Home | Community | Message Board


High Mountain Compost
Please support our sponsors.

Mushrooms, Mycology and Psychedelics >> The Ethnobotanical Garden

Welcome to the Shroomery Message Board! You are experiencing a small sample of what the site has to offer. Please login or register to post messages and view our exclusive members-only content. You'll gain access to additional forums, file attachments, board customizations, encrypted private messages, and much more!

Amazon Shop for: ½ Pint Jars, Incense, Salvia, Scales, Silica Gel, pH Test Strips

Jump to first unread post. Pages: 1
InvisibleDivinorum
Stranger

Registered: 07/23/04
Posts: 84
Loc: Somewhere over the rainbo...
How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense
    #2918613 - 07/23/04 01:09 AM (12 years, 4 months ago)

Extracting Salvia Divinorum Leaf with Acetone or IPA to Make Incense



The following was written for 100 to 250 gram extraction of dried Salvia Divinorum leaf, but will work with much smaller amounts of leaf:

1. Finely powder or crush Salvia leaf, extract using room temperature Acetone completely covering the leaf with fluid in a ratio of 1/2 leaf to 1/2 Acetone three separate times for at least five minutes each. If using 99% Isopropanol extract the leaf at least five times with a ratio of 1/4 crushed/powdered leaf to 3/4 Isopropanol for no less than 5 minutes each time. Either shake or thoroughly stir the leaf and solvent the entire time (This will work with whole unbroken leaf just as well, crushing or powdering is to reduce the amount of solvent needed).

2. Thoroughly wash the wet leaf through twice more with fresh Acetone (or 99% IPA if using Isopropanol) to remove residuals.

3. Combine the solvent from all extractions and last washes, remove all leaf particles, filter sediments from solvent or let fluid stand undisturbed for up to 12 hours or more for sediments to settle out. While waiting for sediments to settle store your extract solvent in a dark cool place to reduce possible losses due to interaction of light and heat. Carefully pour fluid off of the sediments for evaporation. Save your sediments to re-extract with fresh solvent to recapture Salvinorin that might have remained behind.

4. After the fine sediments are removed from the Acetone or Isopropanol completely evaporate the solvent. This is best done in a large flat pan or glass dish using a fan to blow air across the surface of the fluid causing ripples in the fluid but not so much that it causes droplets to take to the air carrying away your precious extract. A full gallon of 99% Isopropanol can be evaporated in under eight hours with this method and a gallon of Acetone in 4 hours or less. Due to rapid evaporation condensation an ounce or more of water can collect in the bowl and won't evaporate out. This water is usually a yellow color due to tannins dissolved into it which is something you don't want in your extract so pour this water off being careful that none of the particles of extract go out with it. Leave the extract in the evaporation container and completely dry every bit of the solvent or water out of it.

5. Once every hint of solvent has been evaporated out and completely dry pour in four or more ounces of pure Naphtha into the container and completely scrape every bit of the waxy extract remains into the Naphtha including all of the thin green films which form on the sides of the container which can contain a substantial portion of the yield. Completely dissolve all clumps of wax into the solvent so that there are no clumps and only fine granules remain. Pour everything into a pint sized or larger size glass jar and set aside for a half hour so that most of the fine particles will have time to settle to the bottom of the container. After an hour carefully pour off all of the Naphtha leaving the extract in the bottom. To remove more Chlorophyll wax pour in more Naphtha and mix for five minutes and set aside for another 30 minutes before pouring off the Naphtha again. Continue washing the extract with fresh Naphtha until the fluid becomes a light translucent green color. When done completely pour off every last drop of Naphtha and completely dry the extract until no hint of Naphtha remains. Salvinorin is insoluble to Naphtha so you don't need to worry about using too much, use as much as you like but take care to wait long enough for the ultra fine Salvinorin particles to fall to the bottom of the container before pouring it off.

6. To remove the last of the tannin contaminate completely crush all of your dry Naphtha cleaned extract into as fine a powder as you can get it using a bowl and spoon and then place all of the powder into a cup of room temperature water and stir for five minutes. Next, being careful not to pour out any of the solids pour the water off and add another cup of water and stir it in again. As long as the water continues to take on a slightly yellow or brown color continue washing with water. Once done completely dry the powder in an oven set to 120-150 degrees F.

7. To remove more waxes begin washing the extract with multiple washings using 99 percent IPA until the extract is a light colored Salvinorin. As the Salvinorin becomes cleaner and cleaner the particles will take longer to settle, taking as long as a hour to do so for each wash. Save all of your Isopropanol used to remove wax as it can contain a quarter or more of your Salvinorin, depending upon how much was used and whether you waited for all of the Sal-A particles to settle before pouring off. If having extracted from 100-250 grams of leaf use no more than 25 ml of 99% Isopropanol per wash, if one ounce of leaf no more than 8 ml per wash. Salvinorin is weakly soluble to 99% Isopropanol so take great care to use as little as possible or you can dissolve and remove most of your yield when removing Chlorophyll with this solvent.

NOTE: Naphtha removes the waxes without dissolving the Salvinorin. Isopropanol is far more effective at removing waxes but also removes Salvinorin so use it sparingly. Save all of your Naphtha and Isopropanol used for the washes. You can recover the Sal-A lost to the Isopropanol washes by completely evaporating the solvent and removing the Chlorophyll waxes using the same process over again with Naphtha and IPA in much smaller amounts. Although Salvinorin is insoluble in Naphtha, after the Naphtha has set a few hours you will likely find 10% or more of the amount of Salvinorin extracted in the bottom of the container. Save all of the IPA used to wash your extract because it can be used to enhance leaf or for making tincture, depending on how much Salvinorin was removed through the washes.

The solubility of Salvinorin to room temperature Acetone is approximately 20 mg per ml of fluid, for 99% IPA it is close to .75 mg per ml of fluid. For Acetone extractions I like to use enough solvent so that its volume is at least the same as the volume of the powdered or crushed leaf being extracted and when using 99% IPA at least three or more times the volume of crushed leaf which is far more than required on a solubility basis but needed so that the leaf can be thoroughly mixed within the solvent. The amount of time the leaf is soaked in either solvent can be extended for as long as you wish, this will only help increase the extraction efficiency, however I have found that the time outlined will extract at least 80 percent of the Salvinorin from leaf if using 99 percent Isopropanol and 90-95% if using Acetone. If using Isopropanol do not use anything less than 99% for this quick extraction method as anything more than 1 percent water in the solvent can dramatically increase the amount of time required to efficiently extract the Salvinorin out of leaf.

To reduce the amount of Chlorophyll extracted from powdered or crushed leaf reagent or technical grade Acetone chilled to between zero to plus 20 degrees F. will leave the bulk of the dark Chlorophyll impurities behind and is done the same way as above except the amount of time extracting the leaf is shortened to 3 minutes per extraction done three times over with two quick pour throughs with fresh chilled Acetone to remove Salvinorin residuals left behind in the old solvent contained in the wetted leaf. I have found that chilled Acetone extractions are nearly as efficient as room temperature extractions done three times for five minutes each and well worth the extra trouble. Pre-chilling both the leaf and the extraction container will help keep the temperature of the solvent below 40 degrees F. throughout the extraction when working in a room temperature environment. You want to start out cold, but when working in a warm room the temperature of the solvent will increase to as much as 40 degrees F. while finishing up the last of the three extractions. This is ok, but no warmer than that and only during the last couple of minutes the leaf is in the solvent or you will begin to pull over additional Chlorophyll in a hurry. Starting out with Acetone chilled to close zero degrees F. the solvent should only warm up by 20 degrees which will keep the solvent well below 40 F. Chilling 99% IPA will not work, I have found that the only solvent this will efficiently work with is Acetone which Salvinorin will remain extremely soluble to even when cold.

Making high quality incense

The following shows how to make a higher quality leaf by removing all stems and de-veining each leaf. The leaf is extracted with solvent to remove a portion of the Chlorophyll and then with hot water to remove most of the tannin to produce a far superior cleaner burning leaf.

The first thing I do is hand select each leaf for quality, setting aside the stiff dark to black colored leaf in favor of the lighter colored soft green leaves. Once I have my pile of leaf to be made into incense I carefully hand de-vein the stem running through the center of the leaf being careful to leave each leaf in as large a piece as possible. When I have a full bowl of de-stemmed broken leaf I then extract the leaf with room temperature solvent several times to remove all of the Sal-A and a portion of the Chlorophyll. Of course I save the extract for later processing, but what I'm trying to do is condition the leaf to both accept more Salvinorin-A so that it won't crust as much on the outside of the leaf when making higher X factor product and to produce a much smoother incense without all of the harsh tannin.

After your done extracting your leaf to remove all of the Sal-A completely evaporate all hint of solvent from the leaf and then boil in a pot of water for a half hour or more, once the water turns brown pouring it off and adding more to boil it again. Keep doing this until the water will no longer take on a brown color. When done removing tannin pour all of the water off of the leaf and place on a cookie sheet and dry in an oven set to 150 degrees F. for however long it takes to completely dry. After that you can make your own standardized incense out of it at what ever X factor you desire and it will burn with far less smoke than regular leaf and produce a brilliantly white ash.

