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Offlineivi
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Pluteus salicinus
    #3417174 - 11/27/04 09:07 PM (12 years, 14 days ago)

Has anyone of You ever encountered or experimented with these species? I will be especially happy to hear from someone in the northern latitudes of Europe, but any comments will be greatly appreciated.

Here's what I have gathered so far from Paul Stamets, David Arora and various internet resources:

Genus Pluteus



These pinkish-spored mushrooms have a central ringless stem that can be broken away from the cap with ease, and close gills, free at maturity. Being wood decomposers they grow almost exclusively on wood. The wood, however, may be buried or decomposed, making the mushrooms appear terrestrial. Most species have soft flesh and they decay rapidly. They are segregated primarily on microscopic features such as structure of the cap cuticle and the the shape of cystidia (sterile cells on the gills). Worldwide, there are over 100 members in this genus. Edibility of the five inactive Pluteus species described in David Arora's Mushrooms Demystified is either edible and good (P. petasatus, P. cervinus, P. lutescens) or unknown (P. longistriatus, P. flavofuligineus). Pluteus is frequently encountered but rarely abundant. They are most often confused with the pinkish, angular spored Entolomataceae, which are usually terrestrial with gills attached to the stem.


Pluteus salicinus
(other species from genus Pluteus, such as P. cyanopus, P. villosus and P. glaucus (from Brazil) have been reported to contain traces of psilocybin, psilocin and/or baeocystin)



Cap: 3-7 cm broad, convex to broadly convex, expanding with age to broadly convex to plane. Gray to gray greenish, to blueish gray, darker towards the disc. Surface smooth to finely scaly near the center. Gills: Free, not attached. Pallid to cream, soon pinkish to salmon coloured at spore maturity. Stem: 40-100 mm long by 2-6 mm thick. White to grayish green, often with bluish tones. Flesh often bruising bluish where injured, especially near the base. Base of stem bruising bluish. Microscopic features: Spores pinkish in deposit, smooth, ellipsoid to egg shaped, 7-8.5 by 5-6 u. Pleurocystidia fusiform to lageniform, with or without hooked ends, 58-90 by 10-22 u and with an apex 5-10 u thick. Cheilocystidia pear shaped to clavate to cylindrical or slightly lageniform, 30-85 by 8-20 u. Habit, habitat, and distribution: Widely distributed across the United States, the British Isles, and Northern Europe. This mushroom is often found in deciduous woodlands in riparian habitats, typically on alder (Alnus), willow (Salix), or on their woody debris. Comments: Weakly to moderately active. Stijve and Kuyper (1985) reported 0.05-0.25% psilocybin, no psilocin, and from zero to 0.008% baeocystin. Christiansen et al. (1984) found 0.35% psilocybin and 0.011% psilocin. See also Saupe (1981) and Stijve and Bonnard (1986). The Field Guide to Mushrooms of Southern Africa by G.C.A. Van der Westhuizen and Albert Eicker (1994) lists Pluteus salicinus as edible although their description lacks any mention of a bluing reaction. This species may have races that vary in their chemical content from region to region, much in the same way as Gymnopilus spectabilis. Caution is advised.

Some photos of Pluteus salicinus






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Edited by ivi (12/14/04 11:36 AM)


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Invisibleshroomydan
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Re: Pluteus salicinus [Re: ivi]
    #3417304 - 11/27/04 09:48 PM (12 years, 14 days ago)

I find little Pluteus mushrooms like that frequently, however I have only ever found one with a blue base. It was growing from a fallen sycamore tree on the edge of a small river in Pennsylvania. The base was a deep midnight blue and the smell was distinctly psilocybian. The mushroom was very old and filled with maggots so i just left it there.

The other Plutei which I find interesting grow singly or in pairs from hard wood logs. They match the above description for Pluteus salicinus but do not blue. The smell reminds me of raw potatoes.

As far as i know there are no poisonous species of pluteus. I've been thinking about eating some of these little guys to see what happens. I suppose it's possible that a mushroom could produce psilocybin without producing psilocin. If this happened we would have and active shroom with no blue reaction.

Maybe I'll do the Ohio Pluteus experiment next summer.

Good topic ivi.


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Offlineeris
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Re: Pluteus salicinus [Re: shroomydan]
    #3417510 - 11/27/04 10:50 PM (12 years, 14 days ago)

Same here. I have a bunch of pics of Pluteus mushrooms that I found this year which resemble salicinus. They grow all over the north east it seems. None of them turn blue at all no matter how much I beat them up. I always wondered about them. They actually get pretty big. I don't have a good key to species of Pluteus unfortunately and my microscope is halfway across the country in a garage.
Many times I have not picked the Pluteus that I find because I'm out looking for edibles. I will be paying more attention to them next season.

"This species may have races that vary in their chemical content from region to region"
This could have something to do with the fact that they don't turn blue in some places... It also seems to be a complex of closely related species which would requite microscopes and solid keys to indentify.


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OfflineToxicManM
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Re: Pluteus salicinus [Re: ivi]
    #3417896 - 11/28/04 01:05 AM (12 years, 14 days ago)

Other than a bluing reaction, Pluteus salicinus is macroscopically almost identical to Pluteus cervinus, as those photos show. If you're finding Pluteus that are identical looking but don't bruise blue, the odds are that you've found Pluteus cervinus.

None of the species of Pluteus is considered poisonous, other than Pluteus salicinus, so there should be minimal risk in the genus. That, however, is with the standard idea that all wild mushrooms should be eaten well cooked. So, if you come up with a find of possible Pluteus salicinus, a small amount might be consumed the first time to see if you're going to become ill from it (assuming that you intend to eat it raw).

Things to be very sure of are that the gills are *free*, not attached, as there are species of Entoloma that are similar in appearance, and many Entolomas are very poisonous. Also, verify the spore print color - Tricholomopsis platyphylla is another similar looking species that has attached gills and a white spore print, but is also considered edible.

Happy mushrooming!


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