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CAUTION THIS MAKES NO SENSE! But atleast I'm trying.
Scientifically we have three genera: Panaeolus, Panaeolina, Psathyrella.
This post is in relation to the highly debated (and In my scientifically unfounded opinion unresolved) species: P. Foenisecii. I am writing this to propose that infact all three are different mushrooms.
Psathyrella foenisecii known as Lawn Mower's Mushroom is reported to be edible, poisonous or even slightly psychotropic. Why would a Psathyrella be at all psychoactive? Psathyrella candolleana, (in my ungrounded, highly debatable second hand opinion) has no qualities of a psychedelic mushroom and is just second-rate as far as "Shrooms" are concerned, so why would it's near relative "Haymaker's Mushroom" or "Lawn Mower's Mushroom" when reported as Psathyrella be any at all psychoactive. (This is not debatable.)
Here's what I'm proposing: In Florida, the lawn mower mushroom also grows known not as psathyrella, but as panaeolus and is slightly active. This is debatable and some of the shroomers here will tell me otherwise, that's ok. I'm trying to debate something about this confusion.
What brought all of this to my mind is the picture of Psathyrella foenisecii with it's whitish stems that is just bullshit to me that it is psychoactive, but the ones in Florida have darker stems and they must not be Psathyrella at all maybe Panaeolina --holy shit this is darkness of my soul-- or even Panaeolus because it IS slightly active! They look a lot different here in Florida than on the website for the PNW like MJ's site. but this is all very new to me, just proposing something for a debate.
This is a species separate from the genera Panaeolus and there are four species of lawn Panaeolina's. They do not grow in pasturelands, only garden lawns. They were named over the past few hundred years by various mycologists who gave the mushroom different at the same time from different locations around the world.
Paneolina species and Panaeolus mushrooms are separate genera and are separated from each other by the disticnt different colors of their spores and spore deposits.
Panaeolina foenisecii Maire and three other members of the genera all have chocolate-brown spores and all Panaeolus mushrooms have black spores. They are separate genera, as is Psathyrella from the other two, although Panaeolus and Psathyrella belong to the Coprinaceae (Black spored mushroom family, along with Anellaria and Coprinus). Because of Panaeolina's chocolate brown to sometimes purple brown colored spores it was also once botanically name Psilocybe foenisecii. See table below of name synonyms associated with this species.
In the late 1960s, a couple of mycologist/chemists reported in the literature what is known as falses positives.
This comes from analysing a large collection of pooled species from a single location but the collection was composed of several specimens collected as a single species. Than analyses showed activity in some examined specimens. For instance, sometimes a single specimen or two of Panaeolus subbalteautus is sometimes gathered along with many specimens of Panaeolina foenisecii which sometimes macroscopically resembles the Pan subbs.
There is no psilocine/psilocybine in any Psathyrellas or Panaeolina mushrooms.
Then many new books listed both Panaeolina foenisecii and Psathyrella candoleana as possibly psychoactive or hallucinogenic/poisonous over the years..
You need to go into the Shroomery's shroom hunting section of this site and read the paper written by me and Mark Merlin on this mushroom Panaeolina foenisecii Maire.
Here is the first page from the Shroomery on this subject which should clear up your confusion and rid this thread of the urban legend again regarding Panaeolina.
Since its spores are chocolate brown, that makes it impossible to be a Panaeolus whyose spores are black.
There were three alledged reports of Panaeolina being psychoactive in the late 1960s in the literature. There were over a few hundred chemical analyses of Panaeolina foenisecii around the world after those three reports which showed no chemical activity of an entheogenic nature in Panaeolina or Psathyrella species.
Psathyrella also has since been analysed dozens of times with no reported active materials in them.
This article originally appeared :
By John W. Allen and Mark D. Merlin 1993.
In: Christian R?tsch (Editor) Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness vol. 1:99-115.
This paper focuses on two aspects of the common gill fungus, Panaeolina foenisecii Maire: (1) biochemical, concerning its suspected psychoactive properties; and (2) ethnomycological, regarding several reports of accidental or deliberate consumption of the species.
After reviewing the existing literature describing the suspected psychoactive and/or physiological properties of Panaeolina foenisecii Maire, and its alleged production of psilocybin and/or psilocin, the authors of this paper decided to investigate three medical case histories (from Australia, Great Britain and America) involving human ingestion of this fungi. These incidents of mushroom consumption have apparently caused some alarm among mycophagists, mycologists, physicians, and parents of infant children who have purposefully or accidentally eaten P. foenisecii (for a more detailed review on the human ingestion of psilocybian fungi in Australia and New Zealand, see Allen, Merlin & Jansen 1991).
Panaeolina foenisecii is a very common, cosmopolitan species (see Fig. 1). Appearing scattered or gregarious on lawns, grassy areas, and in meadows, the mushrooms are frequently observed in the early morning, sometimes wilted or gone by midday. It often is seen in close proximity with other fungus (such as Marsmius oreades (Bolt.:Fr.) Fr., Coprinus spp., Psathyrella spp., and Conocybe spp.) adapted to similair environments (e.g., lawns and grasslands).
Over the past 75 years, P. foenisecii has been placed in various genera, including Psilocybe (Ricken 1915), Coprinus (Michael 1919) and Psathyrella (Smith 1972). Taxonomic reference to the genus and synonyms for the species include the following binomials listed according to their chronological taxonomic description.
Panaeolina R. Maire, Treb. Mus. Nat. Barcel. ser. Bot. 15:109 (1933).
Type species: Agaricus foenisecii Pers.:Fr., Syst. Mycol. 1:295 (1821).
Typonym: Psilocybe Fayod, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) 7(9):377 (1889).
Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) R. Maire (Haymakers).
Agaricus foenisecii Pers.:Fr., Syst. Mycol. 1:295 (1821).
Psilocybe foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) Quelet, Champ. Jura. Vosges 1:47 (1872).
Drosophila foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) Quelet, Enchiridion:117 (1886).
Psathyra foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) Bert, Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 17:227 (1901).
Panaeolus foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) Kuhner. Botaniste 17:187 (1926).
Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) R. Maire, Treb. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Barcel. ser. Bot. 15:109 (1933).
Psathyrella foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) A. H. Smith, Mem. NY Bot. Gdn. 24:32 (1972).
Description of the cap, gills, stipe, and spores are presented below (see Fig. 1a).
References CAP: 10-3.5mm. Broad, narrowly conic to convex, bell-shaped with age, dry without hair, margin incurved when young, faintly striate when moist, dull cinnamon brown to reddish brown, sometimes zonate, becoming pallid and sometimes pitted and wrinkled. Flesh frayish white; taste distinctive.
GILLS: Ascending-adnate, subdistant, unequal, broad, ventricose, mottled with age. Edges even, white.
STIPE: 4-10cm. long. 1.5-3mm. thick, stiff hollow, nearly equal and slightly enlarged at base. Brittle and striate, with minute hairs at apex, smooth or grooved below. Whitish to pinkish brown. Annulus and universal veil absent.
SPORES: 11-18 6-9?m in size, dark vinaceous brown to dark purple brown, thick-walled, broadly elliptical, ornamental with spoty warts, pore at apex.