Wikipedia is filled with so much information on magic shrooms. Here is the paper on the species and you cannot copy this for wikepedia
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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol. 9, pp. 75–77 (2007)
© 2007 by Begell House, Inc.
New Species of Hallucinogenic Psilocybe (Fr.) P. Kumm.
(Agaricomycetideae) from the Eastern U.S.A.
Gastón Guzmán,1 Richard V. Gaines,2 and Florencia Ramírez-Guillén1
ABSTRACT: Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata is described as a new blueing species from Pennsylvania,
USA. It belongs to section Stuntzii Guzmán of genus Psilocybe for its subrhomboid, thick-walled
spores and its caerulescent basidioma with annulus.
KEY WORDS: hallucinogenic and bluing species, Psilocybe, sect. Stuntzii, USA, ecology, geography
Through several explorations in a xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx
xxxx in the United States since the spring of 2003
made by one of the authors (Gaines), we found a
bluing Psilocybe that is herein described as a new
species. It is interesting to observe that, although the
genus Psilocybe began to be studied in the United
States in 1872 by Peck (1872, 1912), and in 1958 it
came to attention with the discovery of the hallucinogenic
species (Singer and Smith, 1958)—which
Guzmán (1983, 1995, 2000) added to the known
species found in the United States—and recently
Guzmán and Trappe (2005) and Guzmán et al. (1997,
2003) described new species from the United States,
we nevertheless found yet another new species. There
are in the United States around 60 species of Psilocybe,
of which approximately 25 are hallucinogenic, and of
which around 10 are from the eastern United States
(Guzmán et al., 1997, 2003; Guzmán, 2005).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Microscopic observations were made through handle
sections of dry basidiomata, mounted in 5% KOH or
5% NH4OH solutions or both, mixed with 1% Congo
Red solution, previously treated with 96% alcohol for
rehydrating of the tissues. The size of spores is long
and wide on face view and thick on side view.
Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata Guzmán et
Gaines, sp. nov. (Figs. 1–7)
Pileus (10–) 15–25 (–45) mm latus, convexus vel
subumbonatus, glaber, subviscidus, hygrophanus,
aurantiacus brunneus vel fulvus. Lamellae subadnatae,
subfuscus violaceous, marginis concolor. Stipes
(15–) 25–60 (–90) × (1–) 2–5 (–7) mm, albidus,
caerulescente. Annulus membranaceus. Sporae (7–)
8–9 (–12) × (5.5–) 6–7 (–8.5) ìm, rhomboideus vel
sub-rhomboideus, crassotunicatae, poro germanativo
praeditae. Pleurocystidia duobus typis, a: 16–24
(–35) × 6–8 (–10) ìm, hyalina, ventricose rostrata;
et b: 20–30 (–40) × (10–) 12–16 (–20) ìm, pallidus
brunneus griseolus, globose pyriformis vel ventricose
clavatus. Cheilocystidia duobus typis, a: 18–22 × 5–
9 (–11) ìm, hyalina, ventricose rostrata; et b: 25–29
× 9–13 ìm, hyaline vel inaequalis cyaneus, globousus,
peduncule vel subpenduncule. Pileipellis ixocutis
crassa. Hyphae fibulate. Species lignicola vel sub-lignicola, sylva temperatus deciduous. Holotypus:
USA, xxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx,
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FIGURES 1–7. Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata, 1: four basidiomata, showing convex to subumbonate, hygrophanous pileus, the annulus, and the smooth to scaly, subbulbous and hollow stipe, 2: spores, 3: basidia, 4: cheilocystidia type a, 5: cheilocystidia type b, 6: pleurocystidia type a (that on the right is uncommon), 7: pleurocystidia type b (those with neck are uncommon) (all from the holotype). Scale bar 1: 10 mm, 2–7: 10 ìm.
