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USA prepares to wage biological warfare on Colombia
    #4121550 - 05/02/05 01:54 AM (13 years, 1 month ago)

From: "Eric Fawcett" <fawcett@physics.utoronto.ca>

The policies of U.S. government and military leaders show that they are
operating now in a system that has been developing over the last
half-century into a mass-murder machine - they may themselves not be
psychopaths [though one wonders about Albright and Kissinger], but the
system demands that they act as though they were.

We know about the ongoing genocide in Iraq committed by the USA and its
cronies on the Security Council of the U.N,, principally the UK, and by
their client states, e.g., the genocide of the Kurds by Turkey using U.S.
arms (and before the Gulf War by Iraq itself!). There are MANY other
cases well-documented, but NEVER revealed in the mainstream media in North
America - in Latin America, SE Asia, Africa, Indonesia...

THe most egregious ongoing case of a country suffering mass-murders
supported by U.S. economic and military "aid" and "advisers" in its
so-called drug-wars is Colombia. The report below shows that the USA is
preparing to add ferocious biological weapons to the arsenals of the
para-military fighting their war against the campesinos - they learned in
Vietnam not to put their own "boys" in danger, so when the USA commits
direct aggression it does so by bombing from 15,000' as in Yugoslavia.

I have appended the record of Chemical and Biological warfare waged by the
USA since 1945, an horrific record (including lethal "tests" on its own

--How can we stop the sole superpower from reckless use of these terrible
weapons (and one dreads the day when they might use nuclear weapons - they
came close MANY times in the Cold War and are now ready to target
majority-world population centres - the Theatre Missile Defence system)?

--How can we break through the barrier of silence in the mainstream media
generated by "Manufacturing Consent" as so well described by Noam Chomsky
and Edward Herman in the book with that title?

The need is urgent, not only for humanitarian reasons (where is the
Canadian government with its "Human Security" program?), but because we
are ALL in grave danger from the multiple assaults on the human race that
threaten its very survival - we cannot afford to squander the vast
resources of the wealthiest countries in activities that exacerbate these
threats, and do nothing to solve the real problems.

US Prepares To Spray Genetically-Modified Herbicides On Colombians
by Ed Vuillamy in New York

Published on Sunday, July 2, 2000 in the London Observer

A torrent of potentially lethal herbicide is set to be unleashed across
great swaths of Colombia as part of a new US aid package which was finally
approved by Congress last week. A hidden and undebated condition of the
$1.6 billion package - meant to finance the Colombian government's fight
against the now overlapping forces of guerrilla rebels and narco-cartels -
is a plan for military aircraft to spray the country's coca-growing areas.

The scheme echoes the infamous defoliation of Vietnam because the plan
involves a mycoherbicide called Fusarium EN-4. The Fusarium fungus is the
root for many of the chemical weapons developed by the US, the Soviet
Union, Britain, Israel, France and Iraq.

Mycotoxicologist Jeremy Bigwood - working with a fellowship grant to carry
out research into Fusarium derivatives used in biological warfare told.
The Observer that the use of the fungus in Colombia would damage crops
other than cocaine, and develop mutations that could lethally affect
humans with immune deficiencies.

Fusarium works by infecting crops with a soil-borne mould which secretes
toxins into their roots, which then putrefy and dissolve the plants'
cells, killing them or - worse still - affecting the animals or humans who
feed off them. During the late 1980s, a mystery epidemic of Fusarium
suddenly attacked a coca-growing area of Peru.

Bigwood was working as a photo-journalist and teamed up with a Latin
American expert, Sharon Stevenson, to publish an article in the Miami
Herald detailing extensive damage to other crops than coca in the Peruvian
valley. Ruined peasants said they had seen helicopters spraying a brownish
smoke across the fields, but it remains a mystery whether the Fusarium
epidemic was an experiment by the US and Peruvian authorities, as Bigwood
and Stevenson suspected.

