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Invisiblegoatchild
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Registered: 10/31/19
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Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved
    #26977282 - 10/09/20 06:29 PM (15 days, 9 hours ago)

Maybe this as been posted. Maybe not.
If so delete if not read it:

https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/mystery-of-why-magic-mushrooms-go-blue-solved/4010870.article

Quote:



Why do magic mushrooms turn blue when they are cut? Chemists have now unravelled this decade-old mystery, in the process revealing that the dark blue pigments at the centre of the mystery are similar to indigo, the dye used to produce blue jeans.

Magic mushrooms or Psilocybe are fungi producing the psychotropic compounds psilocybin and psilocin. They are one of several species that instantly develop a blue coloration when they are cut or bruised. In Boletales mushrooms, oxidised gyrocyanin or pulvinic acid are the source of the blue colour. But that isn’t the case in Psilocybe mushrooms.

Previous research had established that the blue colour was caused by oxidised psilocybin, but the nature of the pigment and the biochemical pathway producing it had remained elusive.

Dirk Hoffmeister from the Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Germany and his team had been working with Psilocybe cubensis for several years. Growing the mushrooms in their lab, they had seen the mysterious blueing reaction countless times. ‘We were just curious and tried to solve a phenomenon that’s been known for decades,’ Hoffmeister says.

But when they tried to extract and purify the blue compound, they failed. ‘It puzzled and challenged us,’ says Hoffmeister. ‘This is where previous researchers – very talented people – had to give up, and that’s where we went one step further with unconventional analytical methods.’

The researchers dug deep into the analytical toolbox with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, Maldi mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, as well as time-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to observe the compounds as they form.

The pigment, as it turns out, is not just a single compound but a complex mixture of linked psilocybin oxidation products. Most of them are quinoid psilocyl oligomers – compounds not unlike indigo, a deep blue pigment used to dye jeans. ‘[The blue compounds and indigo] share structural similarities in the indole core, and in both the basis for the colour is a quinoid,’ says the study’s lead author Claudius Lenz.

All of the six mushroom pigments the team identified are products of a cascade reaction starting with psilocybin. A phosphatase enzyme takes off its phosphate group, converting it into psilocin. An oxidising laccase then creates psilocyl radicals, which combine to form C-5 coupled subunits and then further polymerise via C-7. ‘I think they did a beautiful job of showing the cascade reaction,’ says Jaclyn Winter, who studies natural product biosynthesis in bacteria and fungi at the University of Utah, US.

What exactly the blue pigments do, however, remains a mystery. ‘Our hypothesis – and we don’t have any evidence for this yet – is that it might serve a protective role, like an on-demand repellent against predators,’ says Hoffmeister. The compounds might produce reactive oxygen species, which are toxic to any insect nibbling on the mushrooms. ‘I think we’re going to see a lot of follow-up studies on the true ecological role of these molecules,’ Winter says.

Hoffmeister hopes that his study not only inspires others to study fungi from a chemistry perspective but also changes people’s mind about psilocybin. ‘Psilocybin is looked at as this illegal, recreational drug, but it has a fantastic potential as a medication for therapy resistant depression,’ he says.

Winter agrees. ‘There’s quite a few groups who are studying psilocybin, and especially because it’s been legalised in the US in various states, and because it’s in clinical trials,’ she says. ‘I think [this study] is going to have a huge impact in the field.’






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InvisiblePsicomvb
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Registered: 01/13/18
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Re: Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved [Re: goatchild]
    #26977382 - 10/09/20 07:37 PM (15 days, 8 hours ago)

That's interesting...! Their theory on why it turns blue makes sense.  I can think of quite a few examples of colors being used to deter predators in nature


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InvisibleAchuma
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Re: Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved [Re: Psicomvb]
    #26977527 - 10/09/20 09:35 PM (15 days, 6 hours ago)

That's really cool that they were able to observe the color changes as they were happening and trace the cause of each step to a different enzyme.


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Achuma's Psilocybe Extraction Pictorial


Pictured: crystalline extract derived from Psilocybe Cubensis.  See link for detailed instructions, as well as a lengthy discussion on the properties of light.


