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OfflineNorthernsoul
Your Reality

Registered: 11/17/01
Posts: 2,290
Loc: Inner Eye
Last seen: 6 years, 10 months
Whats what?
    #470605 - 11/27/01 12:28 AM (15 years, 10 months ago)

Im a "gonna be" shroom grower that needs to know the difference between some of the basics when it comes to growing. Ive tried to look for a glossery for the meanings of different things but couldnt find one so heres my question:
Whats the difference between subtrate, casing and where can i find a good site that shows you how to put together a good terrarium with pictures, MORE PICTURES!!


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When it comes
I'll know, I know
Just take my clothes and leave
And I'll be gone




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OfflineEightball
whore consumer
Male User Gallery

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Registered: 07/21/01
Posts: 3,013
Last seen: 3 years, 3 months
Re: Whats what? [Re: Northernsoul]
    #470652 - 11/27/01 01:17 AM (15 years, 10 months ago)

substrate: has nutrients for shrooms to grow on (ie. brown rice flower, millet, rye, dung, compost)
casing: not a nutrient source (else molds will grow), helps retain moisture for a casing (ie. verm, coco coir, peat, 50/50 mix etc).
As for a terrarium, i'd just go through the mushroom pictures forum and look around there. Basically all you need is a large rubbermaid tub and some perlite (white stuff, wicks moisture into air)
Good luck with the grow.


--------------------
If you're frightened of dying and you're holding on.you'll see devils tearing your life away.
But...if you've made your peace, then the devils are really angels
Freeing you from the earth.


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Invisibledimitri211
Carpal Tunnel
Registered: 04/27/01
Posts: 2,248
Re: Whats what? [Re: Northernsoul]
    #470667 - 11/27/01 01:26 AM (15 years, 10 months ago)


