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Registered: 03/17/02
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US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques
    #3762633 - 02/10/05 05:41 PM (11 years, 8 months ago)

This information was taken straight from "A Modern Herbal" under the "Jimson Weed" entry. Since I cultivate and harvest large quantities of Datura I thought that I would type this information up for my own personal reference. It may be a bit incomplete and have mispellings because I have yet to edit and finalize it. Some of the information in here I found to be very useful and the rest simply trivial and widely known. I hope that you may make good use of this information. Enjoy.

Datura species harvesting standards and information by the US Pharmacopeae taken from "A Modern Herbal"

Nomenclature: "The name stramonium is of uncertain origin: some authorities claim that it is derived from the Greek name of the madapple. Stramonia was the name of D. metel at Venice, in the middle of the sixteenth century, and the plant is figured under that title in the great Herbals of Tragus and Fuchius. D. Stramonium seems to have been a later introduction into Europe than D. metel , not becoming general till after the middle of the sixteenth century, but as it rapidly spread and became a common plant, the name of the latter was transferred to it. The generic name, Datura is from the Hindoo Dhatura, derived from the Sanskrit D'hustura, applied to the Indian species fastousa, well known to the medeval Arabian physicians under the name Tatorea.

Pharmacuetical Use: The object is to obtain a uniform quality. The Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, has conducted experiments on a large scale: several hundred pounds of leaf were grown and cured by artificial heat in a tobacco barn, proving of excellent quality, being marketed at a price in advance of the highest quoted figures.

It exhales a rank, very heavy and somewhat nauseating narcotic odour. This fetid odour arises from the leaves, especially when they bruised, but the flowers are sweet-scented, though producing stupor if their exhalations are breathed for any length of time.

The plant is stronly narcotic, but has a peculiar action on the human frame which renders it very valuable as a medicine. The whole plant is poisonous, but the seeds are the most active; neither drying nor boiling destroys the poisonous properties. The usual consequences of the poison when taken in suffiecient quanity are dimness of sight, dilation of the pupil, giddiness and delirium, sometimes amounting to mania, but its action varies greatly on different persons. Many fatal instances of its dangerous effects are recorded. it is thought to act more powerfully on the brain than Belladonna and to produce greater delirium. The remedies to be administered in case of poisoning by stramonium are the same as those described for Henbane poisoning. It is classed in Table II of the poison schedule. The pupils have become widely dilated even by accidentally rubbing the eyes with the fingers after pulling the fresh leaves of stramonium from the plant.

The seeds have in several instances cuased death, and accidents have sometimes occured from swallowing an infusion of the herb in mistake for other preparations, such as senna.

Browsing animals as a rule refuse to eat Thornapple, being repelled by its disagreeable odour and nauseous taste, so that its presence is not really dangerous to any of our domestic cattle. Among human beings the greater number of accidents have occured among children , who have eaten the half ripe seeds which have a sweetish taste.

In America it is called the "Devil's apple," from its dangerous qualities and the remarkable effects that follow its administration.

There are two varies of this species of Datura, one with a green stem and white flowers, the other with a dark-reddish stem, minutely dotted with green and purplish flowers, striped with deep purple on the inside. The latter is now considered as a distinct species, being the D. tatula of Linnaeus. The leaves are mostly of a deeper green, and have purplish foot-stalks and mid-ribs.

De Candolle considered D. Tatula to be a native of central america, whence it was imported into Europe in the sixteenth century, and naturalized first in Italy and then in South-west Europe, where it is very common. It occurs in England more rarlely than D. Stramonium, under similiar conditions and seems a more tender plant. It is sometimes cultivated here. The properties of both species are the same.

In Early times, the Thornapple was considered an aid to the incantation of witches, and during the time of the witch and wizard mania in England, it was unlucky for anyone to grow it in his garden.