You can boil crushed leaf just the same but I like to keep the leaf in as large a piece(s) as possible because when drying in an oven the pieces will shrink. I believe that large pieces of enhanced leaf will sell better as incense than small little pieces because it gives the buyer more options on how it can be burned. The only thing is that you will then need to use a tin to package the leaf so that it won't be broken in shipment. These can be purchased in large lots fairly cheaply from a company called SpecialtyBottle.com

Here is a standardization procedure so that you can add Salvinorin back to leaf. This came from a well known Salvia Divinorum researcher:

The method is simple: Dissolve a measured quantity of Salvinorin A in a solvent, and then absorb it onto a measured quantity of crumbled salvia leaves. Evaporate off the solvent, and Wha-la!

Here is a more detailed explanation: To make salvinorin A enhanced leaf that contains 15 mg salvinorin A per gram of leaf, dissolve 12.5 mg* pure salvinorin A in 1 ml of warm acetone, and then add 1 gram of crumbled salvia leaves and stir. The leaves will absorb the salvinorin A-containing acetone. Place the container in a well-ventilated location and wait for the acetone to evaporate off. Stir the leaves occasionally during the evaporation period. Make sure that the acetone has evaporated completely--there should be absolutely no smell of acetone left on the leaves.

* The amount of salvinorin A to use will vary depending on the salvinorin A content of the leaves that it is being absorbed onto. If the leaves are of average potency, containing 2.5 mg salvinorin A per gram, then you would deposit 12.5 mg salvinorin A onto them to bring the concentration to 15 mg per gram (as in the above example). Of course, one can standardize the leaves to other concentrations as well. The more precisely you know the salvinorin A content of the leaves, the more accurately you can standardize them. I use very pure salvinorin A for this procedure. If you are using material that is impure, you will need to take into consideration the percentage of impurities when calculating the amount of material to use. Obviously, the same technique can be used to deposit salvinorin A onto other types of leaf.


Addendum:

This picture is from a chilled Acetone extraction which is very similar to the above extraction process may be helpful. The final amount of Sal-A shown in the last photo is not representative of the final extraction efficiency. Further processing to recover the Sal-A dissolved into the 99% IPA used to remove Chlorophyll from the extract netted another 200 milligrams of Salvinorin. Chilled Acetone extractions require only one 25 ml wash with 99 percent IPA to remove most of the Chlorophyll. The photo showing the fourth IPA wash had not completely settled out giving the fluid a cloudy appearance. It is important to wait until all cloudyness is gone before pouring the IPA off the extract or losses will be much higher.



Edited by Divinorum (07/23/04 01:11 AM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Offlinestefan
work in progress

Registered: 04/11/01
Posts: 8,932
Loc: The Netherlands
Last seen: 6 days, 16 hours
Re: How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense [Re: Divinorum]
    #2919441 - 07/23/04 06:02 AM (12 years, 4 months ago)

very good informative post :thumbup:

and welcome to the shroomery :laugh:


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Offlinerocknliam
happy willowdweller
 User Gallery

Registered: 12/12/03
Posts: 307
Last seen: 2 years, 11 months
Re: How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense [Re: Divinorum]
    #2919494 - 07/23/04 07:05 AM (12 years, 4 months ago)

Wow excellent first post, 5 shrooms for you and the thread!


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineHoodedForestDwellr
Terrorist/Musician

Registered: 04/29/04
Posts: 225
Loc: North West US
Last seen: 11 years, 1 month
Re: How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense [Re: rocknliam]
    #2922281 - 07/24/04 12:01 AM (12 years, 4 months ago)

Thats how I remember it!


--------------------

--- "As your attorny I advise you to rent a very fast car with no top, and you'll need the cocaine." - Dr. Gonzo


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
InvisibleDivinorum
Stranger

Registered: 07/23/04
Posts: 84
Loc: Somewhere over the rainbo...
How to grow or obtain Salvinorin Crystals. NOT FOR A DRUG [Re: HoodedForestDwellr]
    #2922801 - 07/24/04 04:03 AM (12 years, 4 months ago)

Warning: Do not attempt to use Salvinorin crystals as a drug, see http://www.sagewisdom.org/caution.html


Version 1.1 edited July 22, 2004

My pictures aren?t showing up right in this post and I don?t know why. You can go to this link to see all of them: http://www.shaman-australis.com.au/cgi-bin/ubbcgi/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=5;t=002276#000000

Growing crystals isn?t always easy or guaranteed to be produced each time, but here are some ways that I have done it. The third method should never fail to produce Salvinorin microcrystals as long as you have removed all of the tannin sediment.

Methods

1. Dissolve as much Salvinorin powder as you can into 151 proof Everclear Alcohol warmed to 130-140 degrees F. and then wait for it to cool to see if crystals appear (191 proof might work better, but I have never had any of it to try with). Sometimes you have to re-heat a vial of Salvinorin and Ethanol several times to at or just below boiling before they might grow when cooling. If they are going to appear they should be there within an hour or two. Each time I re-heat a vial containing Salvinorin in 151 proof Everclear Alcohol (75% Alcohol) to boiling so that crystals might form the next time as it cools (to room temperature) I loose some of the Salvinorin and crystals don?t always grow. On average I have to re-heat a vial three or four times before decent crystals form in the liquid.

2. Evaporating Salvinorin saturated Acetone at normal room temperature without any air blowing on the solvent so that it evaporates very slowly will also produce crystals, but not always. I have grown crystals by evaporating Acetone fairly quickly in either an oven at 120 degrees f (just an ounce of solvent) or by having a fan blow air across an ounce of Salvinorin saturated Acetone, but the crystals usually do not form as large as they do when the evaporation occurs slowly. Also, if you have not removed enough of the chlorophyll waxes the crystals will be hard to see, so try to remove as much of it as you reasonably can if your going to try to grow crystals.

3. Obtain crystals strait out of the dried Chlorophyll waxes from a 99% Isopropanol extraction. Through trial and error extraction research I was surprised to find that the "black wax" from a Salvia divinorum extraction is loaded with small crystals which are formed within the wax as the solvent evaporates. The following explains how to isolate them out of dried extract but will only work if you have removed all of the tannin contaminate from the green IPA through settling by allowing the extraction solvent to set undisturbed for 16 hours or more prior to evaporating the solvent, cleaning the dried extract with Naphtha until it will no longer take on much color, dried again and then water washed to remove the last of the tannin. The extract must be dried once more before adding fresh Naphtha for evaporation in an oven. The following explains the process in more detail:

After the extract has been washed several times over with fresh Naphtha until its obvious that it has become ineffective removing additional Chlorophyll pour off all of Naphtha and put all of the wet extract into a small two inch diameter spice bowl. Next pour in enough fresh Naphtha so that the extract has about a half inch of Naphtha on top, thoroughly stir the extract into the solvent with a spoon and then place the bowl in an electric oven set to about 120 degrees F. with its door cracked open. Keep the small bowl of Naphtha as far away from the heating elements as possible because there is potential for fire. When using this technique by leaving the bowl undisturbed while the Naphtha evaporates off will cause the heavier Salvinorin crystals will all fall to the bottom of the glass while the Chlorophyll wax forms an upper crust. Once completely dry you can freeze the bowl of extract to cause the top layer of wax to stiffen up and when peeling the stiff wax off the top and have nothing but golden colored to light green high purity micro-size crystals remaining in the bottom of your glass. They might not seem like crystals unless seen under magnification, but they are.

Warning! The above method of evaporating any amount of Naphtha in an electric oven could cause a fire or worse. I only post this for informational purposes. It worked for me without problems but it might not work for you without causing a fire!



Pictures from method one:

I grew the crystals in the pictures below by dissolving 1000 milligrams of refined Salvinorin powder (light green color) into 90 ml of hot 140 degree F. 151 proof Everclear drinking Alcohol (Ethanol) and then set aside for two hours at room temperature each time to see if crystals formed. I had to go through four cycles of heating and cooling before these beautiful crystals appeared. The first three times only a cloud appeared which was extremely small crystals, not visible to the naked eye except as a cloud. On the fourth heating I came back two hours later and found these beautiful large crystals had formed. When heating your Alcohol thoroughly shake or mix the Salvinorin powder into the Alcohol to dissolve as much as possible. Keep adding Salvinorin to the hot fluid until I will no longer dissolve any more and has a few specks of solid Salvinorin in the bottom which won?t completely dissolve to indicate that you have fully saturated the hot Alcohol. When the Ethanol cools back down to 20 degrees C. sometimes Salvinorin crystals will precipitate out of the fuild because the Alcohol cannot hold nearly as much Salvinorin when cooled down to room temperature. Just leave it alone and let it cool down to room temperature setting on a shelf, nothing special needed. I have used 99% Isopropanol to grow crystals this way too, but they are always much smaller than when using Ethanol. Acetone won?t form crystals at all, Methanol will sometimes form larger crystals than Ethanol, but hasn?t been as reliable for me compared to 151 proof Everclear Alcohol which usually takes three or four cycles of re-heating the 100 ml jar before nice crystals form. I have been able to grow crystals in 151 proof Ethanol the same way using a much smaller 30 ml vial of hot Alcohol with as little as 100 mg of Salvinorin producing the same size of crystals.

]

The following pictures are of a batch of Sal-A crystals which were grown using the same process of heating 151 proof Ethanol in a microwave oven to just under boiling and stirring in 900 mg of white Salvinorin powder. I then allowed the Salvinorin saturated solvent to slowly cool to room temperature. It took three more re-heatings of the fluid in a microwave oven (top off while heating) before these beauties formed on the third cooling attempt.


These crystals were sent in for analysis and were found to exceed 99.5% purity using HPLC without any other peaks showing.


