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Registered: 04/10/02
Posts: 685
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Argemone mexicana poisoning
    #952720 - 10/11/02 11:06 AM (14 years, 19 days ago)

(URL: http://www.plantasmedicinales.org/abstract/feb2002/Argemone%20mexicana.htm, Oct 2002)

1: Forensic Sci Int 2001 Jan 1;115(1-2):135-41

Argemone mexicana poisoning: autopsy findings of two cases.

Verma SK, Dev G, Tyagi AK, Goomber S, Jain GV.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, University College of Medical
Sciences & G.T.B. Hospital, Dilshad Garden, Delhi 110095, India.

Epidemic dropsy, a disease due to Argemone mexicana poisoning, is characterized
by pathological accumulation of diluted lymph in body tissues and cavities.
Recently, the largest epidemic of the disease in India affected Delhi and its
neighboring states during the months of August-September 1998. Over 3000 persons
fell ill, and more than 65 died in the state of Delhi alone. Two cases belonging
to the same family died, out of the large number of cases admitted in this
tertiary care teaching hospital situated in eastern part of Delhi. Autopsy
findings of these two cases are presented and discussed here along with the
review of toxicity due to this poisoning.

PMID: 11056284 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Postgrad Med J 1999 Nov;75(889):657-61

Epidemic dropsy in India.

Sharma BD, Malhotra S, Bhatia V, Rathee M.

Department of Medicine, Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Epidemic dropsy is a clinical state resulting from use of edible oils
adulterated with Argemone mexicana oil. Sanguinarine and dehydrosanguinarine are
two major toxic alkaloids of Argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary
dilatation, proliferation and increased capillary permeability. Leakage of the
protein-rich plasma component into the extracellular compartment leads to the
formation of oedema. The haemodynamic consequences of this vascular dilatation
and permeability lead to a state of relative hypovolemia with a constant
stimulus for fluid and salt conservation by the kidneys. Illness begins with
gastroenteric symptoms followed by cutaneous erythema and pigmentation.
Respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath and orthopnoea
progressing to frank right-sided congestive cardiac failure are seen. Mild to
moderate anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, mild to moderate renal azotemia, retinal
haemorrhages, and glaucoma are common manifestations. There is no specific
therapy. Removal of the adulterated oil and symptomatic treatment of congestive
cardiac failure and respiratory symptoms, along with administration of
antioxidants and multivitamins, remain the mainstay of treatment. Selective
cultivation of yellow mustard, strict enforcement of the Indian Food
Adulteration Act, and exemplary punishment to unscrupulous traders are the main
preventive measures.

Publication Types:
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 10621875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Phytother Res 1999 May;13(3):210-3

Effect of molluscicidal components of Abrus precatorius, Argemone mexicana and
Nerium indicum on certain biochemical parameters of Lymnaea acuminata.

Singh S, Singh DK.

Department of Zoology, University of Gorakhpur, U.P., India.

Exposure to 40% and 80% of the 24 h LC50 of the molluscicidal component of Abrus
precatorius (abrin and glycyrrhizin), Argemone mexicana (protopine and
sanguinarine) and Nerium indicum (oleandrin) caused a significant decrease in
the levels of protein, free amino acid, DNA and RNA in the nervous tissue of
Lymnaea acuminata. Except for glycyrrhizin, all the above molluscicides caused a
significant reduction in phospholipid levels and a simultaneous increase in the
rate of lipid peroxidation in the nervous tissue of treated snails.

PMID: 10353159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Hindustan Antibiot Bull 1996 Feb-Nov;38(1-4):53-6

In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis

Rai MK.

Department of Botany, Danielson College, Chhindwara, India.

A serious leaf-spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10
years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and
cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae
which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of
17-medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas
3-plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula
acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by
Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum
sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and
Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha
curcas (10%).

PMID: 9676046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Planta Med 1997 Aug;63(4):326-8

Isoquinoline alkaloids from Argemone mexicana reduce morphine withdrawal in
guinea pig isolated ileum.

Capasso A, Piacente S, Pizza C, De Tommasi N, Jativa C, Sorrentino L.

School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Italy.

The present study examined the effect of the MeOH extract, partially purified
fraction (IV), and pure compounds from Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae) on
the morphine withdrawal in guinea pig isolated ileum. The MeOH extract, the
partially purified fraction (IV), and the pure compounds isolated from A.
mexicana significantly and in a concentration-dependent manner reduced the
morphine withdrawal. Since the pure compounds were identified as protopine and
allocryptopine, the observed effects could be related to these compounds. The
results of the present study suggest that isoquinoline alkaloids may be
potential agents in the treatment of drug abuse.