Datura grows best in rich calcareous soil or in a sandy loam with leaf mould added. Seeds should be sown in may, planted 3 feet apart, and barely covered. Thin young mplants to a distance of 12 to 15 inches between each cultivated plant (between the 3' feet space). From 10 to 15 pounds of seed to the acre should be allowed. The soil should be kept free from weeds in the early stages, but the plants are so umbrageous and strong that they need little care later. If the summer is hot and dry, give a mulching of rotted cow-manure. The plants may also be raised from seeds sown in a hot bed in February or March. They may also be grown from seed using a Green House in April. The seedlings, when large enough, being transferred to small pots, in which they are grown with as much light and air as possible untill June, when they are planted in the open. Thornapple transplants very well.

If grown for leaf crop, the capsules should be picked off as soon as formed, as in a wind the spines tear the leafs. Some seed, for propagation purposes, should always be collected from plants kept specially for the purpose.

Though cultivated in this country, on some of the herb farms, such as Long Melford and Brentford, Thornapple was not much grown on a commercial scale before the War, considerable quanties of the dried leaves having always been imported from Germany and Hungary.

Harvesting and Preperation for Market
All parts of the Thornapple have medicinal value, but only the leaves and seeds are official. The US Pharmacopeaia formerly recognized leaves, root and seeds, but since 1900 the leaves alone are recognized as official. They are used in the dried state and are referred to as Stramonium.

Stramonium leaves are official in all Pharmacopeaias. Many require that they be renewed annually. The Belgian exludes discoloured leaves. The Portuguese directs the use of the entire plant except the root and allows the substituation of D. Tatula. To how great an extent it is true that the quality deteriorates on being kept is conjectural.

The Commercial drug as imported into Great Britain consists of the leaves and young shoots, collected while the plant is in flower and subsequently dried, and containing the shrivelled, bristly young fruits, tubular calyx, and yellowish corolla, but the official description, for medicinal purposes, permits of the use of the leaves only.

The leaves should be gathered when the plant is in full bloom and carefully dried. The US Pharmacopoeia consideres that they may be gathered at any time from the appearance of the flowers till the autumnal frosts; In this country they are generally harvested in late summer, about August, the crop being cut by the sickle on a fine day in morning, after the sun has drid off the dew, and the leaves stripped from the stem and dried carefully as quickly as possible, as for Henbane.

The dried leaves are usually much shrivelled and wrinkled , and appear in commerce either loose, or more or less matted together, of a dark-greyish green colour, especially on the upper surface, stalked and often unequal at the base, and are characterized by the very coarse pointed teeth. About 34 parts of dried leaves are produced from 100 parts of fresh leaves. The fresh leaves, when bruised, emit a fetid, narcoit odour, which they lose on drying. Their taste is bitter and nauseous. These properties , together with their medicinal virtues, are imparted to water and alcohol and the fixed oils. The leaves if carefully dried retain their bitter taste.

The inspissated juice of the fresh leaves was formerly commonly presciped, but the alcoholic extract is now almost exclusively used.

Stramonium seeds are official in a number of Pharmacopoeias. The thorny capsules are gathered from the plants when they are quite ripe, but still green. They should then be dried in the sun for a few days, when they will split open and the seeds can be readily shaken out. The seeds can then be dried, either in the sun or by artificial heat.

The dried, ripe seeds are dark brown or dull black in colour, flattened, kidney-shaped in outline, wrinkled and marked with small depressions, and average about 1/6 inch in length. Though ill-smelling when fresh, when dry they have a scarcely perceptible odour till crushed, but a bitter, oily taste. They should not be stored in a damp place, or will mildew. Kiln-dried seeds, it sohuld be noted, are no use for cultivation.

The demand for the seed is very limited, but the dry leaves find a ready market. The south of Europe furnishes a quantity, but owing to careless collection and neglect of botanical characters, the South European product is often mixed with other leaves of no value, which are sometimes entirely substituted for it, especially species of Xanthium, which has spiny though smaller fruits. Spanish Stramonium which contains no stramonium at all has been offered in London and Liverpool. The imported Commercial Stramonium leaves are also frequently found freely adulterated with those of Carthamus helenoides.