Fusarium next emerged in 1999 when Colonel Jim McDonough - a former
colleague of White House drug czar General Barry McCaffrey, now in charge
of the present Colombian operation - was hired by Governor Jeb Bush to run
the Florida anti-drug office. He proposed to spray the fungus's EN-4
strain on the state's copious marijuana crops. His adviser in the scheme
was Dr David Sands, now a professor at the University of Montana in
Bozeman, who had extracted the strain for the US Department of

The plan was scotched when the head of Florida's Department of
Environmental Protection, Dr David Struhs, wrote a letter to the colonel
dated 6 April 1999, saying that the 'mutagenicity' of the fungus 'was by
far the most disturbing factor in attempting to use a Fusarium species as
a herbicide.

It is difficult if not impossible to control the spread of the Fusarium
species,' he wrote. 'The mutated fungi can cause disease in a large number
of crops including tomatoes, peppers, flowers, corn and vines'. He added
that the mutated genus could stay in the ground for 40 years.

During research for his lecture, Bigwood traced Sands to Colombia where he
was an executive with Agricultural and Biological Control, a company which
markets the fungus. He visited scientists to tell them about EN-4, and -
according to the same scientists' accounts to Bigwood - instructed them
not to talk to the press.

The government's 'fumigation' of coca-growing areas of Colombia had been
continuing for some time on a small scale, with Indians in the high Andean
villages complaining of nausea, rashes and stomach problems after the
spray-planes had swooped over. They have also damaged legitimate crops,
thereby undermining government efforts to support farmers who have
renounced poppy and coca growing.

The agent used in these cases was Glyphosate, marketed by the Monsanto
company (famous for GM foods) as 'Roundup'. Monsanto had been forced by a
court case in New York to withdraw claims that the product was 'safe,
non-toxic and harmless'.

The limited spraying programme did nothing to curb the mass production of
either cocaine or heroin. Official sources fear even if the forthcoming
programme were to wipe out a third of the drug, that would send the price
of the remaining two-thirds 'through the ceiling'.

US government researchers, says Bigwood, initially insisted that the EN-4
strain was 'species specific', designed to attack only the Erythroxylum
genus in a coca plant. But, he says, there are 200 other plant species
within that genus which do not contain coca and could therefore be
affected and destroyed. Even this does not fully define the threat to
other crops because, says Bigwood, 'it mutates into another organism,
capable of attacking another plant. The protagonists of Fusarium can then
hide behind the fact that when it attacks something else, it has become
something else.'

Bigwood's greatest concern is with the potential effect not on other crops
than coca, but on humans. Among the Colombian scientists who met with
Sands was Eduardo Posada, president of the Colombian Centre for
International Physics, who found Fusarium to be 'highly toxic'. His data
found that the mortality rate among hospital patients who were
immune-deficient and in-fected by the fungus was 76 per cent.

'To apply a mycoherbicide from the air that has been associated with a 76
per cent kill rate of hospitalised human patients would be tantamount to
biological warfare', he said.

Germ War: The US Record 1945 -1996
[I have deleted for brevity the US Record before 1945; the full article
is available on request, or sfp-125 if you keep these mailings]

