoactive.

A sixteen year old girl from Whidbey Island, Washington did die in December l981 after accidentally picking and eating several fresh specimens of Galerina autumnalis. She and her two teenage male companions had assumed that they ingested Psilocybe mushrooms. Unfortunately, the youths did not report their misguided consumption of the deadly mushroom to the proper medical authorities for two days due to their fear of prosecution.

It is thus possible that young children may be susceptible to convulsions following the consumption of some varieties of psilocybian mushrooms. However, the world renown Mazatec curandera Marํa Sabina and her sister Marํa Ana, made famous by the writings of the Wassons' and others, both first ate these hallucinogenic mushrooms somewhere between the ages of 7-9, and Marํa Sabina continued to do so for over 70 years without any apparent physical illness. Also, R. Gordon Wasson and his wife Valentina, allowed their 19-year-old daughter Masha to eat mushrooms apparently without ill effect.

Even a professional mycologist must be quite careful when deciding which wild mushrooms may be safe for human consumption. For example, some mushrooms, which are common and edible in Europe, can be deadly poisonous or harmful enough to cause physical damage when collected and consumed in the United States, Canada, or even Australia. In 1978, Jonathan Ott reported that the "Ld50 (lethal dosage) in mice for psilocybin has been determined to be 280 mg/kg, oral ingestion", thereby assuming that a person of average weight (i.e. 70 kg/155 lb) person, "would have to ingest l9.6 grams of [the extracted chemical] psilocybin to produce death." However, in 1989, Dr. Karl L. R. Jansen at the University of Auckland stated that he believes that "the LD50 (the dose at which 50% of a sample will die) has been determined as 280 mg/kg in mice. However, it is not valid to calculate the LD50 for humans by a simple percentage/weight calculation. Mice and humans have very different metabolic rates and dispose of drugs in different ways. It is unlikely that even a large number of psilocybine mushrooms would not be toxic in humans, but we cannot suggest an exact figure from data based on rodent studies."

TREATMENT FOR PSILOCYBIAN MUSHROOM POISONING
The major dangers associated with psilocybin poisonings are primarily psychological in nature. Anxiety or panic states ("bad trips"), depressive or paranoid reactions, mood changes, disorientation and an inability to distinguish between reality and fantasy may occur.

Recommended treatment for this type of poisoning should always be primarily supportive. Mycologist Dr. Joseph Ammirati of the University of Washington and his colleagues claim that "no specific treatment can be recommended for psilocybin poisoning in humans". Other doctors have "stress[ed] the importance of measures to reduce absorption of the toxins involved". This involves either, e.g., gastric lavage or emesis Lincoff & Mitchell, 1977; Rumack & Saltzman, 1978; Smith, 1978).


Emesis. 15-30 cc of ipecac syrup followed by large amounts of oral liquids (500 cc).


Supportive treatment: i.e. the "talk-down" technique is the preferred method for handling "bad trips". It involves non-moralizing, comforting, personal support from an experienced individual. This is further aided by limiting external stimulation such as intense light or loud sounds and letting the person lie down and perhaps listen to soft music.


Tranquilizers need only be used in extreme situations and are generally not considered to be necessary. Diazepam, 0.1 mg/kg in children, up to 10 mg in adults, may be used to control seizures.


According to Dr. Rick Strassman of the University of New Mexico, anti-psychotics have gone out of favor for the treatment of `bad trips'. Specifically, medicines with anti-cholinergic side effects, such as chlorpromazine, should not be given as these mushrooms can have marked anti-cholinergic effects of their own.

In 1988, Dr. Jansen noted that cases which present medically fall into several groups:


Those who have taken the drug with little knowledge of hallucinogens and in the absence of sensible persons who can take care of them. These are more likely to be adolescents. They may self-present but are more often brought for medical attention by their parents.


Those who fall as a result of impaired balance or muscle weakness and are knocked out or otherwise injured as a result.


Those who are having a `bad trip'. These may involve acute anxiety and panic, depression, paranoid reactions, disorientation and an inability to distinguish between reality and fantasy.


Cases of idiosyncratic physical reactions such as cyanosis.


Those with recurring phenomena after the mushroom effects should have passed, including prolonged psychosis.


When the history is clear and the signs are suggestive of psilocybian intoxication, it is best not to artificially empty the stomach either by emesis with ipecac or by lavage. Treatment shows that emptying the stomach had no effect on the duration or intensity of the experience once psychological manifestations had properly commenced. Dr. Jansen maintains that unless there is a reason to suspect that a more toxic fungus has been ingested, or if the patient is a young child, induced emesis is not necessary, not helpful and may make the situation much worse if the patient is already aggressive and agitated.

Other doctors have also speculated that a lavage is not merited if psilocybian mushrooms have been positively identified as the source of discomfort. It has also been suggested that "gastric intubation can be difficult in these young patients who are often already distressed and not infrequently aggressive. Furthermore the mushrooms may block the standard lavage tubes [used] for drug overdoses."

The inherent danger from the ingestion of wild mushrooms lies not so much in the consumption of an hallucinogenic variety, but rather in the picking and eating of a toxic species which might resemble an hallucinogenic variety.

Dr. Gast๓n Guzmแn (and his colleagues wrote that "field and laboratory studies strongly indicate that psychoactive mushroom use as it normally occurs does not constitute a drug abuse problem or a public health hazard" (Guzmแn et al., 1976). In addition, a recent survey conducted among college students in California, suggests that "the low frequency and few negative effects of [hallucinogenic mushroom] use indicate that abuse does not present a social problem, nor is there evidence for predicting the development of a problem" Thompson et al., 1985).

mjshroomer


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OfflineLightningfractal
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Registered: 06/24/03
Posts: 14,899
Loc: Heaven and Hell
Last seen: 4 years, 2 months
Re: mushrooms psysiological effects? [Re: mjshroomer]
    #2843339 - 06/30/04 01:42 PM (12 years, 9 months ago)

Thank you. That is a very interesting article. Unfortunately it covers the outward effects, but doesn't really cover the inward mechanisms affected by mushrooms.

In other words, what do mushrooms do to heart rate, blood vessel constriction, and other central nervous system stuff.

What is the pharmocology of mushrooms?


--------------------
Hi how's it going, wanna kick Heroin basically painlessly on your own, in your own house, without any government "help" ,or the "help" of a crazy condescending, judgmental medical doctor? Read this:

https://www.shroomery.org/forums/showflat.php?Cat=0&Board=42&Number=7342616&page=0&fpart=all



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