Stramonium leaves contain thesame alkaloids as Belladonna, but in somewhat smaller proportion, the average of commercial samples being about 0.22 per cent.: the percentage may, however, rise to as much as 0.4 percent. The mid-rib and foot-stalk of the leaf contain a far larger proportion than the blade. It is generally considered that the main stems and the root contain little alkaloid, and shoul, therefore not be preseent in the drug. The American Journal of Pharmacy (January, 1919) directs attention to the fact that if the stems could be utilized, the cost of labour in harvesting a crop of Stramonum would be only one-fourth or one-fifth of what it is where the leaves alone are gathered, since machinery for the purpose could be employed. Dr. G. B. Koch, of the Biological Laboratories of the H.K. Mulford Co., Philadelphia, has been making careful experiments on the relative value of the stem and root of this plant, and has arrived at the following conclusions:

1. The whole plant, either with or without the root , can be harvested and used for the commercial preparations without fear of the total alkaoid content falling below 0.25 per cent., which is the desired standard of the United States Pharmacopoeia.
2. The total mydriatic (pupil-dilationg) alkaloids of the leaf and secondary stems when analysed individially, or the leaves with 10 percent. of the secondary stems, run much higher than the United States Pharmacopoeia requirement.
3. Of the whole plant, including stem, root, and leaf, the leaf represents about 41 percent.
4. Excluding the root, the ratio of the leaf to the stem is about 47.5 yo 52.3 percent.

In General it has been found that fresh parts yielded more alkaloid than the dried parts. The alkaloid consists chiefly of hyoscyamine, associated with atropine and scopolamine, malic acid also being present. The Daturin formerly described as a constituent is now known to be a mixture of hyoscyamine and atropine. The leaves also yield 17 to 20 percent. of ash and are rich in potassium nitrate to which doubless part of the antispasmodic effects are due, and they contain also a trace of volatile oil, gum, resin, starch and other unimportant substances.

Seeds. Except that they contain about 25 percent. of fixed oil, the constituents of the seeds are practically the same as those of the leaves, though considered to contain a much greater proportion of alkaloid, which renders them more powerful than the leaves. But the presence of the large amount of fixed oil makes it difficult to extract the alkaloids or to make stable preparations and the leaves have, therfore, grealty taken place of the seeds.

Medicinal Action and Uses
Antispasmodic, anodyne and narcotic. Its properties are cirtually those of hyoscyamine. It acts similiarly to belladonna, though without constipation, and is used for purposes similiar to those for which belladonna is employed , dilating the puil of the eyes in like manner. It is considered slightly more sedative to the central nervous system than is belladonna.

Stramonium is , in fact, so similiar to belladonna in the symptoms produced by it in small or large doses, in its toxicity and its general physiological and therapeutic action, that the two drugs are practically identical, and since they are about the same strength in actvitity, the preparations may be used in similiar doses.

Stramonium has been employed in all the conditions for which belladonna is more commonly used, but acts much more strongly on the respiratory organs, and has acquired special repute as one of the chief remedies for spasmodic asthma, being used far more as the principal ingredient in asthma powders and cigarettes than internally. The practice of smoking D. ferox for asthma was introduced into Great Britain from the eat Indies by a certain Gerneral, and afterwards the English species was substitued for that employed in Hinustan. Formerly the roots were much used: in Ceylon, the leaves, stem and fruit are all cut up together to make burning powder for asthma, but in this country the dried leaves are almost exclusively employed for this purpose. The beneficial effect is considered due to the presence of atropine, which paralyses the endings of the pulmonary branches, thus relieving the bronchial spasm. It has been proved that the smoke from a Stramonium cigarette , containing 0.25 grams of Stramonium, leaves contains as much as 0.5 milligrams of atropine. The leaves may be made up into cigarettes or smoked in a pipe, either alone, or with a mixture of, tobacco, or with cubebs, sage, belladonna, and other drugs. More commonly, however, the coarsely-ground leaves are mixed into cones with some aromatic and with equal parts of potassium nitrate, in ordr to increase combustion and are burned in a saucer, the smoke being inhaled into the lungs. Great relief is afforded, the effect being more immediate when the powdered leaves are burnt and the smoke inhaled than when smoked by the patient in the form of cigars or cigarettes, but like most drugs, after constant use, the relief is not so great and the treatment is only palliative, the causation of the attack not being affected. Accidents have also occasionally happened from the injudicious use of the plant in this matter. Dryness of the throat and mouth are to be regarded as indications that too large a quantity is being taken.