Pictures from method two

The following two pictures are of some very nice white Salvinorin crystals which formed through slow evaporation of Acetone at room temperature. These crystals were produce by adding white Salvinorin powder into a small bowl full of Acetone warmed to a temperature of about 130 degrees F. then stirring in as much Salvinorin-A powder that could be dissolved into it and setting it aside for a week. When I came back I found these crystals. Sometimes crystals will grow, other times none will form at all. The second picture was taken close up using a zoom stereoscope set to 45X magnification. The light brown colored material at the base of the crystals is tannin sediment that was not removed from the Sal-A powder like I should have done by mixing water into the extract to dissolve any remaining tannin contaminate into it and then pouring the water off to remove it. Of course dried before adding to the hot Acetone.



Pictures from method three:



The above photograph was taken on macro within about three inches of the bottom of a regular drinking glass used to evaporate Naphtha cleaned extract that had about a half inch of clean Naphtha stirred in just before placing the glass into an oven for evaporation. The smooth layer you see is a waxy crust of Chlorophyll waxes which formed on top of the Sal-A crystals below it. I tore a portion of the wax off the top to show the crystals underneath.



Close up of Naphtha cleaned extract showing golden Sal-A crystals.



editted by neuro to fix pictures.


Edited by neuro (07/24/04 04:57 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Offlineneuro
Phytophiliac
 User Gallery

Registered: 08/11/99
Posts: 6,617
Loc: Rigel 7
Last seen: 6 days, 12 hours
Re: How to grow or obtain Salvinorin Crystals. NOT FOR A DRU [Re: Divinorum]
    #2923797 - 07/24/04 04:58 PM (12 years, 4 months ago)

Booya. Hell of a post. And now the pictures work too  :wink:


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Offlineesin
cheesefondue
 User Gallery

Registered: 11/21/01
Posts: 1,275
Loc: Lysergia
Last seen: 7 years, 13 days
Re: How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense [Re: Divinorum]
    #2923833 - 07/24/04 05:16 PM (12 years, 4 months ago)

Nice write-up and pictures. I thought i would never extract anything but ugly looking gunk from salvia.

Will definitely try your method next time. Those needle crystals look just amazing  :crazy2:

Thanks, Divinorum  :laugh:


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Offlinefelixhigh
KIA
Male User Gallery

Registered: 06/24/01
Posts: 7,543
Loc: Ly
Last seen: 3 years, 5 months
Re: How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense [Re: Divinorum]
    #2924422 - 07/24/04 09:40 PM (12 years, 4 months ago)

this is no joke!
i think i will stick with my leaves or crude incense...! :wink:


FH


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
InvisibleDivinorum
Stranger

Registered: 07/23/04
Posts: 84
Loc: Somewhere over the rainbo...
Re: How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense [Re: felixhigh]
    #2927909 - 07/26/04 06:31 AM (12 years, 4 months ago)

Here is an old Q and A that I had posted here before with new information added:

Edit 6.7

*****This document is going through continued edits and will be for some time to come.

W A R N I N G :

DO NOT ATTEMPT TO USE CRUDE OR REFINED SALVINORIN AS A DRUG. IT IS FAR TOO POTENT, ESPECIALLY WHEN IN CRYSTAL FORM. 5X Enhanced leaf is only 1.5% Salvinorin by weight. Acetone and Isopropanol (IPA) is very flammable which can be ignited by red hot surfaces, open flame or static spark! Educate yourself as to proper organic solvent handling techniques. Avoid risking sparks from metallic utensils, desktop or computer fans, and don't try to evaporate it in closed areas. I do not recommend the use of Salvia Divinorum or Salvinorin as a drug, I am not a doctor and unable to suggest doses or the use of this substance as a drug. The following is offered for informational purposes only.

There are several methods to extract Salvia Divinorum, You can use whole, crushed, or powdered leaf to extract Salvinorin using many different kinds of solvents. The following are my experiences using Acetone and Isopropanol on whole to powdered leaf, from room temperature to chilled.

The first time I stumbled upon a method of extracting fairly potent Salvinorin without also extracting wax was through the use of chilled Acetone with whole dried leaf. I found this method quite by accident by leaving a bottle of reagent grade Acetone outside in minus -20 degree weather and then using while still cold to extract from whole dried leaf. I soaked about 75 gram of whole leaf in a quart sized canning jar for just one minute, the solvent took on very little color. Although as the solvent evaporated down to the last few ounces of fluid the color became a more pronounced green. When the Acetone was completely evaporated away I was was astounded how the extract appeared, it was light green that looked crystaline. I was almost jumping with joy at the results, I thought I had found a simple way of extracting Salvinorin almost completely wax free. The quick and easy test to know if it was really Salvinorin was to dissolve a small amount of it into leaf and try it for myself. It worked, and it worked damn well. There was no denying the Salvia space I found myself in. I thought I broke through to a new extraction method for crystaline Salvinorin and began posting about it in the Yahoo SalviaD forum. Several individuals thanked me for the news, apparently no one had heard of this method before with the exception of one individual on the spiritplants forum who said that years before someone had reported chilled Acetone would reduce the Chlorophyll. I began posting that my extract was fairly pure, because by all appearances it was Salvinorin, although I should have known it wasn't high purity because of the volume of extract, but I didn't have an accurate scale to measure how much. Daniel Siebert contacted me shortly after my post on SalviaD and asked me how I was able to produce the Salvinorin from just Acetone and whole leaf. I told him that I had just used Acetone for one minute with whole dried leaf, nothing more. He tested the method himself but came back with an answer that the extract was only 12% pure and had loads of Chlorophyll impurities in it. These weren't the results that I had found and it took me almost two days to figure out what I was missing. I tried a one minute extraction with whole leaf again and once the Acetone was evaporated off found lots of Chlorophyll wax too. I couldn't understand what I had done differently, but then it occured to me, my Acetone was cold from being outside in minus 20 degree F. temperatures of a Alaskan winter. Ah-ha! The missing piece. I tried once more, this time leaving my Acetone outside for a few hours and was able to reproduce my first results. It took a few more weeks until I was able to figure out that although a simple extraction of whole or crushed leaf with chilled Acetone will greatly reduce the amount of wax extracted, the extract was still fairly low purity.

Here is the first photograph that I took of a whole leaf cold Acetone extraction without the sediments removed, taken about two and a half years ago: http://www.geocities.com/salviasage2001

What I didn't know about my newly found method was that the majority of my extract were fine tannin sediments from the leaf that had lots of Salvinorin infused into it making it look crystaline. I didn't know this until I took all of my extract and dissolved it into eight ounces of 151 proof Everclear Alcohol. After doing so I found that the container had lots of fine tannin particles in the bottom that would not dissolve into the Alcohol and instead of being green looked brown. My chilled Acetone extractions were not nearly as good as I had thought and my extract was more sediment than Salvinorin. Although the Alcohol dissolved most of the Salvinorin out of the sediments it required a few more washes of Alcohol to remove the rest of the Salvinorin from them. From there I everaporated the Alcohol and found that my extract was much purer, but still had a fair amount of wax it it. I had an idea, since I had been experimenting with partioning extracts with Naphtha and Methanol and water in a separatory funnel, I wondered if just pure Naphtha might wash the waxes out of the extract. I dried all of the Alcohol out of the extract and put it all in a small 25 ml glass vial and poured in a few ml of Naphtha which immediately took on a very dark color, leaving a lighter colored extract in the bottom of the container! I found my method, I continued washing the extract with more Naphtha until it was a very light green. After the first seven washes the Naphtha would not take on much more of the wax and begain to become more translucent with each wash. I dried the extract and it was a fairly light color, but not the white that I knew fairly pure Salvinorin is. Next I tried washing the extract with 99% Isopropanol and it immediately took on a very dark color! I found that the Isopropanol would pick up where the Naphtha left off and that if being careful to use just a few ml of this solvent at a time, that I could wash all of the green color out of the extract and get down to white Salvinorin. Although, at some cost. Since Salvinorin is almost insoluble to Naphtha it was a good choice for the first washes, but Isopropanol/IPA will dissolve some of the Salvinorin into it, in addition to the waxes with each wash. Because of this I was loosing a couple mg of Salvinorin or more per ml of IPA with each wash of my extract. Although I was loosing Salvinorin with each wash the amount that was being carried away was less and less each time. The reason for this is that IPA will hold about .75 mg of Salvinorin per ml of fluid when at room temperature when the Salvinorin is pure, but when waxes are present for some reason it can remove much more per ml, when heavy with wax as many as several mg per ml of fluid. As I continued to clean the wax from the extract the IPA took away less and less Salvinorin. From my own experience, if your careful not to use too much IPA you should be able to wash your extract to white and loose no more than 25% of your Salvinorin to the washes, resulting in nice white Salvinorin to work with to either make extra strength leaf, or for growing crystals. Growing crystals is not necessary for any purpose other than knowing roughly how pure your extract is, but I enjoy growing them as a curosity alone. When loosing Salvinorin from IPA washes it shouldn't be a complete loss because you can use the IPA you pour off with the black wax to make some nice 5X leaf, depending upon how much leaf your adding it back to.

COMMONLY ASKED QUESTION AND ANSWERS FOR SALVIA DIVINORUM EXTRACTIONS:

When I extract my leaf can it be whole pieces of leaf or should I crush or powder it?

