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World-BridgerKartikeya (DftS)
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Gas. The last trip in Moscow.
    #997173 - 10/27/02 03:30 PM (21 years, 5 months ago)

In reply to:

Experts suspect Valium gas used in Russian troops' theater raid

The Associated Press
10/26/02 6:09 PM

Military experts and toxicologists say Russian commandos probably pumped a gas containing Valium into a Moscow theater to subtly disable and disorient heavily armed Chechen rebels prior to Saturday's dramatic assault.

Russian authorities didn't identify the gas used in the operation, which freed hundreds of hostages but also resulted in the deaths of more than 100 captives and rebels. Officials claimed none of the hostages were killed by the gas.

Several nations, including the United States, have developed a variety of non-lethal incapacitating agents, which can also induce choking, nausea or blurry vision, depending on their recipes.

According to some hostages inside the theater, they realized they were becoming sleepy and confused, but no one reported seeing a vapor cloud, smelling a chemical or experiencing the sort of irritating symptoms associated with tear gas and pepper spray.

Experts said the Russians may have released a gas concentration of a powerful sedative like Valium or may have used a form of BZ gas, a hallucinogenic drug widely researched in the 1960s that works more slowly.

"The thing that pops into my mind is aerosolized Valium," said Dr. Christopher Holstege, medical toxicology director at the University of Virginia. "But there isn't much literature out there on it. There is talk of using it as a riot control agent."

Others said the agent used by the Russians didn't seem to be like anything that has been part of the U.S. arsenal.

"It's no surprise that the Russians have that kind of stuff," said Ron Madrid, a former Marine and an expert on non-lethal weaponry at Pennsylvania State University. "They spent 30 years putting it together. We're prevented from doing that by treaty and executive order."

Russian television reported the gas was dispersed through the theater's ventilation system. Workers were seen digging around sewers and steam pipes near the theater in the first day of the crisis.

One Interfax News Agency employee among the captives in the theater said the rebels appeared ready to kill all the hostages, "then something happened."

"I lost consciousness and woke up in the emergency room," said Olga Chernyak. "It must have been some special gas."

Outside City Hospital No. 13, Galina Dolotova said her 32-year-old daughter, Olga, appeared to have been one of the hostages least affected by the gas, but even at that "she was in terrible shape" when she was brought in.

Holstege said people exposed to aerosolized Valium would feel sleepy and confused. At sufficiently high levels, it could compromise breathing and oxygen supply to vital organs.

"It sedates you, so you would feel hung over," Holstege said "People don't remember events well afterward. If it was administered in a theater full of people with guns and explosives, it might confuse them as to what was going on so they could not shoot."

Experts also mentioned BZ, or 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, as a possibility for the gas used by the Russians.

BZ was a research focus of the U.S. Army during the Cold War at the former Edgewood Area labs near Washington. It belongs to a class of drugs known as anticholinergics that interrupt the brain's chemical messaging system between cells, leading to confusion and hallucinations. It needs an hour to take effect, so authorities would've had to release it into the theater long before the actual assault.

BZ also produces a tendency to fall asleep, and government reports show that soldiers in its U.S. development program nicknamed it the "sleeping agent." The delirium it induces can last two or three days.

"The Russians could've used BZ in the theater, but perhaps in higher concentrations," Holstege said.

A recent U.S. Air Force paper on nonlethal weapons said "calmative" agents reportedly were used by Soviet troops against Afghan guerrillas during their 1980-89 war.

The American and British militaries have discussed developing calmative weapons that would incapacitate or repel people. The effort intensified in the 1990s after hostile mobs confronted U.S. troops during peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in places like Somalia, Bosnia and Haiti.

In 2000, researchers at a Pentagon-funded institute at Penn State prepared a 50-page report that said developing calmative weapons "is achievable and desirable" and suggested drugs like Valium for further research.

However, it is unclear whether such weapons would violate the convention banning the use of chemical weapons, officials said.

