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Offlinejc_illenium
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what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it.
    #3768324 - 02/11/05 09:31 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

i want to make my own high quality compost, how many ways are there?
are the ingredient generally all the same? besides dirt? i like dirt, dont get me wrong :wink:


--------------------
on my knees and burnin
my piss and moans the fuel that
set my head on fire
smell my soul its burnin


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Offlinepenlight438094
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: jc_illenium]
    #3768404 - 02/11/05 09:46 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

dirt?


--------------------
Grown on Uncle Ben's 5 Minute Rice
Looks nice, Think again, read and see http://www.shroomery.org/forums/showflat.php/Cat/0/Number/3576624/an/0/page/0



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OfflineBaby_Hitler
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: jc_illenium]
    #3768483 - 02/11/05 10:00 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

Composting is serious science. You need to learn about Carbon:Nitrogen ratios, what temperature to incubate at, and how not to get anerobic spots in your compost, or when to get them and how.


Paul Stamets' first book "The Mushroom Cultivator has a good section on composting.


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Invisibleagar
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: jc_illenium] * 1
    #3768503 - 02/11/05 10:05 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

The preparation of mushroom compost is usually done in two stages. The breakdown of raw ingredients begins in Phase I. Phase I is characterized by building the raw ingredients into long rectangular piles approximately 2 m high called "ricks" or "windrows". These stacks are then periodically turned, watered, and formed. This phase is essentially a microbiological process resulting in release of energy and heat.

To favor the development of relatively high temperatures, aerobic conditions are maintained by aerating the compost during repeated mixing or turning. Temperature fluctuations during this phase are paralleled by similar changes in the numbers of thermophilic (heat loving) bacteria. These organisms start to grow rapidly and release energy in the form of heat. Thermogenesis by microorganisms initiates the heating of Phase I and also produces heat in Phase II.

The internal temperature of a compost pile can reach up to 80oC. Traditional Phase I composting lasts from 7 to 14 days depending on the condition of the material at the start and its characteristics at each turn. It is considered complete when the raw ingredients have become pliable and are capable of holding water. The odor of ammonia should be sharp, and the color of the compost is dark-brown in color, indicating caramelization and browning reactions have occurred.

It is primarily the control of the environment that distinguishes Phase II from Phase I. Typically, compost is loaded into wooden trays, which are stacked, and then placed in specially designed rooms where the environmental conditions can be manipulated. Phase II is commonly referred to as peak-heating and may be initiated by steam. Pasteurization is accomplished early in the Phase II operation and is necessary to kill many insects, nematodes, and other pests or pathogens that may be present in the compost.

Pasteurization requires air and compost temperatures of 66oC for a minimum of 2 hours. Once pasteurization is accomplished, cool air is introduced into the Phase II room to assure adequate oxygen, and to help dissipate ammonia. An important function of Phase II microbes that survive the pasteurization process is the conversion of residual ammonia into protein. Because ammonia is lethal to the mushroom mycelium, it must be removed by the end of Phase II.

A stage is reached when the available food supplies for organisms inhabiting the compost become quite limiting, hence their activity decreases. The substrate is now set for spawning, and the substrate is said to be 'selective' for the growth of mushrooms. Once the odor of ammonia is no longer present, Phase II is over and the compost temperature can be dropped to 24oC for the addition of any type grain spawn. Completed compost should have a C/N ratio of around 17 to 1, with N in the area of 2.6.

Initially raw compost will have an alkaline pH. When mature and ready for inoculation the pH should be between 7.0 and 8.0. As the mushroom and mycelium grows there will be a drop of pH from the excreted metabolites until the pH reaches 5.0-5.5 at which time mushroom production will generally cease.