When I first started extracting Salvia Divinorum leaf with Acetone I found that it didn't seem to make any difference for the amount of Salvinorin that I was able to get out of the leaf whether crushed or finely powdered. Since Acetone worked so well with whole leaf my assumption was that most if not all of the Salvinorin was coating the leaf instead of inside, either that or Acetone was able to efficiently draw the Salvinorin from inside the leaf. Once you have worked with Salvinorin extractions long enough you begin to get a sence about the leaf which doesn't require laboratory analysis to know some of the answers, I knew that Salvinorin had to be coating the leaf in large amounts because when pulling the leaf out of a bag the dust that smelled just like crude Salvinorin that I have had take to the air when scraping it out of the bottom of a container. I reported this to Daniel Siebert a few years ago and I think the he suspected it back then too because he did not disagree with me. He has since published a paper showing that Salvinorin concentrated on the outside of the leaf as I thought. Because Salvinorin coats the leaf it isn't necessary to powder the leaf to be able to extract it using solvents, but I like to either finely crush the leaf or powder it to reduce the volume of solvent needed to completely cover the leaf. Also, just in case there is an amount of Salvinorin contained in the leaf powdering might not be a bad idea, but in my experience it won't make your extraction efficiency go up appreciably wither finely crushed or powdered. That being said, if your extracting leaf to make tincture I recommend powdering the leaf as finely as possible because I believe that there are compounds in the leaf which help sublingual absorbtion of Salvinorin dissolved into Alcohol, either that or those compounds cause the Salvinorin to be further dissolved into the Alcohol that is otherwise possible without it. Because of this if your making Salvia Divinorum tincture don't remove all of the Chlorophyll compounds from your extract or you will find that your tincture will be weak compared to tincture with lots of the green compounds from the leaf in it. I'm not an organic chemist and don't work in a field related to botany or chemistry so much of what I have found was through trial and error extractions until I found methods which worked, so keep this in mind with any advice that I might give.

How much solvent is required to extract leaf?

If extracting from a whole kg of finely crushed to powdered leaf whether using 99% Isopropanol or Acetone a gallon ought to be more than enough. If your extracting from a full kilo of whole to coursely crushed leaf then it requires about twice as much solvent due to the larger volume of the leaf compared to the much smaller volume when finely crushed or powdered. If extracting from leaf using Acetone far less solvent is needed on a solubility basis compared to 99% Isopropanol/IPA but is impractical to use the amount of fluid which is required to hold the amount of Salvinorin contained in the leaf due to the higher volume of fluid required to completely cover the leaf whether it is finely crushed or powdered. My recommendations when extracting finely crushed to powdered leaf is to use a ratio of 1/2 leaf to 1/2 Acetone, if using 99% Isopropanol I use a ratio of 1/4 leaf to 3/4 IPA, but extract the leaf several times over with fresh solvent each time whether using Acetone or IPA to progressively remove more and more Salvinorin from the leaf and to also to dilute the Salvinorn contained in the solvent that might be left behind in the wetted leaf that is soaked with a portion of the solvent which is especially important when using Acetone because it can hold large amounts of Salvinorin in just a few milliliters of fluid. When using either chilled or room temperature Acetone I extract my leaf at least 3 to 5 minutes three times over and then pour more Acetone through the leaf one last time to remove more residuals which might be left behind. If using 99% Isopropanol or high proof 98% Ethanol I recommend extracting the leaf for at least five minutes each time done at least five times over. In my opinion when extracting leaf with 70 to 91 percent IPA or 151 proof Ethanol Alcohol the leaf should be soaked for a period of days and extracted at least three times over to be sure that you get as much Salvinorin out that you can with these solvents. Using solvents with that much water in them is a poor choice because it takes much longer to remove the Salvinorin and will also extract more tannin than if using solvents with very little water in them such as Acetone or 99% IPA.

If doing a short extracting with Isopropanol instead of Acetone be sure to only use 99% Isopropanol, not 70 or 91%. Alcohols can be fairly effective extracting Salvinorin out of leaf in a short amount of time, but to be able to do so cannot have much water in them, this includes drinking Alcohols such as 151 proof Everclear Alcohol which is close to 25% water. Although I have not tried it yet, 191 proof Everclear might work well enough for short extractions but many cities in the United States prohibit the sale of 191 proof which might be a good second choice to 99% IPA and has the advantage of using a solvent which is food grade, although containing close to 5% water it will extract out more of the tannin than if using 99% Alcohol. You can use whole or course crushed leaf with 99% Isopropanol but it will take more solvent to completely cover the leaf than if powdered, although this isn't too bad an idea because Salvinorin is weakly soluble to IPA compared to Acetone. When doing room temperature extractions of powdered or crushed leaf with 99% Isopropanol it will take more work to extract Salvinorin out of your leaf than if using Acetone, but you can make up for the lower solubility of Salvinorin to Alcohol by stirring and shaking your bowl or jar of leaf as vigorously as you can extracting for longer periods of time and a couple of more times over beyond what is needed when using Acetone. When using 99% Isopropanol I extract my powdered leaf for a minimum of 5 minutes each time up to five times, one right after the other with another couple of good wash throughs with fresh IPA when I am done. I have found that when using IPA I am able to get close to 80 percent or more of the Salvinorin out of leaf when using this method so it will work, just more work. One of the things I like about 99% Isopropanol is that it is medical grade which means its a very clean solvent and can be easily found on many store shelves sitting right next to the 70% IPA. Finding clean or reagent grade Acetone can be difficult and expensive, that is why I started testing Isopropyl Alcohols for Salvia extractions because buying and having reagent grade Acetone shipped to me was far too expensive. Although IPA will work just fine it isn't as good as Acetone for Salvinorin extractions, I have found that even with my best efforts when using 99% Isopropanol I can't get the last 20 percent of the Salvinorin out of the leaf without an additional long term soaking of the leaf, because of this when your done with all of your IPA extractions pour more 99% IPA back into the jar of powdered leaf and set it away in a dark place somewhere for a day or more to get the last of the Salvinorin out of it. Be sure to store your jar away from light because you could loose some of your Salvinorin due to the interaction of light with Salvinorin when in solvent, especially when in Acetone. This isn't a problem for short periods of time unless your working in direct sunlight, however when extracting leaf in solvents for more than a few hours you should store your container of Salvinorin containing solvent in the dark.

I heard that chilled Acetone will work to reduce the waxes so much that your extract is almost pure, how do you extract using chilled Acetone?

When using chilled Acetone it isn't necessary to crush or powder your leaf except from the standpoint of being able to use less solvent to cover the leaf. Chilled Acetone with either whole, crushed or powdered leaf is a great method of reducing the amount of wax extracted from leaf, but unless your extractions are very brief for only a minute or so when using cold Acetone it won't be completely pure because even though extremely short extractions of leaf will leave most of the Chlorophyll behind you will still have an amount of tannin impurity mix in with the Salvinorin, even when using anhydrous Acetone with no appreciable amount of water in it. Acetone chilled to 20 degrees F or less isn't quite as quick or as efficient extracting Salvinorin out of leaf compared to room temperature Acetone but it's very close. When using chilled Acetone to reduce the amount of Chlorophyll extracted from the leaf your trading a small amount of lost efficiency for purity, leaving the bulk of the wax behind leaving an estimated 10 percent or more of the Salvinorin behind depending how cold it is and how many times you extract your batch of leaf. The temperature that I believe has the best trade offs between leaving the most wax behind while extraction the majority of the Salvinorin is using Acetone chilled to between zero to +20 degrees F. extracting finely crushed leaf three times for three minutes with a more couple quick washes of the leaf. If using Acetone that has been chilled minus -20 degrees F. this will reduce the waxes being extracted even further, but leave more of the Salvinorin behind. You can make up for some of the lowered efficiencyof extremely cold Acetone by increasing the amount of time that your leaf is in the solvent to five minutes for each of your three extractions one right after the other, but if you increase the time too much using colder solvent will be moot as it will begin to pull over more waxes anyway. When using chilled Acetone I like to have it chilled to at least 20 degrees F. When working in a warm room with chilled Acetone from the fridge I have had the Acetone warm up from 20 degrees to 40 degrees F. just as I finished the last of three extractions on a batch of leaf (one right after the other) and it didn't pull over too much extra wax, but extended soaks with Acetone at 40 degrees F. is far too warm to reap the benefits of using chilled Acetone to reduce the amount of waxes extracted. Because Acetone remains fairly efficient from 20 degrees F. through to room temperature it is the best solvent I have been able to find for chilled extractions.

How much leaf can I extract at one time, is half kilo or more too much for one extraction?

The amount of leaf is not a problem except for finding a large enough container to do it all in. If your trying to process a full kilo of leaf all at one time then you probably won't want to try to put all of it in a huge glass jug to shake it, but you could if you had a big enough one. When working with large quantities of leaf I believe that it is far better to use a big bowl and just mix it all up using a large wooden or metal stirring spoon, smashing the leaf down and around into the solvent over and over the whole time using a potato masher is perfect fror this, but I don't recommend trying to process a full kilo of leaf at one time. You would be better to break your kilo into four 250 gram piles and do each one seperately, or start out with just 50 to 100 grams the first time through as a trial run to get the hang of it.

How can I remove the tannin impurites from my extract?