At the close of World War II, the US Army put on its payroll, Dr. Shiro
Ishii, the head of the Imperial Army of Japan's bio-warfare unit. Dr.
Ishii had deployed a wide range of biological and chemical agents against
Chinese and Allied troops. He also operated a large research center in
Manchuria, where he conducted bio-weapons experiments on Chinese, Russian
and American prisoners of war. Ishii infected prisoners with tetanus; gave
them typhoid- laced tomatoes; developed plague-infected fleas; infected
women with syphilis; performed dissections on live prisoners; and exploded
germ bombs over dozens of men tied to stakes. In a deal hatched by Gen.
Douglas MacArthur, Ishii turned over more than 10,000 pages of his
"research findings" to the US Army, avoided prosecution for war crimes and
was invited to lecture at Ft. Detrick, the US Army bio-weapons center in
Frederick, Maryland.
In 1950 the US Navy sprayed large quantities of serratia marcescens, a
bacteriological agent, over San Francisco, promoting an outbreak of
pneumonia-like illnesses and causing the death of at least one man, Ed
A year later, Chinese Premier Chou En-lai charged that the US military
and the CIA had used bio-agents against North Korea and China. Chou
produced statements from 25 US prisoners of war backing him his claims
that the US had dropped anthrax contaminated feathers, mosquitoes and
fleas carrying Yellow Fever and propaganda leaflets spiked with cholera
over Manchuria and North Korea.
From 1950 through 1953, the US Army released chemical clouds over six
US and Canadian cities. The tests were designed to test dispersal patterns
of chemical weapons. Army records noted that the compounds used over
Winnipeg, Canada, where there were numerous reports of respiratory
illnesses, involved cadmium, a highly toxic chemical.
In 1951 the US Army secretly contaminated the Norfolk Naval Supply
Center in Virginia with infectious bacteria. One type was chosen because
blacks were believed to be more susceptible than whites. A similar
experiment was undertaken later that year at Washington, DC's National
Airport. The bacteria was later linked to food and blood poisoning and
respiratory problems.
Savannah, Georgia and Avon Park, Florida were the targets of repeated
Army bio-weapons experiments in 1956 and 1957. Army CBW researchers
released millions of mosquitoes on the two towns in order to test the
ability of insects to carry and deliver yellow fever and dengue fever.
Hundreds of residents fell ill, suffering from fevers, respiratory
distress, stillbirths, encephalitis and typhoid. Army researchers
disguised themselves as public health workers in order photograph and test
the victims. Several deaths were reported.
In 1965 the US Army and the Dow Chemical Company injected dioxin into
70 prisoners (most of them black) at the Holmesburg State Prison in
Pennsylvania. The prisoners developed severe lesions which went untreated
for seven months. A year later, the US Army set about the most ambitious
chemical warfare operation in history.
From 1966 to 1972, the United States dumped more than 12 million
gallons of Agent Orange (a dioxin-powered herbicide) over about 4.5
million acres of South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The government of
Vietnam estimate the civilian casualties from Agent Orange at more than
500,000. The legacy continues with high levels of birth defects in areas
that were saturated with the chemical. Tens of thousands of US soldiers
were also the victims of Agent Orange.
In a still classified experiment, the US Army sprayed an unknown
bacterial agent in the New York Subway system in 1966. It is not known if
the test caused any illnesses.
A year later, the CIA placed a chemical substance in the drinking water
supply of the Food and Drug Administration headquarters in Washington, DC.
The test was designed to see if it was possible to poison drinking water
with LSD or other incapacitating agents.
In 1969, Dr. D.M. McArtor, the deputy director for Research and
Technology for the Department of Defense, asked Congress to appropriate
$10 million for the development of a synthetic biological agent that would
be resistant "to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we
depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease".
In 1971 the first documented cases of swine fever in the western
hemisphere showed up in Cuba. A CIA agent later admitted that he had been
instructed to deliver the virus to Cuban exiles in Panama, who carried the
virus into Cuba in March of 1991. This astounding admission received scant
attention in the US press.
In 1980, hundreds of Haitian men, who had been locked up in detention
camps in Miami and Puerto Rico, developed gynecomasia after receiving
"hormone" shots from US doctors. Gynecomasia is a condition causing males
to develop full-sized female breasts.
In 1981, Fidel Castro blamed an outbreak of dengue fever in Cuba on the
CIA. The fever killed 188 people, including 88 children. In 1988, a Cuban
exile leader named Eduardo Arocena admitted "bringing some germs" into
Cuba in 1980.
Four years later an epidemic of dengue fever struck Managua, Nicaragua.
Nearly 50,000 people came down with the fever and dozens died. This was
the first outbreak of the disease in Nicaragua. It occurred at the height
of the CIA's war against the Sandinista government and followed a series
of low-level "reconnaissance" flights over the capital city.
In 1996, the Cuba government again accused the US of engaging in
"biological aggression". This time it involved an outbreak of thrips
palmi, an insect that kills potato crops, palm trees and other vegetation.
Thrips first showed up in Cuba on December 12, 1996, following low-level
flights over the island by US government spray planes. The US has been
unable to quash a United Nations investigation of the incident that is now
At the close of the Gulf War, the US Army exploded an Iraqi chemical
weapons depot at Kamashiya. In 1996, the Department of Defense finally
admitted that more than 20,000 US troops were exposed to VX and sarin
nerve agents as a result of the US operation at Kamashiya. This may be one
cause of Gulf War Illness, another cause is certainly the experimental
vaccines unwittingly given to more than 100,000 US troops.


