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Offlinesonoramo
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Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis
    #27037308 - 11/13/20 04:54 PM (14 days, 11 hours ago)

Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis

Published 29 October 2020
By: Klára Gotvaldová, Kateřina Hájková, Jan Borovička, Radek Jurok, Petra Cihlářová, Martin Kuchař

https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2950


Academic citation: Gotvaldová, Klára, Kateřina Hájková, Jan Borovička, Radek Jurok, Petra Cihlářová, and Martin Kuchař. "Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis." Drug Testing and Analysis (2020).

What's posted below is the publicly available abstract. Does anyone (student? faculty?) have access to the full article through their institutional library?

This abstract has some intriguing results:

  • Caps are more potent than stipes, but still less than fruit-to-fruit variation
  • Best long-term storage of mushrooms to maintain potency is dry at room temperature and total darkness




Psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin, norbaeocystin, and aeruginascin are tryptamines structurally similar to the neurotransmitter serotonin. Psilocybin and its pharmacologically active metabolite psilocin in particular are known for their psychoactive effects. These substances typically occur in most species of the genus Psilocybe (Fungi, Strophariaceae). Even the sclerotia of some of these fungi known as “magic truffles” are of growing interest in microdosing due to them improving cognitive function studies. In addition to microdosing studies, psilocybin has also been applied in clinical studies, but only its pure form has been administrated so far. Moreover, the determination of tryptamine alkaloids is used in forensic analysis.

In this study, freshly cultivated fruit bodies of Psilocybe cubensis were used for monitoring stability (including storage and processing conditions of fruiting bodies). Furthermore, mycelium and the individual parts of the fruiting bodies (caps, stipes, and basidiospores) were also examined. The concentration of tryptamines in final extracts was analyzed using ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. No tryptamines were detected in the basidiospores, and only psilocin was present at 0.47 wt.% in the mycelium. The stipes contained approximately half the amount of tryptamine alkaloids (0.52 wt.%) than the caps (1.03 wt.%); however, these results were not statistically significant, as the concentration of tryptamines in individual fruiting bodies is highly variable. The storage conditions showed that the highest degradation of tryptamines was seen in fresh mushrooms stored at −80°C, and the lowest decay was seen in dried biomass stored in the dark at room temperature.


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Invisiblebreeg89
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: sonoramo]
    #27037512 - 11/13/20 07:16 PM (14 days, 9 hours ago)

Good to see data backing up dry storage at room temp.


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InvisiblebodhisattaM
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: breeg89]
    #27038251 - 11/14/20 07:32 AM (13 days, 21 hours ago)

Anyone actually read that study. The methodology seems pretty weak and I would have a hard time correlating their results to what real world growers do. I didn't find it particularly interesting at all actually


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Offlinejgotti
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: sonoramo]
    #27038438 - 11/14/20 10:00 AM (13 days, 18 hours ago)

The full paper can be found here:

https://sci-hub.se/10.1002/dta.2950


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Offlinejgotti
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: sonoramo]
    #27038464 - 11/14/20 10:23 AM (13 days, 18 hours ago)

I only skimmed the study, but they used only a small amount of mushrooms in their analysis, which is unfortunate. I did not see where they described their actual drying method, but it appears that no heat was used, as they said the mushrooms were dried "in the dark at room temperature". Perhaps a fan was used. It would have been nice had they compared different drying methods, since this is sometimes debated on this forum.

I was a little surprised they found as much degradation as they did. Personally, I'm unable to tell the difference (in terms of psychoactive effects) from dried mushrooms that have been consumed shortly after drying vs. being consumed, say, 3 months after drying. I always felt that any loss of potency was negligible.


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OnlineInnerWisdom
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: jgotti]
    #27038499 - 11/14/20 10:46 AM (13 days, 18 hours ago)

I haven't noticed any potency loss from dried specimens that are half a year old, or 4 months old, but I have from frozen fresh mushroom tea, which was maybe 1/4th of potency after the same 6 month period give or take.


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Invisiblebreeg89
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: InnerWisdom]
    #27038653 - 11/14/20 12:44 PM (13 days, 16 hours ago)

I wonder how stability of the dried powder they analyze compares to just storing whole dried mushrooms. It seems like alkaloids would be more stable in whole, intact mushrooms.