The seeds, besides being employed to relieve asthma in the same manner as the leaves, being smoked with tobacco, are employed as a narcotic and anodyne, generally used in the form of an extract, prepared by boiling the seeds in water, or macerating them in alcohol. A tincture is sometimes preffered. The extract is given in pills to allay cough in spasmodic bronchial. asthma, in whooping-cough and spasm of the bladder, and is considered a better cough - remedy than opium, but should only be used with extreme care , as in over doses it is a strong narcotic poison.

Applied locally, in ointment, plasters or fomentation, Stramonium will palliate the pain of muscular theumatism, neuralgia, and also pain due to hemorrhoids, fistula, abscesses and similiar inflammation.

Preperation and Dosages
Powdered leaves 1/10 to 5 grains.
Fluid Extract leaves 1 to 3 drops.
Fluid Extract of seeds 1 to 2 drops
tincture of leaves , b.p. and u.s.o., 5 to 15 drops
powdered extract, USP., 1/5 grain.
solid extract B.P. 1/4 to 1 grain.
Ointment USP Gerard declared that

'The juice of thornapple, boiled with hog's grease, cureth all inflammations whatsoever, all manner of burnings and scaldings, as well of fire, water, boiling lead, gunpowder, as that which comes by lightning and that in very short time, as myself have found in daily practice, to my great credit and profit.'

It has been conjectured that the leaves of D. Stramonium were used by the priests of Apollo at Delphi to assist them in their phophecies , and in the Temple of the Sun, in the city of Sagomozo the seeds of the Floripondio (D. Sanguinea) are used for similiar purpose. The Peruvians also prepare an intoxicating beverage from the seeds, which induses stupefaction and delirium if partaken of in large quantities. The Arabs of Central Africa are said to dry the leaves, the flowers, and the rind of the rootlet, which is considered the strongest preperation, and to smoke them in a common bowl, or in a water pipe. It is esteemed by them a sovereign remedy for asthma and influenza and although they do not use it like the Indian Datura poisoners, accidents nevertheless occur from its narcotic properties.

Stramonium was at one time esteemed as a sedative in epilepsy , and in acute mania and other forms of active insanity, but its action is very uncertain.

The introduction of Stramonium into mediicne is due chiefly to the exertions of Baron Storch, in the latter half of the eighteenth century, who was also instrumental in re-introducing Henbane into modern medicine.

In a recent isue of an American medical journal, the opinion was expressed that Stramonium was a remedy for hydrophobia, the writer saying 'there is no drug so far proven that deserves as thorough and careful a trial in this dread diseases as Stramonium'
The poorer Turks are said to use Stramonium instead of opium, for smoking.

Other Species

The drug has a slight , unpleasant odor and a bitter taste. It contains the alkaloid Hyoscine, a resin and a fixed oil, hyoscyamine being also present and a small proportion of atropine.
It is used by the native doctors (india) for the relief of rheumatic and other painful affections.
while this drug produces effects more or less simliar to those of belladonna, its precise action has not been clearly determined.
This species of Datura grows in abundance in almost all islands of the philipine group, in some locatlieies reaching a height of 6 feet, and might afford a favourabhle source of atropine and hyoscyamine, though it has not so far been made use of commercially, there being no attempt at cultivation or even systematic collection of the drug, thought attention was drawn to its latent possibilites during the war.


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Re: US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques [Re: Aneglakya]
    #3764550 - 02/11/05 12:54 AM (11 years, 8 months ago)

Great read, thanks a ton for that  :thumbup:

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Re: US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques [Re: Atma]
    #3764618 - 02/11/05 01:10 AM (11 years, 8 months ago)

very informative...

Aneglakya have you ever written any kind of summaries or commentaries of your experience with Datura?


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Re: US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques [Re: Hooty]
    #3764855 - 02/11/05 02:12 AM (11 years, 8 months ago)

mostly about growing.

is there gonna be a part 2+?

always a good read :smile:

The seeds you won't sow are the plants you dont grow.