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InvisibleBlazer420
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Registered: 06/13/09
Posts: 4,224
Re: Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved [Re: Achuma]
    #26977534 - 10/09/20 09:40 PM (15 days, 6 hours ago)

Yeah cool read up


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~ I used to get high on life, until I realized life was cut with morons ~
* You need 2 wake up and smell the music! *
-We are all computer data in a materialistic world-
|Sometimes you have to lose yourself, to find anything|


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Offlinejgotti
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Re: Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved [Re: Psicomvb] * 1
    #26977595 - 10/09/20 10:26 PM (15 days, 5 hours ago)

Quote:

Psicomvb said:
That's interesting...! Their theory on why it turns blue makes sense.  I can think of quite a few examples of colors being used to deter predators in nature




Blue is not an appealing color when it comes to food, at least for humans. Except for blueberries (and related items, like blueberry pie, blueberry muffins, etc.), you generally wouldn't want to eat blue foods. A blue steak? A blue hotdog? Blue eggs? Blue soup? That's disgusting. It's just not a color that's generally considered desirable for food. So maybe the blue-ing is meant to ward off humans and other animals from harvesting/eating them.


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OfflineHolybullshit
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Re: Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved [Re: jgotti] * 1
    #26978297 - 10/10/20 12:32 PM (14 days, 15 hours ago)

That's probably due more to the fact that blue is kind of rare in nature, so there just isn't a lot of blue foods, and not any intrinsic property of the color blue.

For one thing, I want to point out that for the most part true full on genetic evolution happens first and its "purpose" is discovered later. If it imparts a breeding/survival advantage it sticks around. This is less true for epigenetics. And some evolutionary traits propagate largely by chance or occur alongside other beneficial mutations and have little affect on breeding/survival themselves.

That said, I think if the bluing had much affect on predators it would be insects or pathogens, not mammals. Bluing isn't really going to deter things with teeth considering by the time the bluing starts it will already be in their mouth. The color may even be a coincidence, and the compounds chemical and physiological properties are more important than their pigment.

Also, mushrooms are not the organism, they are a fruit body and as long as the mushroom is able to reach maturity to release spores damage to it has little affect on the organism as a whole...in fact being eaten can help spread spores.


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Invisibleopenmind
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Re: Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved [Re: Holybullshit]
    #26978473 - 10/10/20 02:39 PM (14 days, 13 hours ago)

I've had mushroom tea turn a beautiful blue color a few times, but most of the time it doesn't.....

...I've always wondered what causes some batches of tea to turn blue while most don't.



One batch of tea I made had the typical golden color....the cup I drank it out of had a tiny bit of tea left in the bottom, a few drops worth, several hours later after the trip I went to put the cup in the sink and noticed the small amount of liquid in the bottom had turned blue.

It's such a gorgeous blue color tho...Like one of the "bluest" of blues lol.





-OM

.


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Offlineshroower
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Re: Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved [Re: openmind]
    #26986421 - 10/15/20 06:15 AM (9 days, 21 hours ago)

I'm curious about the reversibility of the polymerisation. A long time ago I had a test tube with water and a Panaeolus cyanescens cap that went completely blue and after adding some vitamin C to it the water cleared up completely. I wonder if at that point the polymer was cleaved back into psilocin monomers or if it was something else.


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OfflineHolybullshit
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Re: Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved [Re: shroower]
    #26986581 - 10/15/20 09:58 AM (9 days, 18 hours ago)

Considering acids oxidize, not reduce, it almost assuredly just degraded the compounds further rather than reverting them back.


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Offlineshroower
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Re: Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved [Re: Holybullshit]
    #26987116 - 10/15/20 03:48 PM (9 days, 12 hours ago)

Quote:

Holybullshit said:
Considering acids oxidize, not reduce, it almost assuredly just degraded the compounds further rather than reverting them back.




Ascorbic acid is a strong reducing agent though and forms ascorbate when deprotonated like other reductones.


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