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Re: USA prepares to wage biological warfare on Colombia [Re: LSDempire]
    #4594254 - 08/29/05 05:32 AM (12 years, 9 months ago)

Biological Warfare in the War on Drugs

United Nations Pulls Out of Plans to Use Anti-Drug Biological Weapons in South America

International drug policy is shifting towards an aggressive strategy of reduction of supply of illicit drugs. Instead of emphasizing work to reduce demand, more and more efforts and resources are being allocated to forced eradication of drug producing crops. Tools favored by countries that promote eradication are chemical fumigation, which has recently intensified in several drug producing countries and, more recently, the introduction of biological eradication agents.

The United States is the political force behind the use of biological weapons to eradicate drug crops and has undertaken programs to identify, test and deploy microbial agents to kill marijuana, opium poppy and coca. Several candidate pathogens have identified and developed, including use of genetic engineering in laboratory work to create microbial strains with enhanced virulence. Part of the research and field testing in this program is being conducted, with US encouragement and financial support, through the United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP). Despite high-level attempts to further "internationalize" support for this research, only the United Kingdom has agreed to back the US biological eradication idea with money.

Scientists in a former Soviet biological warfare plant in Uzbekistan are trying to perfect the Pleospora fungus that kills the opium poppy - source of the world's illegal heroin supply. Although the UNDCP is fronting the fungus project, it is the Americans who are the real sponsors with the British making a ?100,000 contribution. No other country has been persuaded to contribute to the programme.

According to a former UNDCP official interviewed by BBC Panorama, there had been discussions within the UNDCP where "at one point it was seriously considered trying to get the Afghan government in exile in Islamabad to agree to the application of the fungus." Confidential documents acquired by Panorama from the UNDCP office in Vienna highlight the UN's own fears about the project they are fronting. They concede the fungus may be difficult to contain once released, and that there remains a very 'remote possibility' that the fungus will affect other species and may even 'transform or mutate'. While the US and UNDCP plan contemplates the use of biological weapons for eradication of narcotic crops globally, Colombia is currently the major focus of attention because of intense political pressure from the US for it to deploy the agents as part of President Pastrana's "Plan Colombia". The US Congress conditioned a US 1.3 billion dollar package of mainly military aid on Colombia's agreement to field test biological weapons for use in the counterinsurgency war, which is focused on the Putumayo region bordering Ecuador and upstream from Brazil and Peru.

The main organism that has captured media attention and promoted by the United States is a coca-killing strain of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The idea to use this organism came originally from the US Central Intelligence Agency, which passed off research and development to the US Department of Agriculture. There are, however, many other species in the US arsenal that could be used, including insects and viruses that have been investigated by US government scientists.

Publicity surrounding the US plan to use biological eradication agents provoked deep concern in the region - particularly Ecuador and Brazil; but also Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela - as well as dissent within the Colombian government. This concern has resulted in legal bans on the Fusarium agent Ecuador and Peru as well as repeated, but ambiguous, denials from the Colombian President and Environment Minister that the Fusarium would be allowed. Regional concern recently resulted in the adoption of a joint position of Andean Environment Ministers rejecting one strain of Fusarium oxysporum.


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Re: USA prepares to wage biological warfare on Colombia [Re: LSDempire]
    #4594391 - 08/29/05 09:28 AM (12 years, 9 months ago)

Now that this thread has been moved to the "Drug War Arena" it will quickly die.

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Re: USA prepares to wage biological warfare on Colombia [Re: LSDempire]
    #4866905 - 10/29/05 01:57 PM (12 years, 7 months ago)

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Re: USA prepares to wage biological warfare on Colombia [Re: Los_Pepes]
    #4866913 - 10/29/05 02:01 PM (12 years, 7 months ago)

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General Interest >> Political Discussion >> Drug Policy Reform

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