A
Axenic
Not contaminated; Gnotobiotic: Said esp. of a medium devoid of all living organisms except those of a single species
Agar
An extract from a seaweed used to solidify media. The agar used in mushrooms cultivation is usually available in powder form
Ascomycetes
A group of fungi that have in common that they produce their sexual spores inside specialized cells (asci), which usually contain eight spores
Aseptic
Sterile condition: no unwanted organisms present
Abort
A mushroom that for some reason ceases to grow and never reaches maturity
Autoclave
Basically a big pressure cooker, sometimes operating at higher pressure than 15 PSI, thus achieving sterilization temperatures above 250?F.
Aerial mycelium
Hyphal elements growing above the agar surface.
Alkaline
Having a pH greater than 7.
Acidic
Having a pH lower than 7.
Aseptic technique
Also Sterile technique. Manipulating sterile instruments or culture media in such a way as to maintain sterility.
Antibiotic
A class of natural and synthetic compounds that inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms.
B
Bacteria
Unicellular microorganisms that may cause contamination in culture work. Grain spawn is very easily contaminated with bacteria. On the other hand there are some bacteria that are needed for the fruiting of Agaricus. These are present in the casing soil.
Basidiomycetes
A group of fungi which produce their spores externally on so called basidia. Often four spores are produced per basidium. Many basidiomycetes show clamp connections on their hyphae, ascomycetes never do
Birthing
Removing the growth medium (like a cake from its jar) from whatever container it was kept in for colonization purposes and placing in an environment conducive to fruiting
BRF
Abbreviation for brown rice flour
Buffer
A system capable of resisting changes in pH even when acid or base is added, consisting of a conjugate acid-base pair in which the ratio of proton acceptor to proton donor is near unity.
Basidium (pl. basidia):
A cell that gives rise to a basidiospore. Basidia are characteristic of the Basidiomycetes.
C
Cap
The top part of a mushroom. Often conical or saucer-shaped, at least in the varieties generally discussed round here.
Casing
Some mushrooms need a covering layer of soil with a specific microflora for fruiting. Casing materials include peat, coco coir and vermiculite with addition of limestone and crushed oystershells
Compost
The fermented (or fermenting) substrate. The reason for composting substrate in mushroom cultivation is to make it more selective for the desired mushroom
Culture medium
Micro organisms differ in their nutritional needs. A large number of different growth media have been developed, PD(Y)A(potato dextrose(yeast extract) agar) and MEA (malt extract agar) can be used for most cultivated mushrooms
Clone
A population of individuals all derived asexually from the same single parent. In mushroom cultivation placing a piece of mushroom tissue on agar medium in order to obtain growing mycelium is called cloning.
Coniferous
Pertaining to Conifers, which bear woody cones containing naked seeds.
Cottony
Having a loose and coarse texture. Referred to a growth pattern of some fungi species or strains.
Cellulose
Glucose polysaccharide that is the main component of plant cell walls. Most abundant polysaccharide on earth.
Culture
Mushroom mycelium growing on a cultue medium.
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide A colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, CO2, formed during respiration, combustion, and organic decomposition.
CO2
See Carbon Dioxide.
Contamination
Undesired foreign organisms(contaminants) in a growing medium. Often ocurring due to insufficient sterilisation or improper sterile technique.
D
Dicaryotic mycelium
Contains the nuclei of both 'sexes' and can therefore produce fruiting bodies
Desiccant
An anhydrous(waterless) substance, usually a powder or gel, used to absorb water from other substances. Two commonly used types are calcium hydroxide or silica gel
Deciduous
Trees and plants that shed their leaves at the end of the growing season.
Diffusion
The movement of suspended or dissolved particles from a more concentrated region to a less concentrated region as a result of the random movement of individual particles. Diffusion tends to distribute particles uniformly throughout the available volume.
E
Enzyme
A protein, synthesized by a cell, that acts as a catalyst in a specific chemical reaction.
Endospore
A metabolically dormant state of bacteria in which they are more resistant to heat, chemicals, etc.
F
Fruiting Body
A mushroom. The part of the mushroom that grows above ground.
Fermentation
In mushroom cultivation the process of composting. Easily accessible nutrients will be degraded by micro organisms which makes the substrate more selective. Unwanted fermentation may occur if the compost is still very 'active' or if thick layers or large bags are used. In that case the temperature inside the substrate will rise too high for the desired mycelium
Flush
The sudden development of many fruiting bodies at the same time. Usually there is a resting period between flushes
Fruiting
The mycelium will form mushrooms in its reproductive stage. This is called fruiting as the mushrooms are actually the fruiting bodies of the mycelium
Fungicide
A class of pesticides used to kill fungi, primarily those which cause diseases of plants.
Field capacity
Content of water, on a mass or volume basis, remaining in a soil after being saturated with water and after free drainage is negligible.
G
Gills
The tiny segments on the underside of the cap. This is where the spores come from.
Germination
The spreading of hyphae from a spore
Gypsum
Calcium sulfate, CaSO4. A greyish powder used in spawn making. It prevents the clumping of the grain kernels and acts as a pH-buffer.
Genotype
The set of genes possessed by an individual organism.
H
Hypha(e)
Filamentous structure which exhibits apical growth and which is the developmental unit of a mycelium.
H2O2
Hydrogen peroxide. A clear aqueous solution usualy available in concentrations from 3% to 30%. Used in a novel mushroom growing approach by Rush Wayne.
I
Incubation
The period after inoculation (preferably at a temperature optimal for mycelial growth) during which the mycelium grows vegetatively
Inoculation
Introduction of spores or spawn into substrate
Isolate
A strain of a fungus brought into pure culture (i.e. isolated) from a specific environment
L
Limestone
Calcium Carbonate - CaCO3. A white powder. Used to rise the pH of a casing.
Lignin
A complex polymer that occurs in woody material of higher plants. It is highly resistant to chemical and enzymatic degradation. The white rot fungi are known for their lignin degrading capability.
M
Magic Mushroom
Any of a number of species of fungi containing the alkaloids psilocybin and/or psilocin. Common species are the 'Liberty Cap' (Psilocybe Semilanceata) and Psilocybe Cubensis (also called Stropharia Cubensis). There are dozens of others.
Mycelium