The way I like to remove tannin from my extract is using the gravity method of removing tannin (after you have removed all of your small leaf bits and particles from the fluid) sediments but this only works well when using low water content solvents because tannin is soluble to water. Acetone won't normally have much water in it but 70 to 84% Isopropanol commonly found on store shelves has far too much water. If your using IPA/Isopropanol to extract your leaf only using 99%. This is for two reasons, one is that the extraction efficiency will be higher and the second is that the tannin isn't soluble to either pure Acetone or nearly water free IPA such as 99%. When your done extracting the leaf let your Acetone or Isopropanol stand in a cool place undisturbed for at twelve hours or more. You might not be able to see the sediments in your fluid and swear that it doesn't have any, but they will be there. Right after your extraction you can see that your solvent has some amount of cloudyness to it. It is this cloudyness that you don't want, being caused by the extremely fine sediments from the leaf. Once all of your sediments are either filtered out or laying in the bottom of your container your solvent will still be the same color, but have a noted crispness to the color without any cloudyness at all as when the sediments were present.

You don't have to remove the tannin from the extract if all you are going to do is add your extract back to finely crushed leaf to make enhanced leaf, but it will be a problem if you intend on making a tincture, or purifying your extract into white Salvinorin for use to standardize enhanced leaf, or to grow crystals as a curiosity because any amount of tannin in your extract will make it less potent and be unseen when mixed into the light colored powder. If making tincture most of tannin will not readily dissolve into high proof Alcohol and end up in the bottom of your bottle, although a small portion of the tannin will dissolve into what ever percentage of water is in the Alcohol used to make the tincture with (i.e. 191 proof Everlear is 5% water) making a harsher tasting tincture. The sediments have been a block for most people because many times they don't allow enough time for all of the sediments to settle out, or try to use paper coffee filters to get them out. I like to separate these sediments from my solvent using the gravity separation method in three steps, by pouring the Acetone or Isopropanol off from a settling bowl at eight hour intervals, leaving about 5% or more of the fluid behind each time due to the difficulty of getting that last bit of fluid out without the sediments that will churn up as you try to pour the fluid off the top of them.

Although I have been telling people to remove sediments prior to evaporating your extraction solvent you could evaporate your Acetone right away without waiting for the tannin sediments to fall out of the fluid. This can be accomplished by taking all of your dry waxy extract and clean as much of the Chlorophyll that can be removed from the extract using pure Naphtha (which Salvinorin is insoluble to) and then completely dry and crush the extract into as fine a powder as you can with just a spoon and then add a cup of water to the extract and stir for five minutes. The water should take on a brown color from tannin which is extremely water soluble but the Salvinorin isn't. Next carefully pour the water off of your extract but be careful that none of your extract pours out with it and add another cup of water to see if it continues to take on any color, once it stops taking on a yellow or brown tint you can then stop washing with water and completely dry once more. I have found that drying water wetting extract works very well in an oven set between 120 and 150 degrees F. Water washes of the extract to remove tannin are only effective after you have removed every bit of Chlorophyll that you can get out of the extract using Naphtha first. Keep washing the extract with Naphtha until the solvent will no longer take on any more color and or until the solvent is a very light translucent green. If you don't remove as much wax as you can with Naphtha first (then drying every bit of the Naphtha out of the extract prior to water washing) water will not be able to cut through the Chlorophyll wax enough to get to the tannin. You can also remove the tannin sediments from your extract as a last step but I would not try to remove all of it through the following method unless you have first removed as much as you can by waiting 12 or more hours for the bulk of the sediments to fall out of your extraction solvent prior to evaporation, then cleaning with Napththa and Isopropanol to the purity desired. Once your done removing what ever amount of Chlorophyll you want all the way up to a completely white powder you can then remove small amounts of tannin contaminate from your cleaned extract by dissolving all of it into 100 ml or more of Acetone (for a 250g extraction or smaller)and waiting 12 hours or more hours for the remaining tannins (if any) to fall out of the fluid. If all of the tannins have settled out of the Acetone it should have no hint of cloudyness even if it's full to saturation with Salvinorin which is close to 23 mg per ml of fluid. The Acetone may or may not be colored depending upon how much of the Chlorophyll you removed with Naphtha and or IPA, but never cloudy.

I am sure that there is probably another way of removing sediments using some kind of filter but I have not used filtering because it's easier for me to get the tannin out by waiting for it to fall out fall out of the fluid and then using water to dissolve it out of the dried Naphtha cleaned extract. However, filtering would be a much quicker method if you had the right kind but lacking any real training in organic chemistry or plant extractions I simply don't have a clue regarding filters to be able to comment on the subject. If your an organic chemist and have something suitable that will stop the fine particles from leaking through while allowing the Salvinorin to pass through without being absorbed in the filter this would better from a stand point of time. Perhaps all one would need to do this is to simply use a glass or metal tube filled with cotton balls. I have tried paper coffee filters and can tell you from experience that they are not up to the task and will leak sediments through them almost like a sieve, requiring several pass throughs of your solvent to get the majority of sediments out.

After extracting leaf and removing the tannin impurities first, how can I remove the Chlorophyll impurity to isolate pure Salvinorin?

The easiest and most efficient way I have found to get down to fairly high purity Salvinorin is very simple. I don't know if this works the same way when using Acetone to extract leaf, but this has worked every time for me when extracting leaf with 99% Isopropanol. After the IPA is completely evaporated the extract will be a very dark green color which is called black wax. Although you can't see it, this "wax" contains lots of micron sized Salvinorin crystals. They form within the Chlorophyll as the last of the solvent evaporates out. You can isolate them after removing every bit of tannin impurities. (see tannin removal techniques above). Here is a cut and paste from an earlier document I wrote on the subject:

The following method can be used to obtain Salvinorin crystals by washing the dried extract from a 99% IPA extraction in pure Naphtha inside a small clear glass container or shot glass with Naphtha until all of the clumps have completely dissolved into the fluid and then continuing to wash the extract several times over with more fresh Naphtha until it is obvious that the fluid has become ineffective removing additional Chlorophyll because the extract won't get much lighter with each additional wash and the Naphtha has become a very light green translucent color. Each time you wash your extract with Naphtha the fine Salvinorin crystals will be churned up into the fluid and take a half hour or more to settle to the bottom of the container and when first starting to clean the extract with Naphtha the fluid will take on such a dark color that you will likely be unable to see where the fluid ends and the dark colored extract in the bottom begins. If after a half hour or more you are unable to see that the particles in the fluid have completely settled you can remove half of the fluid (as long as the glass wasn't filled more than 1/3 full of extract when it was dry) from the top using an eye dropper and then add more clean Naphtha to the glass stirring the extract for five minutes and waiting another 30 or more minutes for the fine Salvinorin particles to settle again. After the second wash with Naphtha I have always been able to see the extract as a slightly lighter colored solid in the bottom of the glass after a second 30 ml wash with Naphtha when cleaning the extract obtained from a 100 gram extraction of dried leaf. The amount of Naphtha used to remove Chlorophyll wax from your extract isn't criticle, what ever amount is needed, you can use larger amounts without fear of loosing any of you Salvinorin as long as you wait long enough for the Sal A to settle to the bottom of the container each time. You can add four or more ounces of Naphtha at a time using a pint sized jar when cleaning your extract instead of a small shot glass and that will work out just fine, just keep adding and pouring off Naphtha until the extract is as clean as you can get it and then pour every last drop of Naphtha off of the extract and dry the extract until no hint of Naphtha remains. Collect all of the Naphtha used to remove Chlorophyll together in one container and set it aside for several hours and check it to see if more Salvinorin particles have settle out of the fluid. I have been able to find as much as 10% of the Salvinorin in the bottom of the Naphtha that didn't settle all of the way out with each 30 minute settling, so never throw it away until you have checked hours later to make sure your not wasting any of your yield that way.

After your completely finished with the Naphtha washes and the extract is completely dry without any hint of Naphtha smell remaining crush and mix all of the extract together as finely as you can with a spoon so that it is completely powdered and then start washing the extract with room temperature water until it will no longer take on a yellow or brown color. This step is to remove additional tannin that might still be in the extract, I can usually remove the remaining tannin with just a few one ounce washes with water but you can use a full cup or more at a time of you wish as Salvinorin is insoluble to water but when using that much water at a time to clean the extract from a 100g or less extraction of leaf you might not see any color to the water because the small amount of tannin would be so dilute, that is why I like water washing the extract in a small vial or shot glass so I can see for myself if much tannin came over. Once you can see that the water will no longer take on any color completely dry the extract of all moisture and then put all of the extract into a small shot glass or spice bowl at or under two inch diameter and pour in enough fresh Naphtha so that the extract has about a half inch of Naphtha on top, thoroughly stir the extract into the solvent with a spoon and then place the bowl in an electric oven set to about 120 degrees F. with its door cracked open. Keep the glass of Naphtha as far away from the heating elements as possible because there is potential for fire. When using this technique by leaving the glass or bowl undisturbed while the Naphtha evaporates off the heavier Salvinorin crystals will all settle to the bottom of the glass while the Chlorophyll wax forms an upper crust. Once completely dry palce the glass container in a freezer for long enough to cause the top layer of wax to stiffen up enough to be able to peel off the upper crust by hand leaving almost pure golden colored to light green high purity micro-size crystals in the bottom of the glass. They might not seem like crystals unless seen under enough magnification, but they are.

