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OfflineWorkmanV
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Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH
    #6970303 - 05/26/07 07:28 PM (13 years, 9 months ago)

As I was attempting to categorize all of the Copelandia strains/species in my collection I found a reference to the taxonomic significance of crystals that are often on the tips of the pleurocystida in Gerhardt's Key to the "Species of the subgenus Copelandia."

Specifically Gerhardt says that the metaloid pleurocystida of Panaeolus cambodginiensis generally lack crystals and that P. affinis and P. lentisporus, as well as others, often have them.

An accident in the lab reveals that these crystals are not permanent structures and can dissolve in a relatively short time in 2.5% KOH mounting medium at room temperature. This calls into question the taxonomic value of metaloid crystals. A replication of the observation is illustrated in the image below.



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Edited by Workman (05/26/07 07:30 PM)


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OfflineRogerRabbitM
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: Workman]
    #6972885 - 05/27/07 10:43 AM (13 years, 9 months ago)

Interesting. So you're thinking the difference might just be in how the different slides were made up? Too bad we can't all afford one of these SEM's for our labs. The pic below is also copelandia with the clearest pleurocystidia image I've ever seen.
RR



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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH *DELETED* [Re: Workman]
    #6973229 - 05/27/07 12:43 PM (13 years, 9 months ago)

Post deleted by Corporal Kielbasa

Reason for deletion: .



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Offlinemakaveli8x8
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: Corporal Kielbasa]
    #6973268 - 05/27/07 12:56 PM (13 years, 9 months ago)

well them brown dots in the picture i believe are spores.

he is looking at spore prints to find exotic speices.

apparently mushrooms drop more than just spores then? they drop crystles too?

i ponder if these crystles are perhaps some kind of protective covering for the spores.

im sure these guys know the answer but its fun to shoot in the dark about such things.

as for being active that is kinda an interesting question. reishi spores are said to contain medicene...one would think there is a possiblity that this mushroom might contain something in the spores as well.

however everyone says spores are not active....but i wonder if anyone has ever actualy done testing with them.


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OfflineRogerRabbitM
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: makaveli8x8]
    #6973351 - 05/27/07 01:19 PM (13 years, 9 months ago)

The pleurocystidia form on the gill surface. I'm sure what WM posted above is a slide made from gill tissue. Pleurocystidia are single cells, just like the basidia that produce spores. That's why you can see the pleurocystidia and spores in the same picture. If he adjusted the focus, other layers of spores, and the basidia they emerge from would come into view, but he was zeroed in on the pleurocystidia to show how the top dissolved under the influence of the KOH.

In the scanning electron micrograph of gill tissue, the pleurocystidia is the object that looks like those punching bag clowns we all played with as kids, that stand back up whenever you knock them down. It is surrounded by basidia, each one in the process of producing four spores in various stages of development for later release into the wind, or sometimes in our cases, onto a sporeprint.

I wonder if Gerehardt had access to an SEM, if he would have still called those objects 'crystals'?
RR


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OfflineWorkmanV
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: RogerRabbit]
    #6973772 - 05/27/07 03:53 PM (13 years, 9 months ago)

RogerRabbit is correct on all accounts. I knew this post was going to be confusing since it is very specialized and a year ago I wouldn't have understood it all of it myself.

Regarding the crystals. I was able to track down a reference that states that the crystals are calcium oxalate.


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InvisibleUbermensch
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: Workman]
    #6974418 - 05/27/07 07:37 PM (13 years, 9 months ago)

Did this reference mention the known or possible function of the crystals?


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OfflineWorkmanV
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: Ubermensch]
    #6978253 - 05/28/07 05:27 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

No it didn't.


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Offlinejohnuk
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: Workman]
    #6990459 - 05/31/07 10:06 AM (13 years, 8 months ago)

I love the details of life, it's beautiful. Prepare to be amazed! :grin:

"Fungi produce spores in staggering numbers.  A single fruitbody of a mushroom can produce 100 million spores an hour.    A mouldy orange will be covered with billions of spores.  A giant puffball produces a trillion spores or more.  Almost all of these spores perish and are a major food source for other microorganisms such as amoebae, nematodes, rotifers, tardigrades etc. Fungi have developed a number of ways to protect the spores from predation. This extends the life of the spore and improves its chances for successfull reestablishment of the species. Sometimes sheer numbers alone will do the trick. Sometimes thick walls develop or walls impregnated with phenolic compounds or are  roughened.  Spores may be released in a slimy matrix of unpleasant chemicals. 

Cunninghamella produces spiny spores. Reports indicate that the spines are made of calcium oxalate. This is an unpleasant, toxic chemical found in rhubarb leaves and other plants as an antifeedent and very commonly excreted by fungal hyphae to protect them. Oxalates are often produced on mushroom fruitbodies by strategically located secretory cells."


Oxalic acid is also being used as a pesticide to kill parasitic mites in honey bee colonies.

Here's a possiblility;

Create two lines of pleurocystida as you've done here, one washed with KOH and the other not. Wash both off with distilled water, very thoroughly. Add various predators to the plates - without nutrient. See what happens.

You could rinse the KOH off in centrifugal vials, then drop them in and spin, draw off the supernatant, rinse some more, spin... you probably got the idea the moment I said centrifuge vials. Sure there are other ways as well.



Edited by johnuk (05/31/07 10:33 AM)


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Offlineshirley knott
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: johnuk]
    #6990870 - 05/31/07 12:38 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

wow :crazy2::thumbup:


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InvisibleEntersandman
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: shirley knott]
    #6990982 - 05/31/07 01:16 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Oxalic acid has nearly killed me last summer when i ate 1 1/2 year old magic stones!
they contained a great amount of this shit...


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OfflineWorkmanV
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Re: Copelandia pleurocystida apex crystals dissolve in KOH [Re: johnuk]
    #6994992 - 06/01/07 12:21 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Excellent reference! I suspected it was just waste products but it does make more sense that its protective. I was aware that it was in certain plants and it was toxic but I didn't notice the mention of fungi.

Unfortunately, I don't think your proposed experiment will work since the mushroom tissue needs to be alive and the harsh treatments will likely kill it or at least cause it to degenerate and regrow into simple hyphae which will lack the pleurocystidia.


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