Related news,
Here and here.
You may ask what is this BZ gas, well it looks like it is an hallucinogenic, i've tried to find some chemical info but i only got this reference to 3C-BZ, i don't know if they are similar in effects, by relating the article with 3C-BZ there might be some resemblance, well, both at least belong to the benzynes compund and both seem to be hallucinogenic.
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SYNTHESIS: A solution of 268 g 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 212 g allyl bromide in 700 mL dry acetone was treated with 315 g anhydrous K2CO3 and held at reflux for 16 h. The solvent was removed under vacuum, and the residue dissolved in H2O and extracted with 3x100 mL CH2Cl2. The pooled extracts were washed with 5% NaOH, then with H2O, and the solvent removed under vacuum. The residue, which weighed 245 g, was stirred and heated in an oil bath to 230 ?C at which point an exothermic reaction set in. The heating was maintained at 230 ?C for 0.5 h, and then the reaction mixture distilled. There was obtained a total of 127 g of 5-allyl-1,3-dimethoxy-2-hydroxybenzene as a colorless distillate, that was identical in all respects to natural 5-methoxyeugenol obtained from Oil of Nutmeg.

A solution containing 40.4 g 5-methoxyeugenol and 26.6 g benzyl chloride in 65 mL EtOH was added, all at once, to a hot and well stirred solution of 11.7 g KOH in 500 mL EtOH. The potassium salt of the phenol crystallized out immediately. By maintaining reflux conditions, this slowly redissolved, and was replaced by the steady deposition of KCl. After 6 h, the reaction mixture was cooled, and the solids removed by filtration. The filtrate was stripped of solvent under vacuum to give 57 g of crude 5-allyl-2-benzyloxy-1,3-dimethoxybenzene. This was dissolved in a solution of 60 g KOH in 80 mL EtOH and heated on the steam bath for 16 h. The reaction mixture was quenched in 500 mL H2O, and extracted with 2x200 mL CH2Cl2. Removal of the solvent under vacuum gave 35.6 g of crude 2-benzyloxy-1,3-dimethoxy-5-propenylbenzene.

To a stirred, ice-cold solution of 33.6 g of the above impure 2-benzyloxy-1,3-dimethoxy-5-propenylbenzene and 13.6 g pyridine in 142 mL acetone, there was added 24.6 g tetranitromethane. After stirring for 3 min, there was added a solution of 7.9 g KOH in 132 mL H2O, followed by additional H2O. The oily phase that remained was H2O washed, and then diluted with an equal volume of MeOH. This slowly set up to yellow crystals, which were removed by filtration and washed sparingly with MeOH. There was obtained 9.2 g 1-(4-benzyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene with a mp of 84-85 ?C. An analytical sample, from EtOH, had a mp of 86-87 ?C.

To a refluxing suspension of 5.5 g LAH in 360 mL anhydrous Et2O under an inert atmosphere, there was added 8.6 g 1-(4-benzyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-nitropropene by letting the condensing Et2O leach out a saturated solution from a modified Soxhlet condenser. The addition took 1.5 h and the refluxing was maintained for an additional 4 h. After cooling, the excess hydride was destroyed by the cautious addition of 330 mL of 1.5 N H2SO4. The aqueous phase was heated up to 80 ?C, filtered through paper to remove a small amount of insoluble material, and treated with a solution of 8 g picric acid in 150 mL boiling EtOH. Cooling in the ice chest overnight gave globs of the amine picrate, but no clear signs of crystallization. These were washed with cold H2O, then dissolved in 5% NaOH to give a bright yellow solution. This was extracted with 3x150 mL CH2Cl2, the solvent removed under vacuum, the residue dissolved in 300 mL anhydrous Et2O, freed from a little particulate material by filtration through paper, and then saturated with hydrogen chloride gas. There was thus obtained, after filtering, Et2O washing and air drying, 2.5 g 4-benzyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyamphetamine hydrochloride (3C-BZ) as a white solid with a mp of 161-164 ?C.

DOSAGE: 25 - 200 mg.

