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An Updated List of the Newly Recognized Species of Psilocybian Fungi
MEXICO: Five Mexican hallucinogenic fungi are presented and gathered from three locations in Oaxaca and two in Veracruz, Mexico. With these five new species, we now report more than 50 species of hallucinogenic Psilocybes form Mexico, the highest number of known species inone location in the world.
Psilocybe chaconii Guzman, Escolona et Ramirez-Guillen Habitat and Distribution: Solitary on soil without herbaceous plants, in a mesophytic forest at 1300 m altitude. Known only form the type locality at Veracruz, old road Xalapa to Coatepec, near Xalapa, Botanic Garden of Instituto de Ecologia. The name of the species is in honor of Dr. Santiago Chacon, who gathered the fungus.
Psilocybe mesophylla Guzman, Jacobs et Escalona, sp. nov. Habitat and Distribution: Solitary or subcaespitose, on red-orangish clay soil, without vegetation, outside of a mesophytic forest. Known only form the type locations Oaxaca, Mexico on the road Tuxtepec to Oaxaca, near Llano Grande. The name of the species refers to the mesophytic forest where it grows, as do many other hallucinogenic species in Mexico.
Psilocybe oaxacana Guzman, Escalona et Jacobs, sp. nov. Habitat and Distribution: Solitary or gregarious in small groups , on red clay soil, in a mesophytic forest. Known only form the type locale at Oaxaca, Mexico on the road Tuxtepec to Oaxaca, near Llano Grande..
Psilocybe pileocystidiata Guzman et Ramirez-Guillen Habitat and Distribution: Solitary on soil, among grasses in a tropical meadow. Known only from Veracruz, Mexico at Municipio Playa Vicente, Nuevo Cosalapa Sarmiento, Rancho las Cadenas,
Psilocybe singularis Guzman, Escalona et Jacobs, sp. nov. Habitat and distribution: Subgregarious or solitary on red clay soil without vegetation, in a mesophytic forest in Oaxaca, Mexico along the road Tuztepec to Oaxaca, Llano Grande.
NEPAL: Three species of Psilocybe are now recognized from Nepal. Two are non psychoactive. The hallucinogenic species is: Psilocybe subcubensis Guzman. Habitat and Distribution: In manure examined and harvested from Nepal Royal Chitwan national park, near Sauraha, south of Rapti River, in the tropical evergreen forest, gregarious, on rhinoceros dung and dark places inside the jungle.
BRAZIL: There are now 21 known species of hallucinogenic fungi in Brazil.. Two species reported include Psilocybe caeruleoannulata (=P. uruguayensis) and Psilocybe wrightii.
INDIA: Psilocybe karalensis sp. nov., Psilocybe wayanadensis sp. nov. are new species. Plus the first reports in India of P. pegleriana, P. subaeruginascens and P. subcubensis all from Kerala, India.
The Caribbean: Five species are new from the Caribbean, but only two are hallucinogenic. Psilocybe caribaea Guzman, T. J. Baroni& Tapia, sp. nov. Habitat and Distribution, Gregarious and caespitose on rich organic or sandy soil, mixed with decaying plant debris, in tropical and subtropical Forests in Puerto Rico and Martinique.
Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum Guzman, Baroni & Lodge. Habitat and Distribution: Gregarious on bare or mossy soil, in tropical forests and known only from Puerto Rico.
Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea Guzman, Ramirex-Guillen and T.P. Tapia, sp. nov. Habitat and Distribution: Gregarious or caespitose on soil in tropical forests. Known only from Martinique near the Lorrain River at 100 m altitude.
Three known species of Psilocybe are recognized from Spain, The already known Psilocybe semilanceata (from the Pyrenees regions of Navarra, Aragon and Catalonia) and now from Galicia and the recently discovered Psilocybe hispanica From two regions in Spain and now Psilocybe galaeciae Guzman and M. L. Castro known only from Galicea, Spain where it grows gregariously in soils, in grasslands and gardens. Allegedly it is the most common picked species in Spain. There are also unconfirmed reports of P. cyanescens in Spain.
COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA: Psilocybe cabiensis Guzman, Torres et Ramirez-Guillen, sp. nov. Habitat and distribution: Solitary on clay soil without herbs, inside of a tropical rain forest. Known only form Choco, Colombia Quibdo region, SE of Quibdo, Pacurita. The name of the species refers to the Rio Cabi, near the type locality.
Psilocybe subhoogshagenii Guzman, Torres et Ramirex-Guillen, sp. nov. Habitat and Distribution: Gregarious and caespitose, common, on clay soil without herbs, inside a tropical forest. Known only form Choco, Colombia, Quibdo region, SE of Quibdo, Pacurita.
P. plutonia, known originally only form Brazil is now reported form Colombia, South America.
Many other known species have now been found in several other countries, including my discovery of Psilocybe antioquensis from Angkor Wat, Cambodia, originally only known of from Colombia and Mexico.