PMID: 9270378 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Vet Hum Toxicol 1989 Dec;31(6):555-8

The toxicity of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L) seeds to rats.

Pahwa R, Chatterjee VC.

College of Pharmacy, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

Toxicolethal effects of seeds of mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L) were
investigated in to roof rat, (Rattus rattus L). The argemone seeds were fed at
100% of the diet up to the death or for a maximum of 10 days. Observed signs of
poisoning were sedation, passiveness, sluggishness, feeble or no muscular jerks,
abdominal contractions and increased defecation. Also black secretions from the
eyes, corneal opacity, erection of hairs, and edema of the hind legs and
submandibular space in were noted. Fourteen of 16 rats died. Significant
reduction in the weights of the rats was observed. There were significant
increases in blood glucose, BUN and SGOT. Major histopathological lesions were:
hepatocytolysis, nuclear degeneration, pyknosis, cloudy swelling and dilatated
sinusoids disturbing the lobulalar architecture of the liver; proliferated
endothelium of glomeruli, hemorrhage in glomeruli and interstitium, and cloudy
swelling of convoluted tubular epithelium in the kidney cortical region; erosion
and atrophy of the upper stomach mucosa and calcification in the cardiac
stomach, and; erosion and congestion of the upper mucosa of the duodenum. No
change was noticed in the ileum.

PMID: 2617838 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: J Trop Med Hyg 1989 Dec;92(6):412-5

Electrophysiological studies of the eye, peripheral nerves and muscles in
epidemic dropsy.

Sachdev HP, Sachdev MS, Verma L, Sood NN, Moonis M.

Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

The involvement of the neurological system in epidemic dropsy is controversial.
During two outbreaks of epidemic dropsy, detailed neurological and ocular
examinations and electrophysiological studies of peripheral nerves and muscles
(motor nerve conduction velocities, sensory nerve latencies and
electromyography) and eye (electroretinogram and visually evoked cortical
responses) were therefore undertaken. Amongst the 239 subjects examined, burning
sensation and tingling paraesthesias of feet were reported by 42.3 and 35.6%,
respectively; but none had any objective evidence of central or peripheral
nervous system involvement. Electrophysiological studies of peripheral nerves
and muscles (10 cases with subjective manifestations) and eyes (24 eyes of 12
patients hospitalized for control of glaucoma) were essentially normal. It is
concluded that Argemone mexicana or its toxins do not have any significant
effect on the nervous system.

PMID: 2607575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Toxicology 1989 Oct 16;58(3):285-98

Biochemical toxicology of argemone oil. IV. Short-term oral feeding response in

Upreti KK, Das M, Kumar A, Singh GB, Khanna SK.

Dyes and Food Adulterant Toxicology Laboratory, Industrial Toxicology Research
Centre, Lucknow, India.

Consumption of edible oils contaminated with Argemone mexicana seed oil is known
to cause various clinical manifestations. In the present study, the effect of
dietary intake of argemone oil on histopathological changes, haematological
indices and selected marker parameters of toxicity was investigated to observe
the exact sites and mode of action of argemone oil in rats. Histopathological
changes in the liver showed increased fibrosis, hyperplasia of bile ducts and
congestion in a few portal tracts. Lungs of argemone oil-fed animals indicated
congestion and thickening of interalveolar septa. Alveolar spaces were
disorganised and irregular. Kidneys showed vascular and glomerular congestion
and patchy tubular lesions. At 30 days only mild congestion was noted in the
myocardium. Cardiac muscle fibres showed degenerative changes at 60 days which
were more marked in the auricular wall. Haematological examination showed
appearance of anaemia in experimental animals. Hepatic alkaline phosphatase,
alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities were inhibited by 30,
29 and 29% after 30 days of argemone intake along with concomitant enhancement
in serum by 27, 29 and 66%, respectively. Liver showed decrease in glutathione
(32-63%) content along with significant stimulation of lipid peroxidation
(49-105%) in argemone-intoxicated animals. These results suggest that liver,
lungs, heart and kidneys are the target tissues of argemone oil toxicity and
that membrane destruction may be a possible mode of action.

