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Offlineledfethered
Student ofShroomery
Registered: 09/17/02
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Loc: Mid Atlantic, U.S.
Last seen: 13 years, 2 months
Mushroom I.D. anyone?
    #954757 - 10/12/02 11:07 AM (14 years, 2 months ago)

Anyone care to have a go at identifying these?

Found on horse or cow dung (both are kept in this space) in Virginia.

Caps 3/8? to 1-1/4? starting brownish when young. Tan center, fading rainbow like to mottled brownish-cr?me with light colored edges.

Stem 3/32? to 1/8? and 1 to 2? long, light colored at top fading to darker brown at bottom, not staining blue.

Gills mottled, grayish brown see pic for attachment/no-attachment

Spore print blackish or at least very dark.

These mushrooms seem to me to share characteristics of the Dung Loving Psilocybe (Psilocybe coprophila) as well as some of the Panaeolus family. They don?t seem big enough for most of the Panaeolus descriptions I have read. Not clear-cut at all for a newbie like me.

I know it looks like 2 kinds of mushrooms here, but I think the more brown ones you see do become the lighter color as they mature. The mushroom on the right, in the pic showing the lighter color ones, has a hint of the brown tinge left in it.

Also, sorry about the photo quality. I was having a bad hair day with the digi-cam!


Can anyone nail these down?


Thanks,

Led















This mushroom was found in the same habitat a couple weeks ago. Again it kinda seems to be a Panaeolus but it was so tiny (5/8? dia, cap). I cant show you the rest of the pictures of this one because I hit my upload limit for the day. (This upload limit sucks. Sometimes I only have a few hours all at one time in a given week to do this. As a result, I have a tremendous backlog of pics that the community doesn?t get to see. Often I just don?t even bother anymore because its such a pain in the ass).

This specimen had a much more pearlescent, beautiful color to the cap but the gills were similar and the spore print was black.





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Only man's arrogance could deem a mushroom illegal.


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OfflineMAIA
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Re: Mushroom I.D. anyone? [Re: ledfethered]
    #954823 - 10/12/02 12:21 PM (14 years, 2 months ago)

I believe those are Panaeolus papilionaceus. Here's a description.

Pileus
Cap 1.5-4.0 cm broad, obtusely conic, becoming bell-shaped; margin at first slightly incurved, then decurved, decorated with white veil fragments, the latter sometimes obscure in age; surface smooth, dry, subviscid in moist weather, olive-brown to grey-brown, occasionally yellowish-brown to reddish-brown at the disc; flesh greyish to buff-brown, thin; odor mild.

Lamellae
Gills adnate to adnexed, sometimes seceding, close, broad, pale grey, the faces mottled darker from maturing spores, edges pallid; in age blackish overall.

Stipe
Stipe 6-12 cm long, 2-4 mm thick, slender, fragile, hollow, more or less equal but sometimes slightly enlarged at the apex and base; surface striate above, otherwise pruinose (at least when young), grey-brown, darker where handled; partial veil fibrillose-membranous, white, evanescent, leaving fragments on the pileal margin.

Spores
Spores 12-17 x 7-10 ?m, elliptical, smooth, with an apical pore; spore print black.

Habitat
Fruiting singly or in small groups on cow/horse manure and in pastures; fruiting spring and fall.

Edibility
Not recommended; probably not toxic, but related species maybe mildly hallucinogenic.

Comments
Panaeolus papilionaceus is characterized by a grey-brown, smooth bell-shaped cap with appendiculate margin, dark mottled gills with whitish edges, a slender, fragile stipe and a habit of growing on horse/cow dung or in herbivore-enriched pastures. Until recently, this species was a part of a confusing group mushrooms that included Panaeolus campanulatus, P. sphrinctrinus and P. retirugis. However, work by Gerhardt (1996) indicates the latter are conspecific, P. papilionaceus being the oldest valid name. Another dung inhabiting Panaeolus that may be encountered in our area is P. semiovatus a relatively large species which has a smooth, pale colored cap and an annulus.

MAIA


--------------------
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Use, do not abuse; neither abstinence nor excess ever renders man happy.
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OfflineToxicManM
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Re: Mushroom I.D. anyone? [Re: ledfethered]
    #954842 - 10/12/02 12:46 PM (14 years, 2 months ago)

Having trouble deciding if they're Panaeolus or Psilocybe? Here's a trick for observing a microscopic characteristic without a microscope.