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Reality isRelative

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Re: US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques [Re: kadakuda]
    #3766997 - 02/11/05 04:30 PM (11 years, 8 months ago)

yeah I'm familiar with his writings on the subject of growing datura, but never on his experiences with the plant, and there could very well be some reasoning behind it, but I'm curious as to whether or not he has written anything on the subject.


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OfflineTHE Pharmer
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possibilities? [Re: Atma]
    #9481627 - 12/23/08 04:18 AM (7 years, 9 months ago)

hey there imnew to the oroum and not even sure if u still poost on here. thanks foer the info, just wondering if u have any suggested ite and or reference books on datura ordmt , jus to save mysef filtering threw al the shit, i have 9 fresh cuttings, have brewed to different strength teas and have also  some dried leaves redy for smoking. ive been trew and checked up alot of sites and would rather speak to soe1 who knows what their talking about, the dried leaves smell strong, and remind me of CHANGA, and some effects are similar to changa such as a detachment from the surroundinngs,so if u or someone elsewith knowledge and willing to help please reply,i will get back to u asap. i only posted here because ive read threw ur posts and you seem like u dont talk shite,cheers

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Re: possibilities? [Re: THE Pharmer]
    #9482270 - 12/23/08 11:10 AM (7 years, 9 months ago)

Hello man, you just dug up a 3 year old thread.

I totally recommend against the use of Datura, this plant is very dangerous.

Be welcome to the shroomery, be sure to read the forums rules before posting ok?



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OfflineDr. uarewotueat
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Re: possibilities? [Re: felixhigh]
    #9482756 - 12/23/08 01:32 PM (7 years, 9 months ago)

judging by his spelling, i would guess he has already used some. lol

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Re: possibilities? [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9482872 - 12/23/08 01:56 PM (7 years, 9 months ago)

haha!You are too funny man:grin:But yeah,Datura is just one of those plants that should be grown for it's beauty.The high from it isn't good at all,and not worth the health risks.

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Re: possibilities? [Re: KBG1977]
    #9482883 - 12/23/08 01:59 PM (7 years, 9 months ago)

Its dangerous. I've heard of kids in my area dying from it. They found it in the wild. Pharmer- check out erowid.org.


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Re: possibilities? [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #15066107 - 09/12/11 03:55 AM (5 years, 1 month ago)

I thought the same at first, too. LOL.

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Re: US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques [Re: Aneglakya]
    #19667782 - 03/08/14 03:55 PM (2 years, 7 months ago)

I grow this a lot round the property because it is beautiful and the wild/domestic animals and most insects don't eat it. As a desert flowering plant it is quite low maintenance. I thought I was rather knowledgeable about it's dangers and toxic effects and precautions to take when cultivating and handling it, but you're post has added greatly to my knowledge, Thank you for this possibly life saving info!

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Re: US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques [Re: Tequmseh]
    #19668090 - 03/08/14 05:13 PM (2 years, 7 months ago)

Lol.  Welcome to the forums.

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Re: US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques [Re: verbage]
    #19668120 - 03/08/14 05:23 PM (2 years, 7 months ago)

:lol: Yeah, welcome...

He definitely wanted to discuss some Datura, collectively he bumped 13 years worth of old posts or so to do it. :wink:

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InvisibleCorporal Kielbasa
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Re: US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques [Re: Aneglakya]
    #19668382 - 03/08/14 06:33 PM (2 years, 7 months ago)

Ay OP give a holler if you are still around!!!  :cool:


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Re: US Pharmacopeae Standards of Datura Harvesting and techniques [Re: Corporal Kielbasa]
    #19671654 - 03/09/14 03:33 PM (2 years, 7 months ago)

D. Stramonium grows wild where I live & I have never wanted to domesticate it. It just doesn't appeal to me because it's only practical use would be a weapon.

Some like to admire the beauty of a caged beast, I prefer not to risk my own head being bitten off. I've heard horror stories of children wandering onto properties and coming in to contact with the seeds. I prefer not to have something like that on my conscience. The "beauty" simply isn't worth it.

If all plants truly have a spirit, this is the first one I would say is truly evil.

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