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Offlinesonoramo
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: breeg89]
    #27038682 - 11/14/20 01:18 PM (13 days, 15 hours ago)

Quote:

breeg89 said:
I wonder how stability of the dried powder they analyze compares to just storing whole dried mushrooms. It seems like alkaloids would be more stable in whole, intact mushrooms.




I'm just starting to read the article. Their result with chopped vs. whole mushrooms suggests that it's best to dry the mushrooms as nearly intact as will fit the dehydrator. Once they are dried, it's a question of what causes degradation. If O2 concentration drives degradation, grinding the dried mushrooms to a powder and storing the powder in a sealed container would raise the storage density. To me it seems likely that higher volume density of mushrooms would be a good thing, so that whatever process degrades the active material uses up its reagents more quickly, whether the limiting reagent is O2 or H2O.


Edited by sonoramo (11/14/20 01:18 PM)


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Offlinesonoramo
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: jgotti]
    #27038687 - 11/14/20 01:20 PM (13 days, 15 hours ago)

Quote:

jgotti said:
The full paper can be found here:

https://sci-hub.se/10.1002/dta.2950




Thank you for posting that link! I wasn't aware that they could unlock some of the science-paper paywalls.


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Invisibleopenmind
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: InnerWisdom]
    #27039079 - 11/14/20 05:07 PM (13 days, 11 hours ago)

Quote:

InnerWisdom said:
I haven't noticed any potency loss from dried specimens that are half a year old, or 4 months old, but I have from frozen fresh mushroom tea, which was maybe 1/4th of potency after the same 6 month period give or take.





From my own experience/observations...


Once they are dry I don't really notice much of a potency loss over the course of 6 months after they've been a dry, by a year perhaps slightly sometimes. I ate some mushrooms last month and I harvested those in Dec of last year, so damn near a year old, and they absolutely did the trick like usual at the dose I usually take. I'm not sure the oldest mushrooms that I've ate, likely around 12 to 18 months old, I honestly can't remember off the top of my head or what the potency was like. They seem to preserve well once dry.

But I do notice a difference in potency when eating them totally fresh not long after picking them versus eating them after they've been dried (taking equivalent doses). Not just potency but the experience over all feels "richer" with more depth when I eat them totally fresh. I'm assuming this might be caused by the fresh mushrooms containing higher amounts of psilocin (which doesn't need to go thru first pass metabolism to become active) and/or other alkaloids/active components that don't preserve well after drying.

Just to note...The species I'm working with is Psilocybe Cyanescens & psilocybe allenii, picked from patches around my area. For drying, the last couple years I've just used a small heater/fan blowing into a paper bag with layers of cardboard that the mushrooms sit on. Basically a crude/ghetto rigged dehydrator. Takes about 24 hours for em' to be crispy dry. And they're stored in jars....years prior I just had a fan on em' and it took 2 to 3 days or more to dry, I feel there was def more potency loss that way but it still didn't take much of em' when I ate em' through out the year. I'll be getting a proper dehydrator this time around.


I've think I've read/heard some things somewhere about the heat during drying (from a dehydrator) playing a role in breaking down some enzymes within the mushrooms, and those enzymes will speed up the decomposition of the actives if they are still present in the mushrooms(?)...So some heat during drying actually helps with preserving them since it breaks down those enzymes(?).


Interesting to hear you had a potency loss from fresh frozen tea in that short of time...So you basically just made tea with fresh mushrooms & hot water, then froze the tea soon after? Then after 6 months it was thawed out and there was that much of a potency lost?






-OM

.


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OfflineFractal420
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Re: Stability of psilocybin and its four analogs in the biomass of the psychotropic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis [Re: openmind]
    #27040277 - 11/15/20 11:13 AM (12 days, 17 hours ago)

Dry storage in mason jars for years and years.

Tea seemingly can lose potency, but I don’t think the fruit do after becoming dry.

Btw been hearing reports for years and years of no potency loss, usually ever, if preserved correctly. Most people put em in mason jars in the fridge when I was learning my stuff

-80 C is insanely fucking cold

I’ve never had a problem with like light refrigeration

But do not refrigerate: pure Psilo analogs, including the 4aco squad. It’s the moisture that fucks things up when dealing with those fumarates

The HCL seems to not have any shelf life issues at all. And I had read it would degrade faster at the time


--------------------
Dreaming of That face again.
It's bright and blue and shimmering.
Grinning wide
And comforting me with it's three warm and wild eyes.

Prying open MY third eye



Edited by Fractal420 (11/15/20 11:25 AM)


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