Etymology: From the Frequent Ovoid Both
Pleuro- and Cheilocystidia
Pileus (10–) 15–25 (–45) mm diam., convex to
subumbonate, lubricous to subviscid, glabrous, translucent
striate at the margin, hygrophanous, orangish
brown to yellowish brown, sometimes white when
dry. Lamellae subadnate, brownish pale to dark
brownish violaceous, uniform in color. Stipe (15–)
25–60 (–90) × (1–) 2–5 (–7) mm, smooth above to
floccose-scaly below, cylindric, equal, somewhat
subbulbous, base sometimes hypogeous, whitish,
with irregular pale ochre or violaceous tones below
or pale reddish brown above, hollow, with white
mycelium at the base. Annulus membraneous, white,
evanescent. Context whitish to ocherous pale, blueing,
odor farinaceous. Spore print violaceous dark.
Spores (7–) 8–9 (–12) × (5.5–) 6–7 (–8.5) ìm,
rhomboid or subrhomboid in face view, subellipsoid
in side view, thick walled, wall 0.8–1.5 ìm thick,
yellowish brown, with a broad germ pore at one end
and a short appendage at the other. Basidia 20–28
× 7–9 ìm, 4-spored, clavate-ventricose, sometimes
with a middle constriction, hyaline. Pleurocystidia
of two types, a: short, 16–24 (–35) × 6–8 (–10) ìm,
hyaline, ventricose-rostrate, with an acute or broad
base; b: large, 20–30 (–40) × (10–) 12–16 (–20)
ìm, brownish gray pale, globose-pyriform, sometimes
with a narrow or moniliform apex, and has a
large narrow base. Cheilocystidia of two types, a:
short, 18–22 × 5–9 (–11) ìm, as pleurocystidia type
a; b: 25–29 × 9–13 ìm, globose, pedunculate or
subpedunculate, hyaline or with a bluing irregular
content. Subhymenium subcellular, brownish pale.
Hymenophoral trama regular, with hyphae hyaline
to yellowish in mass, 3–18 ìm wide. Pileipellis an
ixocutis, 90–100 ìm thick, with hyaline, thin-walled
hyphae, 2–5 ìm wide. Pileus trama with hyaline to
yellowish in mass hyphae, 4–18 ìm wide. Basal
mycelium with hyaline, thin-walled hyphae, 1.5–
5 ìm wide. Clamp connections present.
Habitat and Distribution
Gregarious, on wood or wood debris, in trails or
places with herbaceous plants, in a deciduous forest.
Known only from the type locality.
USA, (all in XAL and Gaines Herb.).
This species is close to Psilocybe subaeruginascens
Hohnel from Java, P. septentrionalis (Guzmán)
Guzmán from Japan, and P. wayanadensis K. A.
Thomas, Manim. et Guzmán from India (Guzmán,
1983; Thomas et al., 2002), for the rhomboid or
subrhomboid, thick-walled spores, and the annulus
and the blueing feature of the basidioma. All these
species belong to the section Stuntzii Guzmán,
following the classification of Guzmán (1983,
1995). Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata differs for the
two types of wide pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia.
For the blueing feature, this species probably has
hallucinogenic properties, following Guzmán’s
The senior author and F. Ramírez-Guillén acknowledge
Etelvina Gándara, Juan Lara Carmona, and
Manuel Hernández of Instituto de Ecología at
Xalapa for their valuable help in the laboratory, in
the herbarium, and on the computer, respectively.
The senior author also thanks Instituto de Ecología
and CONACYT for their support of his research.
This article was reviewed by Laura Guzmán-
Dávalos of the Instituto de Botánica, Universidad
de Guadalajara, Mexico.
Guzmán G. 1983. The genus Psilocybe. Beihefte zur
Nova Hedwigia 74, Cramer, Vaduz, Germany. 439
pp. + 40 pls.
Guzmán G. 1995. Supplement to the monograph of
the genus Psilocybe. In: Taxonomic Monographs
of Agaricales, Petrini O. and Horak E., eds.
Bibliotheca Mycologica 159, Cramer, Berlin,
Guzmán G. 2000. New species and new records of
Psilocybe from Spain, the U.S.A., and Mexico, and
a new case of poisoning by P. barrerae. Documents
Mycologiques, 29, 41–48.
Guzmán G. 2005. Species diversity of the genus
Psilocybe in the world mycobiota, with special
attention to hallucinogenic properties. Int J Med
Mushr, 7, 305–331.
Guzmán G., Hanlin R. T., and White C. 2003. Another
new species of Psilocybe from Georgia,
The species is also known of from West Virginia, Ohio And Pennsylvania