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OfflineHumidity
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Registered: 04/02/00
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Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites
    #380586 - 08/28/01 11:35 AM (15 years, 11 months ago)

Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites

?Temperature control in the substrate bed is very important for solid-state fermentation (SSF) since growth and production of enzymes or metabolites are usually sensitive to temperature. It must be noted that the optimal temperature for the production of an enzyme or metabolite does not always coincide with that for growth.?
Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1999

?The effects of temperature on growth are well-known, but the manner in which the other fermentation rate processes respond to temperature changes has received relatively little attention. One exception it the penicillin fermentation where several investigations of the rate processes have been made. In general, the maximum growth rate occurs at a higher temperature than does the maximum rate for penicillin synthesis. Owen and Johnson (1955) found that the two maxima occur at about 30C and 20C, respectively.?
Biochemical and Biological Engineering Science, 1967

?In nature, conditions for growth are often unstable and rarely optimal. There may be periodic fluctuations of temperature, pH, ionic strength, water activity, oxygen tension, and redox potential. But such environments rarely contain all the nutrients essential for cell syntheses at sufficient concentrations to allow for growth to proceed at its potentially maximum rate. Microorganisms react to these unstable and nutritionally extreme conditions by changing themselves to become optimally adapted, both structurally and functionally (Neijssel and Tempest, 1979).
?Numerous examples of the production of secondary metabolites and their modification by temperature and differing concentrations of phosphate and metal ions were presented by Weinberg (1974, 1978, 1982); modifications by pH changes we described by Neijssel and Tempest (1979)?.? ?? The author recognized three temperature optima: for growth, for the synthesis of aynthases, and for the activity of synthases?.?
Overproduction of Microbial Metabolites, 1986

These are three paragraphs that I got out of some books in the library. All of them say that the optimal growth temperature is not going to produce the maximum amount of metabolites. I have read this in a ton of books about industrial microbiology. We need to find the optimal temperatures for psilocybin and psilocin production in the mushrooms that we are growing, so we can maximize their levels.




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"The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge." -Stephen Hawking


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OfflineHumidity
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Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: Humidity]
    #381652 - 08/29/01 08:09 PM (15 years, 11 months ago)

The reason that temperature plays a important role in producing the the maximum number of alkaloids is because temperature affects enzyme activity.

A enzyme speeds up a particular chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy for the reaction.

Most enzymes have a maximum activity at an optimum temperature. For extracellular enzymes of a particular organism or secreted by a microorganism the optimum temperature may be that of the environment in which the enzyme normally operates. The reaction rate increases with increasing temperature until the optimum temperature is reached. Above this value enzyme activity decreases rapidly until a point when the enzymes become permanently deactivated by denaturation. Temperatures below the optimum range decrease the enzyme activity without damaging the protein structure. Lower ranges of temperature can be used with longer times of exposure to the substrate.

Enzymes also have an optimum pH, and its activity decreases sharply on both sides of the optimum range.

Most of this information comes from this page.

So, what I am saying is that we can keep growing at the optimal growth temperature and pH to produce mushrooms with some alkaloids in them. Or experiments can be done to find the optimal temperature and ph for metabolite formation and we will be producing mushrooms with a noticable increase in potency.




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"The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge." -Stephen Hawking


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InvisibleDidjeridoo
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Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: Humidity]
    #381714 - 08/29/01 09:54 PM (15 years, 11 months ago)

The question of cultivation temperature influencing potency has been briefly written about by (Gartz, Stamets, Gold?) I forget who... It seems that both during colonization of the spawn and during casing/fruiting cycles that cooler temps cause an increase in potency. No exact temps were mentioned if I recall correctly. But the general range was not more than 10 degrees cooler than optimal for the normal spawning/casing/fruiting temps. There is also a noted increase in the colonization/casing/pinning times required because of the cooler temps slowing things down.

Support the FSR:smile:


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Anonymous

Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: Humidity]
    #382036 - 08/30/01 11:43 AM (15 years, 11 months ago)

Optimal Temps for Metabolite production are at the expense of yield. In the end you eat less, but you have less to eat.