PMID: 2799830 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Toxicol Lett 1988 Sep;42(3):301-8

Biochemical toxicology of argemone alkaloids. III. Effect on lipid peroxidation
in different subcellular fractions of the liver.

Upreti KK, Das M, Khanna SK.

Dyes and Food Adulterant Toxicology Laboratory, Industrial Toxicology Research
Centre, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, India.

Consumption of edible oils contaminated with Argemone mexicana seed oil causes
various toxic manifestations. In this investigation the in vivo effect of
argemone oil on NADPH-dependent enzymatic and Fe2+-, Fe2+/ADP- or ascorbic
acid-dependent non-enzymatic hepato-subcellular lipid peroxidation was studied.
Parenteral administration of argemone oil (5 ml/kg body weight) daily for 3 days
produced a significant increase in both non-enzymatic and NADPH-supported
enzymatic lipid peroxidation in whole homogenate, mitochondria, and microsomes.
Lipid peroxidation aided by various pro-oxidants, namely Fe2+, Fe2+/ADP and
ascorbic acid also revealed a significant enhancement in the whole homogenate,
mitochondria and microsomes of argemone oil-treated rats. Further, when compared
with whole homogenate, the hepatic mitochondria and microsomes of either control
or argemone oil-treated rats showed a 4- and 6-fold increase in non-enzymatic,
and a 5- and 18-fold increase in NADPH-dependent enzymatic lipid peroxidation,
respectively. Similarly, both mitochondrial and microsomal fractions showed a 5-
and 7-fold increase in Fe2+-, and a 12- and 15-fold increase in either Fe2+/ADP-
or ascorbic acid-aided lipid peroxidation, respectively. These results suggest
that the hepatic microsomal as well as the mitochondrial membrane is vulnerable
to the peroxidative attack of argemone oil and may be instrumental in leading to
the hepatotoxicity symptoms noted in argemone poisoning victims.

PMID: 3176059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Jpn J Ophthalmol 1987;31(3):467-74

Optic disc vasculitis in epidemic dropsy.

Sachdev MS, Sood NN, Mohan M, Sachdev HP, Gupta SK.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of
Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

During an outbreak of epidemic dropsy in Delhi, 233 patients were studied.
Retinal changes including venous dilatation and tortuosity, haemorrhages and
disc oedema were observed. A clinical picture compatible with type I optic disc
vasculitis was seen in 13 eyes and that of type II in 3 eyes. Fluorescein
angiography was carried out in 23 randomly selected cases. Relevant angiographic
findings included dilated and tortuous retinal veins, prominent vascular
staining, blocked fluorescence, microaneurysms, disc oedema and peripapillary
dye spillage. Presence of positive angiographic findings correlated well with
the severity of the systemic disease, glaucoma, however, revealed no
correlation. Papillophlebitis, a new ocular manifestation of Argemone mexicana
oil toxicity, as also the fluorescein angiographic picture in epidemic dropsy is
being reported for the first time in the literature.

PMID: 3430862 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Experientia 1985 Jan 15;41(1):77-8

Sanguinarine: its potential as a liver toxic alkaloid present in the seeds of
Argemone mexicana.

Dalvi RR.

The alkaloid sanguinarine reported to be responsible for several outbreaks of
epidemic dropsy in the tropics was examined for its hepatotoxic potential in
rats. The studies showed that a single i.p. dose (10 mg/kg) of sanguinarine not
only increased the activity of SGPT and SGOT substantially but also caused a
significant loss of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and benzphetamine N-demethylase
activity. Furthermore, the treated rats exhibited considerable loss of body and
liver weight, peritoneal edema and slightly enlarged livers with fibrinous
material. Microscopic examination of the liver tissue showed progressive
cellular degeneration and necrosis further substantiating that sanguinarine is a
potential hepatotoxic alkaloid.

PMID: 3967743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1985;79(4):510-2

Epidemic dropsy following transcutaneous absorption of Argemone mexicana oil.

Sood NN, Sachdev MS, Mohan M, Gupta SK, Sachdev HP.

Four cases manifesting features characteristic of epidemic dropsy following body
massage with contaminated mustard oil are reported. A transcutaneous route of
absorption for the toxin (sanguinarine) resulting in epidemic dropsy has not
been documented previously in man. Oil used for body massage was found to be
adulterated with Argemone mexicana oil, while hydrogenated vegetable fat used
for cooking did not reveal any contamination. Diagnosis of the disease was
confirmed by establishing the presence of sanguinarine in the urine and serum of
all four cases.

