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Invisibleentheoindole
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A. muscaria in Europe (specific to the Celts)?
    #4149921 - 05/08/05 12:57 PM (11 years, 7 months ago)

Can any one link me to information regarding A. muscaria use in Europe; pertaining specifically to the Celts? :regularshroom:


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OfflineVertigo6911
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Re: A. muscaria in Europe (specific to the Celts)? [Re: entheoindole]
    #4149965 - 05/08/05 01:19 PM (11 years, 7 months ago)

check out the 'pharmacratic inquisition' link in my siggy \/\/\/
and sign up for the forum. if any1 knows the answer its gonna be those guys.

only amanita use in europe i am aware of is by nordic tribes...



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Offlinekira
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Re: A. muscaria in Europe (specific to the Celts)? [Re: entheoindole]
    #4149982 - 05/08/05 01:24 PM (11 years, 7 months ago)

I havent seen one mention of celts using this specie anywhere (i have read alot). There are unconfirmed claims that the vikings used this specie before battles to gain power (this mushroom is known elsewhere to give supernatural strenghts) but I havent seen one evidence for this.


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Re: A. muscaria in Europe (specific to the Celts)? [Re: kira]
    #4149997 - 05/08/05 01:27 PM (11 years, 7 months ago)

if im not mistaken those worriars are the origin of the word 'berserker'...


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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Re: A. muscaria in Europe (specific to the Celts)? [Re: Vertigo6911]
    #4150581 - 05/08/05 05:45 PM (11 years, 7 months ago)

In a personal communication to me in the late 1980s, Dick Schultes told me that the Viking theory about the beserkers was not Amanita muscaria, although he did say they alledgedly drank a drink and their later actions were reported as the vikings were Beserkers.

Posted below is a short history of the use of Amanita past and present from one of my cd-roms on Magic Shroom Cultivation History.


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HISTORICAL USAGE:
The Aryans made use of a sacred divine god-plant which they, in their written records, often referred to as "Soma." It has been theorized that the entheogen in question is a mushroom species known as Amanita muscaria (Fr. ex L.) Hooker. The virtues of Soma are exalted and praised in hundreds of verses throughout the 9th and 10th mandala of the Rig-Veda (the Hindu scriptures). Use of this sacrament (Soma) by the ancient Aryan priests and their people had flourished for more than two thousand years (Wasson, 1967, 1968, 1970a, 1970b, 1971, 1972, 1979a). Now it is only an uncharted memory in the pages of Vedic history, its use has been aerated by western civilization. But its secrets are once again being questioned as to exactly what was the "Soma" and when did it's use disappear? We need only to look and maybe we shall find the answer. Although the Wassons had suggested that "Soma" was a mushroom, most likely Amanita muscaria, they pointed out that this mushroom was worshipped by the ancient Aryans and that several groups of primitive tribes currently living in Northern Siberia also use the Amanita muscaria mushroom in a cultic manner. However, several other plants such as Cannabis sativa(marijuana), Peganum harmala (Syrian rue) and even the coprophilous mushroom Psilocybe cubensis could also have been the "Soma" plant of the ancient Aryan religions.

PALEO-SIBERIAN

Isolated groups of Finn-Ugrian people, the Ostyak and the Vogul of Western Siberia are known to employ Amanita muscaria shamanistically. So are the Chukchee, Koryak and Kamchadal people of Northeastern Siberia (Heizer, 1944; Brekham & Sam, 1967; Wasson, 1968; LaBarre, 1975). Other reports verify that the use of Amanita muscaria is not just restricted geographically to western and northern Siberia. Both Graves (1960) and Schultes (1976) have indicated that some Finns and Lapps, as well as a small enclave in Afghanistan all use this species shamanistically (Graves, 1960; Schultes, 1976) and in Japan and the Philippines. The use of Amanita muscaria was recently reported among some groups of North American Indians (Wasson, 1979b). In her books "Windmills of the Mind" and "Hallucinogens: Cross Cultural Perspectives," Marlene Dobkin de Rios (1976, 1984) discusses the strange custom of Amanita urine-drinking by the reindeer herdsmen of Siberia. This interesting habit had first been reported by travelers and explorers in Siberia during the late seventeenth and eighteenth century and similar evidence of the urine-drinking is also mentioned in the Hindu scriptures (Wasson, 1968). It is likely that some psilocybian mushrooms were also used in Siberian shamanism (Wasson, 1968).

NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS

In North America, Amanita muscaria has been observed and reportedly used among two different groups of native American Indians:

l). the Dogrib Athabascan (Schultes & Hofmann, 1979) and

2). the Ojibway of Northern Michigan, U.S.A; and Ontario, Canada (Keewaydinoquay, 1978, 1979, 1998; Wasson, 1979b).

Use of this species of Amanita by native American Indians dates back over four hundred years. This is the only record of a group of North American Indians who use mushrooms as a sacrament.

Active ingredients isolated from Amanita muscaria and some related species include ibotenic acid and muscimol (Saleminck, 1963; Eugster, Jolly & Good, 1965).

The same causative agents have also been isolated from a similar species; Amanita pantherina (Takemoto, Nakajima & Sakuma, 1964). Both of the above-mentioned species are sometimes employed as recreational drugs in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Ott, 1978; Ott, 1993; Guzm?n, Allen & Gartz, 1999).




mj


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Invisibleentheoindole
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Re: A. muscaria in Europe (specific to the Celts)? [Re: entheoindole]
    #4150800 - 05/08/05 07:46 PM (11 years, 7 months ago)

After much searching I cam across this web page: Irish Soma and this web site which seems to claim that Celts used it in magical rite and practices,  Shee Eire, although I don't know the validity of their claims. {I believe this site is viewing it in a modern capacity for use in practical magic and not from a truly historical basis.}

I also saved my search query and searched through it persistently and came across many such references. It also seems that some Celtic re-constructionists think that it is acceptable for practicing Celts and Druids to ingest A. muscaria as a shamanic tool & aid. Here is the link for the search page:  Google search: Amanita muscaria use in Celtic Europe  FYI for those who don't know; the Celts practiced their own form of shamanism. :regularshroom:


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