DURATION: 18 - 24 h.

QUANTITATIVE COMMENTS: (with 25 mg) I went into an emotionally brittle place, and for a while I was uncomfortable with childhood reminiscences. The seeing of my family's Christmas tree in my mind was almost too much. I cried.

(with 50 mg) The action is distinct--wakeful--alerting and wound up. Hypnogogic imagery, and I could not sleep at night with my mind doing many uncontrolled, tangential, busy things. I had fleeting nausea early in the process.

(with 100 mg) I took this in two portions. Following 50 milligrams I was aware of a slight light-headedness at a half-hour, but there was little else. At 1 1/2 hours, I took the second 50 milligrams and the augmentation of effects was noted in another half hour. The experience quietly built up to about the fifth hour, with some erotic fantasy and suggestions of changes in the visual field. I could not sleep until the twelfth hour, and my dreams were wild and not too friendly. There was no body threat from this, but I was not completely baseline until the next day. I am not too keen to do this again--it lasts too long.

(with 100 mg) No effects.

(with 150 mg) This is in every way identical to 100 micrograms of LSD.

(with 180 mg) I can compare this directly to TMA which was the material I took last week. Many similarities, but this is unquestionably more intense than the TMA was at 200 milligrams. It is hard to separate the degree of impact that this drug has, from the simple fact that it lasts forever, and I was getting physically tired but I couldn't sleep. There is some amphetamine-like component, more than with TMA.

EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: Two points are worthy of commentary; the potency and the promise of 3C-BZ.

As to potency, there is such uncertainty as to the effective dose, that it is for all intents and purposes impossible to predict just what dose should be considered for a person's first time with this. The choice of quotations was made with the intention of giving a picture of this scatter. A total of ten subjects have explored this compound, and the very broad range given above, 25 to 200 milligrams, reflects the degree of variation that has been encountered.

Which is a shame, because the concept of a new ring such as is found here on the 4-position would have allowed an extremely wide array of substituents. Electron-rich things, electron-poor things, heavy things, light things, and on and on. This could have been a location of much variation, but it is a possibility that the uncertainties of dosage might extrapolate to these novel ring substitutions as well. Only a single variation was made, the 4-fluorobenzyl analogue. This was prepared following exactly the procedure given here for 3C-BZ, except for the replacement of benzyl chloride with 4-fluorobenzyl chloride. The allyl intermediate was an oil, but the propenyl isomer gave solids with a melting point of 59-60 ?C from hexane. The nitrostyrene was a yellow crystalline solid from methanol with a melting point of 98-99 ?C. The end product, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)amphetamine hydrochloride (3C-FBZ) was a white solid with a melting point of 149-150 ?C. It has been assayed only up to 4 milligrams and there was absolutely no activity of any kind observed at that level.

Article from here.


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Re: Gas. The last trip in Moscow. [Re: MAIA]
    #999854 - 10/28/02 11:49 AM (21 years, 5 months ago)

3C-BZ is not related at all to BZ, despite the similar names. 3C-BZ is a hallucinogenic amphetamine, and BZ is an anticholinergic similar to the tropanes (see Datura on Erowid).

The anticholinergics produce true hallucinations, unlike the psychedelics. Those under the influence see things which they often know cannot be real, but they see them nonetheless. For anybody considering taking them deliberately, they produce no euphoria and nobody who has taken them claims they were enjoyable.

BZ is also covered under various laws governing materials for chemical warfare, and so is the precursor 3-quinuclidinol. Given the way the US government is going to investigate anything which even might have anything to do with possible terrorism, you don't want anything to do with this stuff. You might find yourself declared some sort of terrorist, and these days they have no rights at all. No right to an attorney, bail, hearings, trials, or any of those things.

Happy mushrooming!

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Re: Gas. The last trip in Moscow. [Re: MAIA]
    #1008724 - 10/31/02 12:44 AM (21 years, 5 months ago)

Subsequent articles have indicated the substance used was probably fentanyl or a similar synthetic opioid. The following AP article:

Oct. 29, 2002 | WASHINGTON (AP) -- The gas Russian authorities used at the end of a Moscow hostage crisis, which killed 116 of the captives, was the anesthesia fentanyl or another drug related to it, U.S. officials said Tuesday.

