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InvisibleHermes_br
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Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij
    #1523902 - 05/06/03 08:30 AM (13 years, 8 months ago)

California NORML/ MAPS Release - May 2, 2003


Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marijuana Smoke


Harmful toxins in marijuana smoke can be effectively avoided by

a vaporization device, according to a new study by California NORML

and MAPS (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies) with

support from a grant from the MPP (Marijuana Policy Project).

The study, conducted by Chemic Labs in Canton, Mass., tested

vapors from cannabis heated in an herbal vaporizer known as the

Volcano? (manufactured by Storz & Bickel GmbH&Co. KG, Tuttlingen,

Germany; http://www.storz-bickel.com and compared them to smoke

produced by combusted marijuana. The Volcano? is designed to heat

material to temperatures of 130? to 230? C (266? to 446? F) where

medically active vapors are produced, but below the threshold of

combustion where smoke is formed.

The vapors from the Volcano? were found to consist overwhelmingly of

THC, the major active component in marijuana, whereas the combusted

smoke contained over 100 other chemicals, including several

polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogenic toxins that

are common in tobacco smoke. The respiratory hazards of marijuana

and tobacco smoke are due to toxic byproducts of combustion, not the

active ingredients in the plant, known as cannabinoids.

The study suggests that medical marijuana patients can

avoid the respiratory hazards of smoking by using a vaporizer. In

its 1999 report on medical marijuana, the Institute of Medicine

recommended against long-term use of smoked marijuana because of the

health risks of smoking. However, the IOM failed to take account of

vaporizers.

Previous studies have found that vaporizers can reduce harmful toxins

in cannabis smoke. However, this is the first study to analyze the

gas phase of the vapor for a wide range of toxins. A previous

NORML/MAPS study conducted by Chemic Labs found that a vaporizer

known as the M-1 Volatizer? (http:// www.volatizer.com) completely

eliminated three specific toxins (naphthalene, benzene and toluene)

in. the solid phase of the vapor (D. Gieringer, "Cannabis

Vaporization: A Promising Strategy for Smoke Harm Reduction," Journal

of Cannabis Therapeutics Vol. 1#3-4: 153-70 (2001);

http://www.canorml.org/healthfacts/vaporizerstudy1.html .

The new study used a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer

(GCMS) to examine the gas components of the vapor. .The analysis

showed that the Volcano? vapor was remarkably clean, consisting 95%

of THC with traces of cannabinol (CBN), another cannabinoid. The

remaining 5% consisted of small amounts of three other components:

one suspected cannabinoid relative, one suspected PAH, and

caryophyllene, a fragrant oil in cannabis and other plants. In

contrast over 111 different components appeared in the gas of the

combusted smoke, including a half dozen known PAHs.

Non-cannabinoids accounted for as much as 88% of the total gas

content of the smoke.

The study used standard NIDA cannabis with 4% THC content.

A quantitative analysis found that the Volcano? delivered 46% of the

THC into vapor following three 45-second exposures of the sample to

the heat. This compares favorably with the typical efficiency of

marijuana cigarettes as observed in other studies, which depending on

conditions can fall below 25% due to loss of THC in sidestream smoke.

An important feature of the Volcano? is that it uses a balloon to

capture the vapor, thereby avoiding leakage to the air. It is

possible that higher THC efficiencies could have been reached with

the Volcano? by stirring the sample around and exposing it to more

heat.

The combusted sample achieved a relatively high THC

efficiency of 78% upon complete combustion. The high efficiency seems

due to the fact that the sample was completely consumed by

combustion, and that smoke leakage was effectively prevented by the

laboratory setup. Similar conditions do not obtain under normal

circumstances when a marijuana cigarette is smoked and much of the

THC is lost to the air or left in the unburned "roach."

Two other cannabinoids , cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol

(CBN), were detected in the NIDA cannabis in trace amounts of 0.1%.

Both the Volcano? and combustion delivered an apparent increase in

CBD and CBN, but the variance of the data was too high to reach

statistically significant conclusions.

Sponsors believe that the study results lend support for

wider use of vaporizers by medical marijuana patients and

researchers. At present, the only FDA-approved method for

administering marijuana to human research subjects is via smoking

NIDA cigarettes. NORML and MAPS are supporting efforts to have

vaporizers approved by the FDA. As a first step in this effort, Dr.

Donald Abrams of the University of California, San Francisco, has

submitted a grant proposal to the California Center for Medical

Cannabis Research in San Diego to test the Volcano? in human

subjects. If the protocol is funded and the Volcano? approved by the

FDA for human research, it will be the first human study using a

vaporizer. If the FDA requests additional laboratory data about the

Volcano@, additional funding may be necessary.