PMID: 4082260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Aust Vet J 1980 Apr;56(4):187-9

Oedema disease in chickens caused by Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) seed.

Norton JH, O'Rourke PK.

Ground Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) seed produced growth depression, oedema
and death when fed at 1% and 3% of a basal ration to day-old, layer strain,
cockerel chickens. The mortality rate was increased by raising the sodium
chloride content of the basal ration from 0.18% to 1.68%. Clinical signs
consisted of subcutaneous oedema, a high pitched chirp and terminal gasping.
Hydropericardium, oedema of the lungs, and subcutaneous oedema of the thorax,
abdomen, wings, neck and throat were the major lesions. Foci of calcificaton
were present in the ventricular myocardium of some chickens fed 3% A. mexicana.

PMID: 7436920 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: J Postgrad Med 1980 Jan;26(1):28-33

Inhibition of human pregnancy plasma diamine oxidase with alkaloids of Argemone
mexicana--berberine and sanguinarine.

Vaidya AB, Rajagopalan TG, Kale AG, Levine RJ.

PMID: 6768879 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: J Am Oil Chem Soc 1975 Jun;52(6):171-3

New, unusual long chain fatty acid (argemonic acid) from Argemone Mexicana.

Rukmini C.

PMID: 1141635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: J Assoc Physicians India 1975 Mar;23(3):205-8

Argemone mexicana poisoning in North India.

Kumar L, Chugh KS, Singhal PC, Sharma BK, Walia BN.

PMID: 1184546 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Farmatsiia 1974 Mar-Apr;23(2):36-8

[Chemical study of the seeds of the poppy Argemone mexicana L. cultivated in the
USSR and growing in Vietnam]

[Article in Russian]

Bui Ti I.

PMID: 4848258 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Is it safe?



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Registered: 10/27/99
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Re: Argemone mexicana poisoning [Re: SalviaEngland]
    #952785 - 10/11/02 11:35 AM (14 years, 19 days ago)

mmm maybe not  :confused:

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Re: Argemone mexicana poisoning [Re: SalviaEngland]
    #953212 - 10/11/02 08:27 PM (14 years, 19 days ago)

From what I know the seed is the only part to contain dangorous levels of the toxic alkaloid (sanguinarine). You could probably play around with your pets safely as long as you stay away from the seeds (stay away from the pods entirely)

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Re: Argemone mexicana poisoning [Re: Young_but_cool]
    #953224 - 10/11/02 08:30 PM (14 years, 19 days ago)

And also, dont experiment with it repetedly to avoid accumulative effects, allow your body to rest between doses, be safe.

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Re: Argemone mexicana poisoning [Re: Young_but_cool]
    #954433 - 10/12/02 04:43 AM (14 years, 19 days ago)

I don't think it's too dangerous, I agree with what's been said above, I think the safest way of experimenting, if possible, would be with smoking.

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Re: Argemone mexicana poisoning [Re: Young_but_cool]
    #954537 - 10/12/02 06:08 AM (14 years, 18 days ago)

so what part it's supposed to use?? and how? smoking?

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Re: Argemone mexicana poisoning [Re: CLuB99]
    #954597 - 10/12/02 07:33 AM (14 years, 18 days ago)

Smoking is fine, so is oral use. All of the plant except for the seeds can be used, the pods are difficult to clean completely from the seeds, so they are best left out. An other option is to pierce the pods and collect the sap like opium, the toxic stuff stays in the seeds. I had some interest in this plant, but I've decided that opiate drugs ruins my abilities to enjoy the small, ordinary things in everyday life, even when long after I've done them, so now I stay away. Probably this goes for analog plants as well, so I wont be experimenting with argemone any time soon. But I'd love to hear some experiences.

Edited by Young_but_cool (10/12/02 09:56 AM)

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Re: Argemone mexicana poisoning [Re: SalviaEngland]
    #978747 - 10/21/02 05:07 AM (14 years, 10 days ago)

No drug is safe, and the less known a drug is the less you can reduce your risks.

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Re: Argemone mexicana poisoning [Re: SalviaEngland]
    #980841 - 10/21/02 09:58 PM (14 years, 9 days ago)

We have 3 happy little baby 1" tall mexicana's growing outside.
-I look at them every morning. :smile:
They're starting to get priiiiiiiiiiiiiickly lol.

Keep shroomin,

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