CUBENSIS COMPOST
carbon / nitrogen ratio <17:1, nitrogen 2.6%, phosphorus 0.2-05%, potassium 1.5-2.5%, calcium 1.5-2.5%, available boron <2 ppm, available ammonium <10 ppm, soluble salts 3.0-5 OdS/m.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I. Guidelines for calculating pre/compost nitrogen (N) content:
Calculate the starting N content of pile to be 1.5 to 1.7% before composting. The starting N for a synthetic compost formulas may be slightly higher than the wheat straw horse manure formulas. The percent N will increase throughout Phase I composting and Phase II and at spawning time the N content of the compost should be 2.1-2.6 %.

Knowing the N and % moisture of the bulk ingredients and supplements will increase the accuracy of the calculated and finished nitrogen content. If supplements are added by volume, occasionally weigh volume added to confirm calculated formula.

At the end of Phase I and again at the end of Phase II, compost may be analyzed for N, ammonia, ash and moisture. It is important to take a representative samples, several small handfuls thoroughly mixed. When taking a sample do not shake the compost.

II. Examples of Mushroom Compost Formulas

Horse manure pile
Ingredients Wet Wt. Dry Wt. %N Tons N
Horse manure 80 T 50 T 1.2% 0.6 T
Poultry manure 7.5 T 6.0 T 4 % 0.24 T
Brewers Grains 2.5 T 2.5 T 4 % 0.1 T
Gypsum 1.25 T 1.25 T 0 0
59.75 T 0.94 ? 59.75 = 1.57%


Synthetic pile
Ingredients Wet Wt. Dry Wt. %N Tons N
Hay 15 T 12.8 T 2.0 % 0.26 T
Cobs 15 T 12.8 T 0.3 % 0.04 T
Poultry manure 3.8 T 2.4 T 4 % 0.09 T
NH4NO3 0.3 T 0.3 T 32% 0.10 T
Potash 0.3 T 0.3 T 0.0 0.00
Gypsum 0.6 T 0.6 T 0.0 0.00
29.2 T 0.49 ? 29.2 = 1.68%


Horse manure-synthetic blend
Ingredients Wet Wt. Dry Wt. %N Tons N
Horse manure 15 T 10.5 T 1.2% 0.13
Hay 7.5 T 6.3 T 1.1% 0.07
Corn Cobs 7.5 T 6.4 T 0.3% 0.02
Brewer's grains 3.0 T 3.0 T 4.0% 0.12
Poultry manure 2.0 T 2.0 T 4.5% 0.09
Urea 0.1 T 0.1 T 44.0% 0.06
Potash 0.2 T 0.2 T 0.0% 0.00
Gypsum 1.0 T 1.0 T 0.0% 0.00
29.5 0.49 ? 29.5 = 1.66%

III. Suggested watering procedures during composting:

Add as much water as possible without run off during pre-wet conditioning or during the first two turns. Avoid adding too much water early during Phase I, always be able to control moisture. Add only enough during next turn or turns to wet dry spots. Bring up compost moisture to desired water content by adequate watering just before filling.

During pre-wet it is advisable to flip or turn the compost every day. After the rick or pile is built, the compost should be turn every other day unless pile temperatures have not peaked.

IV. Changes in organic matter, carbohydrates and nitrogen during mushroom composting.

Soluble carbohydrates are simply adsorbed by the micro-organisms and it is converted into new living matter or provides energy for the cells. As these micro-organism grow energy in the form of heat is released.

As the pile heats to temperature above 150o F the activities occurring within the pile change from biological to chemical reactions. It is at these higher temperatures that carmelization takes place. Carmelization is the process where water is eliminated from the carbohydrates and carbon is concentrated. This process can be compared to boiling sap down to make maple sugar.

V. Phase I is considered complete when as soon as the raw ingredients become pliable and are capable of holding water, the odor of ammonia is sharp and the dark brown color indicates carmelization and browning reactions have occurred.

Moisture content at filling should be 70-73%. Water should drip from compost squeezed in the hand. But a good rule of thumb to follow is: the longer, greener or more coarse the compost then more moisture it can take. The shorter, more mature or dense the compost the less water it should have.