For more information on vaporizers, see
http://www.maps.org/mmj/vaporizer.html

http://www.canorml.org/healthfacts/vaporizers.html



Edited by Hermes_br (05/11/03 01:44 PM)


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OfflinegeokillsA
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Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: Hermes_br]
    #1535648 - 05/09/03 09:14 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

NIDA cigarettes... lol :grin:
"The analysis showed that the Volcano? vapor was remarkably clean, consisting 95% of THC with traces of cannabinol (CBN), another cannabinoid. The remaining 5% consisted of small amounts of three other components: one suspected cannabinoid relative, one suspected PAH, and caryophyllene, a fragrant oil in cannabis and other plants.

In contrast over 111 different components appeared in the gas of the combusted smoke, including a half dozen known PAHs. Non-cannabinoids accounted for as much as 88% of the total gas content of the smoke.
"


Yea, I've always enjoyed my vaporizer.. it doesn't give me those nasty meaty coughs that you get after a night of heavy tokin' :smirk:.  I look forward to one day adding one of the Volcano vapes to my collection.  Here's some pics of my AromaZap:

This is a shot of the unit with the
smoking stem inverted in the top.



The whole package (not pictured: Aroma Oil)



A wicked stress crack that came about in
the second week of use.  The ZapMan offered
a replacement unit, but the structural integrity
seemed fine so I kept it... its got character :grin:



Other Stress Cracks
   


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Invisiblechodamunky
Cheers!

Registered: 02/28/02
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Loc: sailing the seas of chees...
Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: Hermes_br]
    #1536701 - 05/10/03 11:24 AM (13 years, 8 months ago)

what about bongs? do they have any benefits over direct smoking?


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OfflinegeokillsA
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Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: chodamunky]
    #1537032 - 05/10/03 03:11 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Bongs have minor benefits.  While they can filter out SOME tars, you are still getting a very large amount of bad things (eg. hydrocarbons) in proportion to a vaporizer.  Combustion (lighting the material on fire) is what releases all the nasty byproducts in the smoke.  Keep in mind that by bongin' it, you also are filtering out a bit (albeit a very small amount) of the actives :frown:

But I still love my bong, I'm just making a habit of using it only on special ocassions when my buddies are around since the vape is better suited for solo-smokin' :cool:
 


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InvisibleHermes_br
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Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: geokills]
    #1537734 - 05/10/03 09:39 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Geokills, could you enlighten  me on how this device works ?

any URL for a diagram /chart of the the interior that piece ?

i'm kind of lost here . :blush:
 


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OfflinegeokillsA
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Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: Hermes_br]
    #1537872 - 05/10/03 11:03 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)



As you can see, you pack the tip of the "stem" with your ground up herbs, then invert it into the base unit where it sits inside a heating element.  You then draw slowly on the device, circulating new air through the heating element and through the vapor stem, vaporizing the goodies and sending ?em out the top into your mouth :cool:

You only pack the metal stem up to the slight indentation you can see on it, not more than 1cm deep, where it sits blocked by a screen to allow the hot air to pass through it as you inhale.
   


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Offlinedaba
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Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: geokills]
    #1538633 - 05/11/03 08:44 AM (13 years, 8 months ago)

How does that vaporizer ($85USD) compare to the VOLCANO (~$500 USD).

Does the extra $400USD make a big difference? Anyone with a VOLCANO vaporizer can tell me?


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InvisibleHermes_br
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Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: geokills]
    #1538691 - 05/11/03 10:09 AM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Thanks !!, much better now  :grin:

as for bongos Vs joints, i don't think there is any study on this but any kind of filtration will better than nothing.


Edited by Hermes_br (05/11/03 10:11 AM)


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Invisibleluvdemshrooms
Two inch dick..but it spins!?


Registered: 11/29/01
Posts: 33,965
Loc: Lost In Space
Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: Hermes_br]
    #1538754 - 05/11/03 11:17 AM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Please remove the ) from your link.
http://www.storz-bickel.com)/


--------------------
You cannot legislate the poor into prosperity by legislating the wealthy out of prosperity. What one person receives without working for another person must work for without receiving. The government cannot give to anybody anything that the government does not first take from somebody else. When half of the people get the idea that they do not have to work because the other half is going to take care of them and when the other half gets the idea that it does no good to work because somebody else is going to get what they work for that my dear friend is the beginning of the end of any nation. You cannot multiply wealth by dividing it. ~ Adrian Rogers


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InvisibleHermes_br
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Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: luvdemshrooms]
    #1539113 - 05/11/03 03:57 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Done....

i fixed the other links aswell...





Edited by Hermes_br (05/18/03 11:09 PM)


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InvisibleHermes_br
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Re: Study Shows Vaporizer Can Drastically Reduce Toxins in Marij [Re: chodamunky]
    #1558831 - 05/18/03 11:15 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Effects of water filtration on marijuana smoke: a literature review.

by Nicholas V. Cozzi, Ph.D.