If for some reason the above method hasn't worked for you and the extract still contains a large amount of Chlorophyll you can continue purifying the extract with small amounts of 99% Isopropanol that is far more effective at removing the Chorophyll but at a cost because it will also remove a portion of the Salvinorin. The reason I clean the extract with Naphtha first is because Salvinorin is insoluble to it and as long as it will remove a portion of the Chlorophyll impurity I figure you might was well get as much as you can out with a solvent that won't take away Salvinorin before using one which will. The Chlorophyll impurities are far more soluble to IPA than Naphtha but since Salvinorin is only weakly soluble to IPA and the losses aren't too great it's a great alternative to columb chromatography with silica gel to remove Chlorophyll which requires fairly expensive lab glass. When cleaning with IPA use it the same way you did with Naphtha but only use a very small vial or shot glass or you won't be able to see when all of the Sal A particles have settled out of the fluid. When cleaning the extract from 100g of leaf I have found that a 20-35 ml glass vial is perfect for this. The ratio of extract to available volume in the glass should be no greater than 1/3 dried extract to 2/3 fluid. Pour in only small amounts of 99% Isopropanol and stir the extract into it for at least five minutes. When using Isopropanol to remove additional Chlorophyll impurities from your Salvinorin the small Sal A particles will take longer and longer to completely settle to the bottom of the glass, so waiting an hour or more after swirling the extract into this solvent for the solids to settle out is very important. If the solvent has any cloudyness to it at all this means that extremely small Salvinorin particles are still floating in the fluid which can take several hours to completely settle out. The fluid can be colored, but never cloudy or all of the particles haven't settled completely out yet which would be lost to the solvent if you poured it off. You will still have Salvinorin losses each time you use small amounts of IPA to remove Chlorophyll from the extract because Salvinorin is soluble to it and no mater how long you wait a portion of the Salvinorin will still be in the Alcohol. If having extracted from one ounce of leaf use no more than 10 ml per wash or you will pull away too much Salvinorin along with the green impurities each time. Use a proportionaly larger amount per wash when cleaning the extract of larger amounts of leaf. Isopropanol will hold about .75 mg of pure Sal A per ml of fluid at room temperature but or some reason has been reported to be able to hold far more Sal A if lots of other compounds from the leaf are present, so use as little as possible. If using IPA to remove impurites the small crystalline structures will likely dissolve into smaller crystals so you probably won't see any hint of crystalline structure when done and be left with what appears to be a light green to white powder, depending on how many washes you performed to the extract. I have only mentioned this technique for those who might have a need for crystals or pure Salvinorin but keep in mind neither crude or refined Salvinorin or Sal A crystals should ever be used as a drug because it is far too potent. See http://www.sagewisdom.org/caution.html

If your trying to clean an extract of Salvia Divinorum to pure white by using 99% Isopropanol to wash the last of the Chlorophyll out of the extract and have not taken care to remove the tannin from your extract first, as you remove more and more Chlorophyll from your extract at some point instead of getting lighter and lighter to a white color the extract will begin to get a darker and darker brown color. If this happens to you what you have done is washed out all of the the Salvinorin and are left with only tannin! Obviously, if your trying to get down to pure Salvinorin it is very important that you get all of the tannin out first.

Where can I get clean Naphtha?

I would never recommend using Naphtha for to remove Chlorophyll from Salvia extract to make commercial products to be sold to the public, but if you are just making it for yourself and follow up the Naphtha washes one last wash with 99% IPA or high proof drinking Alcohol you will wash out the majority of not all of the impurities which might have been introduced by the Naphtha

It is difficult to find Naphtha that will evaporate completely clean. Do NOT try to use any kind of Naphtha unless your sure that it is only Naphtha and does not have oils, or rust inhibitors added to it, such as is common with camp stove fuels. What ever Naphtha that you choose to use, evaporate out a ounce or more of it and see if any residue remains, evaporating out as much as you intend on using is a better way to check, but since your pouring the Naphtha off of your extract evaporating an ounce ought to be enough to see because you will have far less than that amount in your extract, once poured off. If you do not want to use Naphtha, you can use just 99% Isopropanol to clean the waxes out of an extract if you are very careful to use as little as possible you won't loose too much Salvinorin, especially if the IPA is chilled, it will carry away even less Salvinorin with each wash when chilled to 40 degrees F. because it is unable to hold as much Salvinorin but will still wash the waxes out. This might sound contradictory considering chilled solvents are used to help leave wax behind when extracting from leaf, but once it is extracted into a high concentration cold 99 percent Isopropanol will remove some of the waxes with each wash, even when cold although marginal compared to room temperature Isopropanol it is one alternative to using Naphtha or room temperature Isopropanol which will work too but carries away more Salvinorin with each wash so use it sparingly. I have tried one brand of Naphtha lighter fluid sold under the brand name of Ronsonol and have been able to evaporate eight ounces of it completely out without a hint of residues, but some people object to using it because it contains less than 30 parts per million benzene. Considering that it is only used to clean the extract and is not evaporated down with the extract, and that benzene evaporates out very easily, I don't see it as a big issue but you should be aware of it. The amount of benzene that we each are exposed to on a daily basis (if you live in a city) is somewhere around 250 micrograms, just from breathing the air and nothing more. The amount remaining from using Ronsonol lighter fluid to clean the wax out of extract will be far less than that, if you don't evaporate it down into your extract and just pour it off, probably a few micrograms.

What are the relative solubilities of different solvents used to extract Salvinorin, how much of these solvents does it take to hold an amount of Salvinorin?

Acetone: 23 mg per ml of fluid.
Methyl Alcohol: 3.15 (Methanol)
Ethyl Alcohol: 1.28
Isopropyl Alcohol: .74

Why so much solvent if only a milliliter of Acetone will hold so much Salvinorin?

The amount of solvent I have recommended will be in excess of the amount needed to dissolve the amount of Salvinorin in your leaf on a solubility basis (for the amount of Salvinorin in the leaf) but you need to use lots of solvent so that you have enough solvent to allow the leaf to get lots of exposure to solvent when stirring or shaking your leaf in a jar. I like to use a ratio of powdered leaf to solvent that is close to 50% powdered leaf to 50% solvent, when using this much then there is no question as to having enough solvent. You could do it with less, but solvent is relatively cheap compared to leaf so why limit yourself. I have been outlining short extractions of just a few minutes but done mulitiple times to powdered leaf, one after the other because when you continue to extract the same leaf over and over again you will get more and more of the Salvinorin out of the leaf. Multiple extractions helps increase the efficiency, especially when using short soaks such as 5 to 10 minutes each. It is very important to do this when working with Isopropanol because it isn't as effective as Acetone, but you would still want to do the same thing with Acetone because although it is more efficient and takes less time to get the Salvinorin out of the leaf, multiple washings of the powdered leaf removes some of the old solvent each time you wash it. Because Acetone can hold so much Salvinorin per ml, reported to be up in the 20 mg per ml or more, you really need to wash it through several times. This is because if you only extracted from your leaf once, when your pour the solvent off the powder will still have lots of Acetone in it. You want to get this Acetone out because it can hold so much Salvinorin per ml of fluid. You can try squeezing it out but you can't get it all out that way. IMHO the best way to get the solvent out is just to pour more solvent in to dilute the amount of Salvinorin that will remain in the wet leaf. Each time you wash it you will be diluting the amount in both the leaf and the old solvent left behind that will be carried away with each additional washing with fluid.

Can I use chilled 99% Isopropanol instead of chilled Acetone for a extraction on either crushed or powdered leaf ?

I have found that 99% Isopropanol will extract the leaf almost wax free at 20 degrees F., the same as Acetone. However, the efficiency is approximately 1/4 the efficiency of Acetone for a given amount of time when at 20 degrees F. If using chilled Acetone you will extract more Salvinorin cleaner, quicker and with less work than if using room temperature Isopropanol, but 99% IPA will work out just as good as a chilled Acetone extraction as long as you soak it long enough at room temperature and then remove the wax using washes of your dried extract with pure Naphtha. At one time I thought that using crushed leaf with chilled Acetone was the only way to go for Salvia extractions because so little wax was extracted when using either whole or crushed leaf. My main interest at the time was in extracting out fairly pure Salvinorin. However, I later found a way to wash waxes out of extract using Naphtha and Isopropanol which worked so well that I abandoned using chilled Acetone. If you decide to use chilled IPA with powdered leaf do not chill the solvent any lower than 40 degrees F. or your efficiency will be far too low to be worth your efforts. However, with Acetone if you chill it to only 40 degrees F. when working at room temperature your solvent will likely warm up by 10-20 degrees F. before your done which will extract far too much wax in just a few minutes to be worth the trouble and should be chilled to between zero to 20 degrees F. to keep the solvent below 40 F.

I can't find 99% Isopropanol anywhere. Can I use 70% instead and at what temperature will this work?