The shorter or wetter the compost, the more loosely it should be filled into the beds or trays. The longer or greener the compost, the more it can be firmed into the beds. Attempt to fill uniformly in both depth and compaction. Edges or sideboards should be packed slightly tighter, whereas the center should remain looser.

VI. Phase II composting has two objectives:

Pasteurization - elimination of undesirable insect pest, microbes and pathogens.

Conditioning - Creation of specific food for the mushroom and creating a selective and suppressive compost to favor the growth of the mushroom.
VII. Insure adequate ventilation during Phase II. When in doubt, ventilate. A flame should be burn at all times.

The higher the nitrogen content of compost, the greener the compost or the more dry weight at filling time, the greater the ventilation required. When outside temperature is high as in summer or early fall, more ventilation is required than when Phase II occurs during the cold winter weather. This is especially important when the grower does not have a forced air ventilation system.

VIII. During Phase II keep compost in the temperature range where microorganisms grow best (115-140o F).

Microbes convert ammonia and ammonia containing salts into protein and other nitrogen compounds the mushroom uses for food. The growth of these microbes depends on having the available food, adequate moisture, sufficient oxygen and suitable temperature. A shortage of one of these requirements will limit growth and often results in incomplete conditioning.

IX. Heat up (pasteurization) for insect kill early in Phase II (perhaps 1-4 days after filling) so as to avoid a second heating cycle of the compost.

A good indication that the compost is ready to pasteurized, is the subsiding of microbial activity, which is indicated by a decrease in compost temperature at the same air temperature.

X. After pasteurization slowly lower compost through the temperature ranges of the microorganisms. A general rule is to lower compost temperature no more than 4-5o F. per day.

Provided that enough food, water and oxygen the microbes will continue to grow. Different microbes use different compounds and grow at different temperatures. Therefore it is important to make sure all areas of the beds and room gradually drop through all temperatures ranges.

Thermophillic fungi grow at lower temperatures and are important because they are able to grow into denser areas of compost.

XI. Composting is considered compete when no trace of ammonia odor can be detected and the compost has a uniform flecking of white colonies of actinomycetes, called fire-fang. The N content on a dry wt. basis should be in the range of 2.0 to 2.6.


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Edited by agar (02/11/05 10:11 PM)


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Offlinejc_illenium
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Registered: 01/21/05
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: agar]
    #3768535 - 02/11/05 10:11 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

nevermind :samurai:


--------------------
on my knees and burnin
my piss and moans the fuel that
set my head on fire
smell my soul its burnin


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Offlinepenlight438094
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: jc_illenium]
    #3768624 - 02/11/05 10:28 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

i love it when agar does that :thumbup:


--------------------
Grown on Uncle Ben's 5 Minute Rice
Looks nice, Think again, read and see http://www.shroomery.org/forums/showflat.php/Cat/0/Number/3576624/an/0/page/0



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Offlinejc_illenium
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: penlight438094]
    #3768819 - 02/11/05 11:18 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

where did you get that..im gonna kill you lloyd.im gonna throw this damn curse, right in that damn pond! dont do anything foolish harry. FOOLISH! FOOLISH LLOYD! EGHGHGH HARRY! YOUR HANDS ARE FREEZING>


--------------------
on my knees and burnin
my piss and moans the fuel that
set my head on fire
smell my soul its burnin


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OfflineBaby_Hitler
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: Baby_Hitler]
    #3768825 - 02/11/05 11:19 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

That's what you call "Advanced".


For a simpler answer, you might try the Mushroom Cultivation forum.

I looked, and couldn't find a good thread on composting small amounts (less than a cubic yard).

I'd like to have one for the archives. If anyone knows of one, please let me know.


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InvisibleRoadkill
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: agar]
    #3769798 - 02/12/05 03:48 AM (11 years, 9 months ago)

Bro,

I think you scared him off from trying to make his own compost.