One of the big differences between those two is that the cuticle of Panaeolus is cellular and the cuticle of Psilocybe is filamentous. In a cellular cuticle the cells of the cap surface stick straight up parallel to each other (and are usually relatively spherical). In a filamentous cuticle they lay down flat and point away from the center of the cap (and are usually relatively long and hairlike). When a mushroom cap dries out a bit it will often crack. In your first photo, the largest specimen is showing this very nicely (the leftmost specimen in the third photo shows it too). This cracking is characteristic of a cellular cuticle. A filamentous cuticle will split radially, usually at the margin of the cap. So the cuticle of these mushrooms is cellular, and they must therefore be Panaeolus.

The lack of a ring, no blue bruising, and remnants of partial veil as toothlike bits on the edges of the cap would make these Panaeolus papilionaceus. The only thing you described which doesn't match David Arora's description exactly is the length of the stem (yours seem short). I suspect that you got to them while they were young and had not yet grown to full height.

Your other specimen suggests Panaeolus (black spores) too, so you might check for mottled gills.


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Offlinecomario2
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Registered: 09/06/02
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Re: Mushroom I.D. anyone? [Re: ToxicMan]
    #954849 - 10/12/02 12:59 PM (14 years, 2 months ago)

excellent. thanks for the tip on the panaeolus/psilocybe difference


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comario


"crusaders against emotional poverty"


Edited by comario2 (10/12/02 01:06 PM)


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OfflineEndlessSpace
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Registered: 07/20/02
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Re: Mushroom I.D. anyone? [Re: comario2]
    #954855 - 10/12/02 01:07 PM (14 years, 2 months ago)

What part of Virginia did you find these in?  :confused: 


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only have one life, use it wisely. much love,
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Offlineledfethered
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Registered: 09/17/02
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Re: Mushroom I.D. anyone? [Re: EndlessSpace]
    #954956 - 10/12/02 02:32 PM (14 years, 2 months ago)

As always, an educational experience from ToxicMan. Thanks for any and all help and feedback folks.

The stem on these mushrooms does contribute to the mystery. For instance the description for the stem on the Panaeolus papilionaceus doesn?t indicate the color change from top to bottom that is clearly evident on these specimens:

? Stipe 6-12 cm long, 2-4 mm thick, slender, fragile, hollow, more or less equal but sometimes slightly enlarged at the apex and base; surface striate above, otherwise pruinose (at least when young), grey-brown, darker where handled; partial veil fibrillose-membranous, white, evanescent, leaving fragments on the pileal margin.
The stems do turn darker brown where you pinch them but you have to really pinch them good.

Seems like these are somewhat of a mystery to a lot of folks and should be avoided regarding eating them.


EndlessSpace,

These were found in Central Virginia at about 500 ft. altitude.




Peace


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Only man's arrogance could deem a mushroom illegal.


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InvisibleGGreatOne234
Stranger
Registered: 12/24/99
Posts: 8,946
Re: Mushroom I.D. anyone? [Re: ledfethered]
    #955174 - 10/12/02 04:07 PM (14 years, 2 months ago)

The mushroom in the last photo ia a Panaeolus antillarum.


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Offlineviscid
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Registered: 09/23/02
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Re: Mushroom I.D. anyone? [Re: ledfethered]
    #955291 - 10/12/02 05:03 PM (14 years, 2 months ago)

i just said this somewhere else,
papilionaceus is kinda variable, but i think it is usually darker than those guys.
antillarium seems right for the last pic, but why not for the others?
i wouldnt really consider any of em fer eatin, either...pap, antillarium, or whatever.
toxicman said it all.
i usually try to break the cap of a pan softly to see if there's a pellicle holding the flesh together, in which case it would transform itself from pan to psilocybe...hehe
the cracking is pretty evident on pan antillariums i see around my neck....
peace.


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OfflineMAIA
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Re: Mushroom I.D. anyone? [Re: GGreatOne234]
    #955379 - 10/12/02 05:47 PM (14 years, 2 months ago)

In reply to:

The mushroom in the last photo ia a Panaeolus antillarum.




It sure does.
BTW, my description refers to all mushrooms unless the last one.
Thanks for that hint Toxicman.

MAIA


--------------------
Spiritual being, living a human experience ... The Shroomery Mandala



Use, do not abuse; neither abstinence nor excess ever renders man happy.
Voltaire


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