A drug derived from marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), formulated in sesame oil and encapsulated in soft gelatin capsules (Marinol(R); Roxane), is currently available as a prescription drug for the treatment of two diseases or conditions. It is indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, and for the AIDS wasting syndrome. The marijuana plant in smokeable form is available to ten patients in the United States for disorders such as glaucoma, spasticity, and the wasting syndrome. Each of these drug delivery systems, oral capsules and smokeable plant, has advantages and disadvantages, and each may be appropriate in particular circumstances. However, a drug delivery system that combines the rapid and reliable onset and ability to easily titrate an ingested dose (such as occurs by smoking marijuana cigarettes) with the least health risk (such as occurs by oral ingestion of capsules) would also be desirable. The use of water-filtered marijuana smoke, as produced by a water pipe, is one little-explored alternative. This article reviews some of the scientific work that has been done regarding the effects of water filtration on the composition and effects of marijuana and tobacco smoke.

While most of the research on water filtration has focused on tobacco smoke, the work with marijuana smoke has revealed that, except for their respective psychoactive components (nicotine and cannabinoids), both smokes share many common constituents and physical properties. Many of the results obtained from studies of tobacco smoke are applicable to marijuana smoke.

In the late 1970's, a group based at the University of Athens Medical School (Greece) conducted a series of chemical and pharmacological studies on marijuana and tobacco smoke.1-4 These scientists tested smoke that had been filtered through a water pipe and also tested the water itself, which contained both soluble and insoluble compounds. Chemical analysis revealed many different compounds in the smoke and in the water, as expected from the combustion of plant materials. The water did trap some THC, as well as other psychoactive compounds, however, most of the THC present in the marijuana passed through the water pipe unchanged. Pharmacological tests (in mice) revealed that some of the water-trapped marijuana compounds were responsible for producing catatonia and for suppressing spontaneous motor activity. In contrast, the water-filtered smoke itself did not affect spontaneous motor activity and did not induce catatonia, though it was richer in THC. These results indicate that water filtration removes some behaviorally active compounds in preference to others; this may be important when comparing the therapeutic effects of whole marijuana smoke to water-filtered smoke.

Research has shown that water filtration reduces both the amount of particulate matter and the number and quantity of toxic substances in the smoke that passes through it. In a 1963 study by Hoffman et al.,5 the water pipe was found to retain 90% of the phenol and 50% of the particulate matter and benzo-a-pyrene of the original tobacco smoke. In another study,6 tobacco smoke components that were passed through a water pipe showed only a minor hyperplasic reaction and no sebaceous gland destruction when they were painted onto mouse skin. (The application of substances to mouse skin to assess carcinogenic potential is a classic toxicological test; the induction of abnormal cell proliferation [hyperplasia] is a red flag.) In contrast, tobacco smoke condensate that was not water-filtered induced strong hyperplasia and complete sebaceous gland destruction when applied to mouse skin in the same concentration. Salem and Sami,7 also using the mouse skin test, showed that there was a significant reduction of carcinogenic potential in water-filtered smoke compared to the water remaining in the pipe i.e., the water-trapped material was more carcinogenic than the smoke that passed through it. Indeed, when analyzed by thin layer chromatography, two carcinogenic agents were identified in the water itself, while only one was identified in the water filtered smoke. Therefore, water filtration removes at least two known carcinogens that would normally be found in the smoke.

Recently, Dr. Gary Huber at the University of Texas and colleagues from Harvard's School of Public Health conducted a cellular toxicity study of marijuana and tobacco smoke.8 This research group showed that passing marijuana or tobacco smoke through water, or even exposing the smoke to a wetted surface of about 48 square inches, effectively removed substances (acrolein and acetaldehyde) which are toxic to alveolar macrophages. Alveolar macrophages are one of the major defense cells of the lung and are an important component of the immune system. When the macrophages were exposed to smoke that was not water filtered, there was a marked impairment of their capacity to kill bacteria. When the smoke was water-filtered, however, there was no reduction in the bactericidal ability of the macrophages, suggesting that marijuana smoke that has been passed through sufficient water will have less impact on the immune system than marijuana smoke that has not been water-filtered. This intriguing finding would be of particular importance when treating patients with the AIDS wasting syndrome.

The laboratory results discussed above parallel what is known from studying human tobacco-smoking populations. Thus, there is substantial epidemiological evidence that among tobacco smokers, those who smoke through a water pipe have a much lower incidence of carcinoma than those who smoke cigarettes or smoke a "regular" pipe or cigars.6,7,9,10

In summary, it appears that water filtration can be effective in removing components from marijuana smoke that are known toxicants, while allowing the THC to pass through relatively intact. The effectiveness of toxicant removal is related to the smoke's water contact area. Specially designed water pipes, incorporating particulate filters and gas dispersion frits would likely be most effective in this regard; the gas dispersion frit serves to break up the smoke into very fine bubbles, thereby increasing its water contact area. While individuals vary greatly in their smoking technique, state of health, dosing regimen, and so on, it seems that many patients could benefit from the use of water pipes to deliver THC. This would allow patients to titrate their dose easily while reducing the health hazard associated with smoke.

whole article



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