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OfflineHumidity
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Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: ]
    #382121 - 08/30/01 02:54 PM (15 years, 11 months ago)

The temperatures would be less than those optimal for growth, which means it would take longer for jars to colonize completely. I don't think that the yeild per jar would be effected much by the slower colonization times, but your net yeild over time would be reduced if you had a limited number of jars.



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"The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge." -Stephen Hawking


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OfflineAzure
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Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: Humidity]
    #382263 - 08/30/01 07:23 PM (15 years, 11 months ago)

From experiments I've observed *FROM THE LIBRARY:)* yields in terms of dry weight differed greatly when fruit bodies were produced under colder conditions(at 65 degrees F). However, the loss of mass from the fruit bodies produced under colder conditions in comparision to fruit bodies produced under optimal conditions was compensated by a significant increase in psilocybin and the other goodies.

Edited by Azure on 08/30/01 06:24 PM.



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Offlinegray1
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Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: Humidity]
    #382706 - 08/31/01 12:55 PM (15 years, 11 months ago)

colonization time wouldn't necessarily be longer, psilocybin/psilocin are secondary metabolites and produced primarily in the fruiting body (mushroom) of the fungus, you wouldn't have to lower (assuming lower temperatures provide better conditions for the biosynthesis of psiolcin/psilocybin) until after the cakes/whatever were fully colonizied set out to fruit. for both higher and lower tmeperatures, i imagine that the fruits would take the same time to mature fully, but mushrooms grown under lower temperature would have less volume.

"i am a citizen of the world" diogenes


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OfflineHumidity
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Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: gray1]
    #383332 - 09/01/01 03:22 PM (15 years, 11 months ago)

I don't know exactly when the optimal metabolite temps. should be used and I don't even know what the temps are. Most likely they are somewhere around 5-15 degrees less than optimal growth temperatures. Secondary metabolites are produced in the Idiophase. The idiophase is when the organism stops growing due to a exhaustion of an essential nutrient. This would occure some time after a jar is fully colonized.

After doing reading on this subject I believe that temperature control can be used to increase the potency of the mushrooms produced, if the right temps. are applied at the right stages in the growth cycle.




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"The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge." -Stephen Hawking


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OfflineHumidity
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Loc: Somewhere in Northeast OH
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Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: Humidity]
    #393612 - 09/13/01 08:22 PM (15 years, 11 months ago)

I hate to bring this back to the top. I just want to say that I hope some of you out there look into this a bit more. I read through a lot of books and a lot of times did not understand all of the things that were being talked about (I am a electronics technition not a biologist). But I know that when industry uses microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, whatever..) to produce certain secondary metabolites, environmental factors are very important in the processes. Temperature and pH are the first two that come to mind. Although most of the time industry uses liquid fermentors as opposed to the solid state fermentation that we use in mushroom growing the environmental factors are just as important.
This would be a realistic way to increase the potency of mushrooms or even the potency of a liquid mycellum (liquid fermentation tek), without haveing to add crazy, impossible to find chemicals to your substrate.



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"The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge." -Stephen Hawking


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Offlinemot
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Registered: 08/24/01
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Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: Humidity]
    #393633 - 09/13/01 08:46 PM (15 years, 11 months ago)

very interesting...
wtg humidity :smile:



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Offlinegray1
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Re: Optimal Temperatures for Secondary Metabolites [Re: mot]
    #394256 - 09/14/01 01:59 PM (15 years, 11 months ago)

before any attempt can be made to increase potency, either through substrate addition or altering other environmental conditions, there needs to be a standard scientific method implemented by someone who has sufficient cultivation experience. this cultivation method needs to be simple, easy, and reproducible so that many different individual characteristics can be altered individually and in combinations, and the resulting psilocybin/psilocin can be measured to determine the effects of the experiments.

it will require a lot of work to compare different temperatures, substrate additions, etc... but it can be a joint effort if experienced cultivators are operating on the same protocol.

"i am a citizen of the world" diogenes


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