You can use 70% Isopropanol to extraction from leaf if the leaf is soaked for several days. When using Isopropanol which contains 30 percent water long extractions are required, shaking it a few minutes each day. When using 70% IPA the water in it willl extract out far more tannins than you would have if you used 99 percent IPA. A chilled water wash of whole leaf can remove some of the tannins prior to extracting from the leaf, but tests has shown that as much as thirty percent of the Salvinorin in leaf can be lost through warm water washes of leaf which I believe are simply due to mechanical removal of Salvinorin which coats the outside of the leaf. If you are going to water wash your leaf in an effort to reduce tannin keep it cool and keep it short. You can avoid potential losses of Salvinorin from a water wash by using 99% Isopropanol and remove the tannin later. Because 99% IPA has far less water than 70-84% IPA far less tannin will be extracted from the leaf than would be extract when using a solvent with that much water in it. I have tried extracting Salvinorin using 70% IPA and 99% IPA chilled to near freezing and found that chilled 70% IPA is useless for quick extractions, the chilled 70% had no evidence of Salvinorin at all and had plenty of water soluble brown gummy tannin in it. Chilled 99% IPA resulted in a almost completely wax free extraction, however when chilled the efficiency was very low and because of this is not suitable for short extractions. At room temperature 70% IPA will work to extract Salvinorin if your leaf is powdered and the extraction is done for several days, but I guarantee that you will get gummy tannins if you have as much water in your IPA that 70% does and won't be as efficient either. I know people have used 70% IPA or 151 proof Alcohol with success in the past for either enhanced leaf or tincture, so it will work as long as you powder your leaf and soak it long enough, it just isn't as good and takes longer. You would be better off using 151 proof drinking Alcohol over 70% IPA because it has five percent less water compared to 70% IPA. If your going to extract from leaf using 191 proof drinking Alcohol this would be far better than using 151 proof Alcohol because it has only 5% water. 191 proof Alcohol won't be quite as good as using 99% IPA for quick extractions, but it should be a close second. However, you would be extracting out more tannin with that too, even though it has only 5% water. When using Alcohol to extract from leaf I prefer using 99% IPA Alcohol over any other kind of Alcohol because it is quick, clean, cheap and relatively easy to aquire. If the highest purity IPA that you can find is 94% IPA this will work too, but it might take longer than 99% IPA and will certainly pull over more tannin impurities which won't settle out. Although I have mentioned using chilled IPA I no longer recommend chilled IPA for extractions due to its very low efficiency, even if using 99% IPA. If you decide to use Isopropanol use room temperature, use the highest purity you can find.

I extracted my leaf and used 2000 ml of solvent but it has been sitting in a bowl for two days and has not evaporated much, how can I get it to evaporate faster?

Evaporating out either Isopropanol or Acetone can be very slow unless you have airflow across the surface of your solvent. The evaporation rate is increased even more if you place your solvent into as large a flat container as you can find to increase the amount of fluid surface area to air, especially when air is flowing across the top of the fluid. Pyrex makes some nice flat cooking dishes out of clear glass that are ideal for evaporating your solvent. To speed things up have a fan close enough to the container that it causes ripples, or waves on the surface of the fluid. If the airflow is that strong 2000 ml of either Acetone or Isopropanol should evaporate out in a few hours when using a large six inch by sixteen inch or larger glass pan. One individual I know uses a crock pot with a screen on top with a fan attached to it to push air down into the pot set at 100 degrees F. This will work, but as the last ounce or two of solvent evaporates completely out the temperature will spike because the cooling from rapid evaporation will no longer keep it at 100 degrees F., I do not like to heat solvents above this temperature. Do not do this where static sparks might occur, or where open flame is present from a water heater or any other kind of heater or oven that has red hot heating elements which coulde ignite vapors. Never use a fan to evaporate solvents in a closed room without lots of air exchange because most fans use a comutator which produce sparks internally to the motor, if the vapors are a high enough concentration the fan could ignite the fumes. These solvents are very flammible and you do not want to have a high concentration of vapors for health reasons too, even if they can't catch fire.

I want to grow crystals in Alcohol. Can dissolving Salvinorin powder in hot boiling solvents cause the Salvinorin to be destroyed?

There are losses each time you dissolve Salvinorin into solvents, each time I have done so and have evaporated the solvent back out of the Salvinorin I have found that some of my Salvinorin has been lost. However, this is a good method to grow crystals. If you heat a vial full of Salvinorin powder in 151 proof Everclear drinking Alcohol (about 25% water) to just under boiling, it will hold far more Salvinorin in the dissolved state when hot than when at room temperature, when the Alcohol cools, crystals will often precipitate out of the fluid, although usually very small. I took the same 25 ml vial full of Salvinorin and re-heated it to boiling four times before I was able to get some nice crystals to appear, but lost Salvinorin each time I did so. Crystals can be grown in 99% Isopropanol or Methanol too, but I have found that 151 proof Alcohol seems to grow larger crystals if re-heated several times, waiting an hour or two for crystals to form between heatings. I always use a microwave oven with an open glass container to heat and reheat Alcohol to grow crystals but I do not recommend the use of a microwave to boil solvents for two reasons, the solvent could be ignited by sparks inside the unit and uneven heating can cause far greater losses than you might have if having heated your vial using hot water.

For crystals to form your Salvinorin powder should be fairly clean, close to 95 percent or more free of Chlorophyll impurity. There are three methods to obtain Salvinorin crystals that I have been able to use, the third method is one which I accidentally happened upon. Growing crystals isn't always easy or guaranteed to be produced each time, but here are some ways that I have done it. The third method should never fail to produce Salvinorin microcrystals as long as you have removed all of the tannin sediment:

Warning! The above method of evaporating any amount of Naphtha in an electric oven could cause a fire or worse. I only post this for informational purposes. It worked for me without problems but it might not work for you without causing a fire!

Methods to Crystalline Salvinorin

1. Dissolve as much Salvinorin powder as you can into 151 proof Everclear Alcohol warmed to 130-140 degrees F. and then wait for it to cool to see if crystals appear (191 proof might work better, but I have never had any of it to try with). Sometimes you have to re-heat a vial of Salvinorin and Ethanol several times to at or just below boiling before they might grow when cooling. If they are going to appear they should be there within an hour or two. Each time I re-heat a vial containing Salvinorin in 151 proof Everclear Alcohol (75% Alcohol) to boiling so that crystals might form the next time as it cools (to room temperature) I loose some of the Salvinorin and crystals don't always grow. On average I have to re-heat a vial three or four times before decent crystals form in the liquid.

2. Evaporating Salvinorin saturated Acetone at normal room temperature without any air blowing on the solvent so that it evaporates very slowly will also produce crystals, but not always. I have grown crystals by evaporating Acetone fairly quickly in either an oven at 120 degrees f (just an ounce of solvent) or by having a fan blow air across an ounce of Salvinorin saturated Acetone, but the crystals usually do not form as large as they do when the evaporation occurs slowly. Also, if you have not removed enough of the chlorophyll waxes the crystals will be hard to see, so try to remove as much of it as you reasonably can if your going to try to grow crystals.

3. Obtain crystals strait out of the dried Chlorophyll waxes from a 99% Isopropanol extraction. Through trial and error extraction research I was surprised to find that the "black wax" from a Salvia divinorum extraction is loaded with small crystals which are formed within the wax as the solvent evaporates. The following explains how to isolate them out of dried extract but will only work if you have removed all of the tannin contaminate from the green IPA through settling by allowing the extraction solvent to set undisturbed for 16 hours or more prior to evaporating the solvent, cleaning the dried extract with Naphtha until it will no longer take on much color, dried again and then water washed to remove the last of the tannin. The extract must be dried once more before adding fresh Naphtha for evaporation in an oven. The following explains the process in more detail:

After the extract has been washed several times over with fresh Naphtha until its obvious that it has become ineffective removing additional Chlorophyll pour off all of Naphtha and put all of the wet extract into a small two inch diameter spice bowl. Next pour in enough fresh Naphtha so that the extract has about a half inch of Naphtha on top, thoroughly stir the extract into the solvent with a spoon and then place the bowl in an electric oven set to about 120 degrees F. with its door cracked open. Keep the small bowl of Naphtha as far away from the heating elements as possible because there is potential for fire. When using this technique by leaving the bowl undisturbed while the Naphtha evaporates off will cause the heavier Salvinorin crystals will all fall to the bottom of the glass while the Chlorophyll wax forms an upper crust. Once completely dry you can freeze the bowl of extract to cause the top layer of wax to stiffen up and when peeling the stiff wax off the top and have nothing but golden colored to light green high purity micro-size crystals remaining in the bottom of your glass. They might not seem like crystals unless seen under magnification, but they are.

Here is a link that shows the vial that I re-heated several times trying to get bigger crystals: http://f1.pg.photos.yahoo.com/ph/salvinori...9&.dnm=e10b.jpg

Making high quality incense

The following shows how to make a higher quality leaf by removing all stems and de-veining each leaf. The leaf is extracted with solvent to remove a portion of the Chlorophyll and then with hot water to remove most of the tannin to produce a far superior cleaner burning leaf.

The first thing I do is hand select each leaf for quality, setting aside the stiff dark to black colored leaf in favor of the lighter colored soft green leaves. Once I have my pile of leaf to be made into incense I carefully hand de-vein the stem running through the center of the leaf being careful to leave each leaf in as large a piece as possible. When I have a full bowl of de-stemmed broken leaf I then extract the leaf with room temperature solvent several times to remove all of the Sal-A and a portion of the Chlorophyll. Of course I save the extract for later processing, but what I'm trying to do is condition the leaf to both accept more Salvinorin-A so that it won't crust as much on the outside of the leaf when making higher X factor product and to produce a much smoother incense without all of the harsh tannin.

After your done extracting your leaf to remove all of the Sal-A completely evaporate all hint of solvent from the leaf and then boil in a pot of water for a half hour or more, once the water turns brown pouring it off and adding more to boil it again. Keep doing this until the water will no longer take on a brown color. When done removing tannin pour all of the water off of the leaf and place on a cookie sheet and dry in an oven set to 150 degrees F. for however long it takes to completely dry. After that you can make your own standardized incense out of it at what ever X factor you desire and it will burn with far less smoke than regular leaf and produce a brilliantly white ash.

You can boil crushed leaf just the same but I like to keep the leaf in as large a piece(s) as possible because when drying in an oven the pieces will shrink. I believe that large pieces of enhanced leaf will sell better as incense than small little pieces because it gives the buyer more options on how it can be burned. The only thing is that you will then need to use a tin to package the leaf so that it won't be broken in shipment. These can be purchased in large lots fairly cheaply from a company called SpecialtyBottle.com

I want to make my own standardized Salvia Divinorum incense, how can I do that?