In Moscow, U.S. Ambassador Alexander Vershbow offered the first official American criticism of the Russians' continued refusal to identify the substance used.

``It's clear that perhaps with a little more information, at least a few more of the hostages may have survived,'' Vershbow said.

Russian authorities pumped the gas into a theater where separatist rebels were holding more than 800 people hostage Saturday. The gas killed 116 hostages; 50 hostage-takers also died, many from gunshot wounds.

Relatives of Oklahoman Sandy Booker, 49, said Russian authorities notified them Tuesday that Booker was among the dead.

Based on reports from doctors who visited some of the American hostages, U.S. officials believe the gas was an opiate _ a drug related to morphine and heroin, Vershbow said. Other U.S. officials identified the drug as fentanyl, commonly used in anesthesia and to relieve severe pain.

Fentanyl is a fast-acting narcotic that in large doses can shut down breathing and cause death from lack of oxygen. A hundred times more potent than morphine, fentanyl also has been abused for the highs it produces.

The effects of opiates like fentanyl can be reversed with the drug naloxone, known by the brand name Narcan. U.S. officials say some of the hostages responded to doses of Narcan, which bolstered the belief that the Russians used an opiate to knock out the hostage-takers and their captives.

Fentanyl was among drugs that Pennsylvania State University researchers suggested two years ago the U.S. military explore as weapons to subdue angry mobs. The Pentagon has put such research on hold, however, because of worries that it would violate the international ban on chemical weapons.

Whether Russia's use of the gas in the hostage situation would violate the treaty is unclear, since the pact allows for the use of chemical agents for law enforcement purposes.

At the White House, spokesman Ari Fleischer avoided criticizing the Russian government's response to the hostage crisis.

``The president feels very strongly that responsibility for this rests with the terrorists who took these people hostage and put them in harm's way in the first place,'' Fleischer said.


I find it very disturbing that the current administration endorses Russia's methods (particularly shooting the hostage-takers to death while they were already incapacitated!), but not all that surprising--in part because of political necessity (forgiving their dirty work so that they will be more inclined to back our government's in Iraq)--and because these techniques have been actively considered (and possibly used) by the Pentagon. See A Budhha's Memesfrom 10/29 for more info, including links to Incapacitating Agents taken down from an Army site, the Pentagon's use of Psychopharmacological Warfare, including the development and use of chemical agents in the War on Terror, and the use of "calmative agents" in crowd control. Scary stuff.

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Re: Gas. The last trip in Moscow. [Re: bowling-name]
    #1009561 - 10/31/02 07:39 AM (21 years, 5 months ago)

pacifica is saying the same things... no doubt the military already has these weapon systems already... i can only hope these systems are never used on anyone... stay safe and pay close attention...

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Re: Gas. The last trip in Moscow. [Re: MAIA]
    #1039099 - 11/09/02 03:21 PM (21 years, 5 months ago)

I have read about this stuff in the past and belve me it is all you sed it was and a WHOLE FUCKING  LOT MORE ! ! ! After the CIA MK-ULTRA project descuverd LSD25 they gave it to the U.S. milutary to test on GI's and then the U.S. people in 1969! After the U.S. milutary tested it on the U.S. people and trops in Vetnam they desided that they liked what it did but that it didn't last longenugh and that it wasn't strong enugh so they got pople out of jall that had ben arested for syntheses of LSD 25 and had then creat BZ !! and boy o boy this stugh will strate up fry your fucking bran out! The peek lasts 2 to 3 days and visual desterbenses for weeks to months! :shocked: (keep in mind that these were the efects from the dose the milutary gave them whitch proboly 5 times the dose you need to.) This stuff is no trip this stuff is well you should watch the move Jacubs Lader ther is a lot of truth to that move.


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