Nice post!~

lolzz


--------------------
Laterz, Road

Who the hell you callin crazy?
You wouldn't know what crazy was if Charles Manson was eating froot loops on your front porch!


Brainiac said:
PM the names with on there names, that means they have mushrooms for sale.



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OfflineBaby_Hitler
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: Roadkill]
    #3770792 - 02/12/05 02:13 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

We need a good recipe, or set of guidelines for making compost that starts out:

"First... get a bucket."


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OfflineRRhoads
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. *DELETED* [Re: Baby_Hitler]
    #3770827 - 02/12/05 02:30 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

Post deleted by RRhoads

Reason for deletion: '



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OfflineBaby_Hitler
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: RRhoads]
    #3770881 - 02/12/05 02:45 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

Life is like a bag of store bought compost...


You just never know what you're gonna get.


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Offlinejc_illenium
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: Baby_Hitler]
    #3770915 - 02/12/05 02:57 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

and then...
would you like fries with that?


--------------------
on my knees and burnin
my piss and moans the fuel that
set my head on fire
smell my soul its burnin


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Offlinejc_illenium
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: jc_illenium]
    #3770927 - 02/12/05 03:00 PM (11 years, 9 months ago)

hows the compost from shroomeries sponsor?


--------------------
on my knees and burnin
my piss and moans the fuel that
set my head on fire
smell my soul its burnin


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OfflineDoidleTheDigger
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: jc_illenium]
    #9193924 - 11/06/08 10:20 AM (8 years, 1 month ago)

i love how every one loves the guy who has time to text out several parts of the mushroom cultivator... sum one shud just make a pdf and put it up... that way every one could know what agar knows... or atleast every little bit he just spat up


--------------------
"Git 'Er Done!"
"the sooner you start the sooner you get"
"if i ever hear you tell someone else ill stab you"
All of my posts are fictional


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Offlinenenl
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: DoidleTheDigger]
    #9193928 - 11/06/08 10:21 AM (8 years, 1 month ago)

I love the guy that bumps a 3 year old post :smile:


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hehe


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InvisibleCheeWiz
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Re: what is mushroom compost made of, and how can i make it. [Re: nenl] * 1
    #9194959 - 11/06/08 01:52 PM (8 years, 1 month ago)

Hi: JC Illenium don't make to much of a big thing of making a compost substrate. All you need is some straw (wheat or rice work well), H-poo (you want poo from horses that have a fair amount of straw in there diet. It's the bacteria endospores that's found in the straw that survives digestion you're after, these are the good guys.), sources of nitrogen like urea, cotton seed meal, poultry litter, ext. and a long kitchen thermometer. 

I do about a third of a bale of wheat straw at a time and use an old garden waste chopper to cut it up into 1"to 3" pieces, I also run about two gallons by measure of H-poo thought the chopper to. Mix and add a couple of hands full of urea (two cups), wet the pile down and keep moist but not to the point of run off. In a few days to a week you will find that the pile is starting to heat up and you will want to start taking daily temperature reading and noting them. As long as there is enough nitrogen in the pile it will stay hot, when you find that the temperature starts to drop it's time to turn the pile and add some more nitrogen to it with some lime/gypsum (calcium carbonate, 2 cups, gypsum 1 cup) this will bring the PH back up so you're not inhabiting growth of the bacteria with to low of a PH, plus adds calcium that will be need by the mushroom run later. After about three to four weeks of doing the above the straw will take on a carmel corn look, this is what your after. At this point I add about 5% crushed whole cotton seeds (I order this from a feed store and this is not the ground cotton seed meal you buy at a garden store which has had all its oil removed.) by volume as a source of long term nutrients and fatty acids and compost for another five days. I then test the PH to make sure I'm around 7.5 and adjust as needed. It's good to go now.

The same can be done with those mini bales sold at the craft stores this time of year. Just down size it and cut up the straw and shred the H-poo by hand .


Edited by CheeWiz (11/06/08 05:10 PM)


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