Here is a standardization procedure so that you can add Salvinorin back to leaf. This came from a well known Salvia Divinorum researcher explaining how to make 6X enhanced leaf:

The method is simple: Dissolve a measured quantity of Salvinorin A in a solvent, and then absorb it onto a measured quantity of crumbled salvia leaves. Evaporate off the solvent, and Wha-la!

Here is a more detailed explanation: To make salvinorin A enhanced leaf that contains 15 mg salvinorin A per gram of leaf, dissolve 12.5 mg* pure salvinorin A in 1 ml of warm acetone, and then add 1 gram of crumbled salvia leaves and stir. The leaves will absorb the salvinorin A-containing acetone. Place the container in a well-ventilated location and wait for the acetone to evaporate off. Stir the leaves occasionally during the evaporation period. Make sure that the acetone has evaporated completely--there should be absolutely no smell of acetone left on the leaves.

* The amount of salvinorin A to use will vary depending on the salvinorin A content of the leaves that it is being absorbed onto. If the leaves are of average potency, containing 2.5 mg salvinorin A per gram, then you would deposit 12.5 mg salvinorin A onto them to bring the concentration to 15 mg per gram (as in the above example). Of course, one can standardize the leaves to other concentrations as well. The more precisely you know the salvinorin A content of the leaves, the more accurately you can standardize them. I use very pure salvinorin A for this procedure. If you are using material that is impure, you will need to take into consideration the percentage of impurities when calculating the amount of material to use. Obviously, the same technique can be used to deposit salvinorin A onto other types of leaf.

I was hoping I could use something easily available (like tequila) to make tincture, but from what I have read, it seems this would be totally useless... I don't think I can get my hands on 190 proof alcohol very easily... any suggestions?

You can use 151 proof drinking Alcohol of any kind to make tincture out of your extract but it contains close to 25% water in it which will cause it to be unable to hold as much Salvinorin as Alcohol without much water in it. If you use 151 proof Alcohol I would use something that has no flavor like Everclear? Alcohol would seem to be the better choice to me.

For tincture what kind of dosage would be required? The kind of tincture I have in mind would be one that would only require a drop or two to have an effect.

As far as I know, no one is making a tincture that is strong enough to have effects with only a drop or two because Salvinorin isn't very soluble in Alcohol, because of this you can't get enough Salvinorin in the Alcohol to make it that strong. I have heard of using small amounts of Acetone which can hold more than 20 mg of Sal A per ml of fluid and sublingually dosing with it as a tincture requiring less than 10% the amount of fluid required when using Ethanol alcohol, but Acetone isn't something people normally want to put in their mouth. Daniel Siebert's tincture has been tested by someone who says that they found it to contain 1.36 mg of Salvinorin per ml of fluid. I am not sure what the upward limit is, but I believe it to be somewhere around 1.5 mg per ml but I have read a report that with enough of the Chlorophyll compounds from the leaf present in high proof 98% pure Enthanol that it can hold larger amounts of Salvinorin per ml, but I have not been able to confirm this report yet. If I remember what a chemist who tested a sample of Daniel's tincture told me correctly he uses 98% Ethanol. I am not sure how much Salvinorin 151 proof Alcohol will hold on a ml basis with close to 25% water in it, surely less.

If extracting leaf with an average potency of 2.5 mg of Salvinorin per gram of dried weight 100 gram of dried leaf ought to have at least 250 mg of Salvinorin but due to extraction losses I wouldn't bet on being able to extract out more than 200 mg, especially if using 99% IPA which isn't as efficient as Actone. If you extracted the leaf using 70% Isopropanol, even if for several days, it could be closer to 175 mg because the water in 70% isn't as effective making a solvent which is already weakly soluble to Salvinorin even worse. An ounce of Alcohol contains 28 ml of fluid so if you extracted from 100g of average leaf using either 99% IPA or Acetone you ought to be able to make at least 4 to 5 ounces of strong tincture, depending on how much Salvinorin is in your leaf and how efficiently the extraction went. I am being very conservative with those estimates, if your extraction went extremely well you could make at 6 ounces of tincture out of 100 gram of average potency leaf.

I tried to make Salvia Divinorum tincture out of pure white crystalline Salvinorin dissolved into 151 proof Everclear Alcohol, I dissolved enough Sal A into the Alcohol so that it had as much Salvinorin as it could hold but yet found it to be very weak without much effect. Then I made another batch of tincture with enough of the Chlorophyll compounds from the leaf to color the Alcohol a very dark green color and found that the tincture was then effective again. I don't know the reason why, but there appears to be something in the leaf which either helps sublingual absorbtion of Salvinorin or somehow increases the amount of Salvinorin that you can dissolve into the 151 proof Ethanol. Perhaps these compounds allow the Salvinorin to be more thoroughly dissolved into the Alcohol. What ever the reason, if your making a simple Salvia Divinorum tincture with Ethanol you want some of those Chlorophyll impurities in it. If your making tincture and want to remove some of the Chlorophylls so that it isn't so sour or harsh tasting you can improve the taste by removing a portion of the Chlorophyll by washing the dried extract with Naphtha until it will no longer take on any more color becoming a green translucent fluid. At this point stop washing the extract with Naphtha and pour off every last drop and completely dry the extract until no hint of Naphtha remains and reconstitute with Ethanol drinking Alcohol of your choice. If making tincture continuing to remove more Chlorophyll with 99% IPA at some point will take too much of the green compounds out and result in a weakly effective tincture. Be sure to remove the tannin from extract to be used for tincture otherwise it will end up as a brown sediment in the bottom of your bottle. Tannin is an acidic astringent, because of this I am wondering if small amounts of it in your tincture might somehow help the absorbtion of Salvinorin tincture because small amounts of ascorbic acid (vit. c) mixed into a high proof Alcohol have been reported to help aborbtion.

When working with solvents containing Salvinorin try to minimize the exposure of light because Salvinorin can be destroyed by light exposure while in Acetone. Be sure to keep everything, you might want to try working with it again just to be sure you get all of the Salvinorin out. I never throw away anything from my extractions. I keep the black wax, the sediment and the old leaf just in case I later learn something new and want to use it for something, or decide to re-extract from it again after finding another method of getting the last of the Salvinorin out that I might have left behind before.


Edited by Divinorum (07/27/04 01:31 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
InvisibleDivinorum
Stranger

Registered: 07/23/04
Posts: 84
Loc: Somewhere over the rainbo...
Re: How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense [Re: Divinorum]
    #2931325 - 07/27/04 04:33 AM (12 years, 4 months ago)

If you want to see pictures that show the technique of using Naphtha and IPA to remove Chlorophyll impurites go to:

http://www.erowid.org/plants/salvia/salvia_extraction4.shtml


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineMai_Tai_Diamonds
Stranger
Registered: 06/02/07
Posts: 18
Last seen: 9 years, 2 months
Re: How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense [Re: Divinorum]
    #7380387 - 09/07/07 08:24 PM (9 years, 2 months ago)

I'm a dirty spammer!


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineTurntableJunky
Ethno Grower
Male


Registered: 04/27/07
Posts: 4,742
Loc: Sydney
Last seen: 8 years, 7 months
Re: How to make standardized Salvia Divinorum Incense [Re: Mai_Tai_Diamonds]
    #7381325 - 09/07/07 11:48 PM (9 years, 2 months ago)

Can someone please ban this user.


--------------------


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Jump to top. Pages: 1

Amazon Shop for: ½ Pint Jars, Incense, Salvia, Scales, Silica Gel, pH Test Strips

Mushrooms, Mycology and Psychedelics >> The Ethnobotanical Garden

Similar ThreadsPosterViewsRepliesLast post
* Salvia Divinorum Salvinorin Extraction & Refinement FAQ 6.8
( 1 2 all )
Divinorum 10,881 22 01/05/13 09:02 AM
by Juke Adro
* High Strength Extraction of Salvia Divinorum tek**pics** DeathCompany 5,241 15 02/09/12 07:19 PM
by spookone
* Salvia Divinorum a subject at hand. lobo121782 1,401 5 06/29/02 11:13 AM
by lobo121782
* Salvia Divinorum Survey...Please help! *DELETED*
( 1 2 all )
AlienPrimate 4,568 22 05/04/04 07:24 PM
by Anonymous
* Salvia Divinorum Alternatives UnderNose 21,459 16 02/15/09 03:44 PM
by tenacioustornado
* The Salvia Divinorum Live Plant Marketplace
( 1 2 3 4 ... 53 54 )
AsanteA 124,329 1,066 11/19/10 08:37 AM
by Cactusdan
* Salvia Divinorum Question: Salvinorin . dumbfounded1600 1,022 14 07/12/08 03:21 PM
by dumbfounded1600
* The Salvia Divinorum Mass-Proliferation Project
( 1 2 3 all )
AsanteA 34,234 53 04/30/09 04:36 AM
by Dr. uarewotueat

Extra information
You cannot start new topics / You cannot reply to topics
HTML is disabled / BBCode is enabled
Moderator: Magash, karode13, naum, Mostly_Harmless
4,545 topic views. 3 members, 13 guests and 5 web crawlers are browsing this forum.
[ Toggle Favorite | Print Topic | Stats ]
Search this thread:
Edabea
Please support our sponsors.

Copyright 1997-2016 Mind Media. Some rights reserved.

Generated in 0.354 seconds spending 0.006 seconds on 14 queries.