The portion of the mushroom that grows underground. Plants have roots; mushrooms have mycelium. Mycelium networks can be huge. The largest living thing in the world is a single underground mycelium complex.
Mycorrhiza
A symbiotic association between a plant root and fungal hyphae.
Metabolism
The biochemical processes that sustain a living cell or organism.
O
Oyster shells
Ground oyster shells are used as an additive in a casing. They give the casing a better structure and buffer the pH.
P
Perlite
Perlite is a very light mineral, often found next to the vermiculite in gardening stores. It has millions of microscopic pores, which when it gets damp, allow it to 'breathe' lots of water into the air, making it humid. Mushrooms like humidity when they're fruiting.
PF
Psilocybe Fanaticus. The original spore provider. The originator of the PF-TEK, the basis for a lot of growing techniques.
Pasteurisation
Heat treatment applied to a substrate to destroy unwanted organisms but keeping favourable ones alive. The temperature range is 60?C to 80?C(140-175?F). The treatment is very different from sterilization, which aims at destroying all organisms in the substrate.
Petri dish
A round glass or plastic dish with a cover to observe the growth of microscopic organisms. The dishes are partly filled with sterile growth medium (or sterilized after they have been filled). Petri dishes are much used to grow the mycellum which will inoculate the mother spawn.
pH
A measure to describe the acidity of a medium. pH 7 is neutral; higher means alkaline, lower acidic
Pinhead
A term to describe a very young mushroom when the cap has the size of a pin
Primordium
The initial fruiting body, the stage before Pinhead
Pure culture
An isolated culture of a micro organism; organism without any other micro organisms. Pure cultures are essential to the spawn production process.
Pressure cooker
A pot with a tight lid in which things can be cooked quickly with steam under higher pressure. The reason for it is that at 15 PSI (pound per square inch) pressure the water boils at a higher temperature (250?F, 121?C) than at ambient pressure.(212?F, 100?C). In mushroom cultivation used to sterilize substrates and agar media.
Peat
Unconsolidated soil material consisting largely of undecomposed, or only slightly decomposed, organic matter accumulated under conditions of excessive moisture. Used as casing ingredient in mushroom culture.
R
Rice Cake
Many of the growing methods involve making a 'cake' of rice flour, vermiculite and water, and injecting it with mushroom spores. Not a rice cake like you'd buy in a supermarket!
Rhyzomorph
Root-like. An adjective used to describe the appearance of the mycelium of some mushroom strains. Rhyzomorphic growing mycelium is usually a sign of a well fruiting strain.
S
Spores
What mushrooms have instead of seeds. Absolutely microscopic, but produced by the millions by each and every mushroom.
Spore Print
A piece of paper or glass that has the spores that have fallen off of a cap.
Spore Syringe
Many of the techniques for growing mushrooms indoors involve mixing up a spore print with some water, and injecting the result into a sterile container full of something the spores can infect, produce mycelium in, and eat. Several companies will sell you ready-to-use spore syringes for a few pounds/dollars. This site has links to, or address for, many of these companies.
Substrate
Whatever you're using to grow the mushrooms on. Different varieties of mushroom like to eat different things (rice, rye grain, straw, compost, woodchips, birdseed). Different techniques involve infecting substrates with anything from spores, to chopped-up mycelium, to blended mushroom.
Stem
The stem, or stalk of a growing mushroom.
Set, Setting, and Dosage
Where you are, what you're doing/feeling/thinking and how much mushroom you have taken. By the time you've read the FAQs, and grown a batch of your own, you'll probably have a good idea of how much mushroom you'll need to get where you want to go. Recommended settings are: anywhere natural with as few people as possible (the woods, the beach, a park, a nature reserve); anywhere you know you'll have privacy for the duration. If you're living with your parents, you probably don't want them walking in on you while you're curled up in a corner, giggling happily at the wallpaper.
Stamets, Paul
The owner of Fungi Perfecti and mushroom guru. The co-author of The Mushroom Cultivator and many other helpful books.
Slant
A test tube with growth medium, which has been sterilized and slanted to increase the surface area
Spawn
The pure culture of mycelium on grain, sawdust, etc., used to inoculate the final substrate
Spawn run
The vegetative growth period of the mycelium after spawning the substrate
Species
Fundamental unit of biological taxonomy. Generally spoken, two individuals belong to the same species if they can produce fertile offspring
Sterilisation
Completely destroying all micro organisms present, by heat(autoclave, pressure cooker) or chemicals. Spawn substrate always has to be sterilized prior to inoculation.
Strain
The equivalent of race in plants and animals. The same species may consist of strains that vary considerably in genetic make up, but all are sexually compatible
Sclerotium
A hard surfaced resting body of fungal cells resistant to unfavorable conditions,which may remain dormant for long periods of time and resume growth on the return of favorable conditions.
Secondary metabolite
Product of intermediary metabolism released from a cell, such as an antibiotic.
Selective medium
Medium that allows the growth of certain types of microorganisms in preference to others. For example, an antibiotic-containing medium allows the growth of only those microorganisms resistant to the antibiotic.
T
Tek
Short for Technique. Often prefaced with something to tell you what type of Tek; e.g. PF-Tek, for Psilocybe Fanaticus Technique, one of the original home growing techniques on which many others are based.
Trip
What happens when you eat the finished product. Can last from three to six hours. May range from mild visual effects and lightly enhanced perceptions, to a totally altered state of consciousness. Generally, this can be controlled to some degree by set, setting and dosage. Read some of the trip reports to get an idea of what other people have experienced. Please always remember, although many of the effects seem to be experienced by many different people, you're going to have *your* trip, not someone else's.
Tissue culture
A culture made from the tissue of a young and healthy mushroom. The mycelium emerging from the tissue will have the same genetic properties as the mushroom the tissue derived from
V
Vermiculite
A highly absorbent material made from puffed mica. Used in rice cakes to hold water, and to stop the cake being too sticky. The mycelium likes room to breathe and grow.
Veil
When a mushroom is growing, the edges of the cap are joined to the stem. As the mushroom grows larger, the cap spreads and the edges tear away, often leaving a very thin veil of material hanging from the stem.


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