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Offlinekyu
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De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae
    #26612128 - 04/19/20 08:21 AM (1 month, 8 days ago)

Long story short, scientists taught yeast to produce psilly. Bad news for gmo opposers, great news for others.

I wonder how long will it take for this innovation to reach dark web mass production.

Quote:

Abstract

Psilocybin is a tryptamine-derived psychoactive alkaloid found mainly in the fungal genus Psilocybe, among others, and is the active ingredient in so-called “magic mushrooms”. Although its notoriety originates from its psychotropic properties and popular use as a recreational drug, clinical trials have recently recognized psilocybin as a promising candidate for the treatment of various psychological and neurological afflictions. In this work, we demonstrate the de novo biosynthetic production of psilocybin and related tryptamine derivatives in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of a heterologous biosynthesis pathway sourced from Psilocybe cubensis. Additionally, we achieve improved product titers by supplementing the pathway with a novel cytochrome P450 reductase from P. cubensis. Further rational engineering resulted in a final production strain producing 627 ± 140 mg/L of psilocybin and 580 ± 276 mg/L of the dephosphorylated degradation product psilocin in triplicate controlled fed-batch fermentations in minimal synthetic media. Pathway intermediates baeocystin, nor norbaeocystin as well the dephosphorylated baeocystin degradation product norpsilocin were also detected in strains engineered for psilocybin production. We also demonstrate the biosynthetic production of natural tryptamine derivative aeruginascin as well as the production of a new-to-nature tryptamine derivative N-acetyl-4-hydroxytryptamine. These results lay the foundation for the biotechnological production of psilocybin in a controlled environment for pharmaceutical applications, and provide a starting point for the biosynthetic production of other tryptamine derivatives of therapeutic relevance.





https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S109671761930401X?via%3Dihub


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Invisiblefilthyknees
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Registered: 03/08/13
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: kyu]
    #26612262 - 04/19/20 09:47 AM (1 month, 8 days ago)

I think people still will want mushroom fruits.  :shrug:


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OfflineHolybullshit
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: filthyknees]
    #26612425 - 04/19/20 10:46 AM (1 month, 8 days ago)

This is a duplicate and likely to get closed, but I don't understand why people think this GMO strain is any more likely to get into the hands of the general public or be used for clandestine production any more than the strains that produce morphine.

Also, even if it did, I imagine that unless kept strictly isolated it would become contaminated with wild yeast and the inserted genes would be bred out fairly quickly.


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OfflinePsilosopherr
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: Holybullshit]
    #26613198 - 04/19/20 05:28 PM (1 month, 8 days ago)

Quote:

Holybullshit said:
This is a duplicate and likely to get closed



For some reason this is the one subforum that see's no moderation.

Come to think of it, I don't think I've ever seen a moderator close/edit posts here. Strange because there was frequently cause for it in the past, not so much these days.


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Invisibledizzy_simmons
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: Holybullshit]
    #26613450 - 04/19/20 07:25 PM (1 month, 8 days ago)

Last I checked, there is no yeast capable of synthing morphine; there are two modified yeasts each capable of performing half of the necessary steps. And they aren't being used for production - so using that to support the notion that people wouldn't get access to it is flimsy at best.
It's also unknown whether the added genes would carry on or be extinguished, it could go either way.

But seriously, this story is still on the homepage (twice now). Check before posting puhleez.


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Edited by dizzy_simmons (04/19/20 07:26 PM)


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OfflineCorundumS
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: filthyknees]
    #26614098 - 04/20/20 01:38 AM (1 month, 7 days ago)

Quote:

filthyknees said:
I think people still will want mushroom fruits.  :shrug:



I would trip on yeast psilocybin all day. But as others have said this is definitely not going to be used by the general public


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OfflineHolybullshit
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: dizzy_simmons]
    #26614442 - 04/20/20 08:13 AM (1 month, 7 days ago)

You may be right about one step to morphine yeast, but I know they've produced modified yeast that creates an opioid precursor that cartel labs and clandestine/hobby chemists would LOVE as a starting point. And IIRC a team at Stanford created a yeast that produces hydrocodone. Thanks to a British research team piecing together the final questions of opiate synthesis by the poppy, I really don't think it'd be all that difficult for them to modify yeast to produce a plethora of opiates, I imagine they just don't feel the need to at this point and hold back as a safety measure...they've proven they can, now they aren't going any further(publicly) until they have to.

And you seem to imply this is being used for production? Is that so?

How often do you see schedule I/II drugs sourced straight from a pharma manufacturing site on the market? I don't mean pressed pills in bulk, I mean pure powders straight from the lab. For most intents and purposes, never, thats how often. If it were going to "get out" it would be at this stage, the research stage.

And something tells me they didn't produce a modified strain of yeast with dominant genes allowing it to produce powerful hallucinogenic schedule I drugs...just in the hopes that it never finds its way to the wild, where those genes could then literally spread across the Earth...although it could make both your morning cereal and happy hour a whole lot more exciting.


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Invisibledizzy_simmons
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: Holybullshit]
    #26615536 - 04/20/20 04:23 PM (1 month, 7 days ago)

Quote:

Holybullshit said:
And you seem to imply this is being used for production? Is that so?





I'm not sure what you're trying to say here. My exact words were:
Quote:

dizzy_simmons said:
they aren't being used for production



Which AFAIK applies to all of the yeasts so far mentioned in this thread.


Quote:

Holybullshit said:
If it were going to "get out" it would be at this stage, the research stage.




I really don't think so. The group with access to this yeast consists of a *small number of scientists* (to whom the release could easily be traced back to), and their *tiny amount of samples* will have to be officially destroyed to comply with the law and with their research waiver.

If this yeast does enter production, most likely that would make psilocybin at most schedule II. Opium poppies are schedule II, as is fentanyl. I realize it's unlikely this yeast will ever be as easily attainable as either of those, but I'd argue that's more properly attributed to the ease & profitability of current methods of illicit drug production, more so than any sort of trademarking. The cartels could afford to copy this if they wanted to, it's just not worth it for them to do so for so many reasons :shrug:

Quote:

Holybullshit said:
And something tells me they didn't produce a modified strain of yeast with dominant genes allowing it to produce powerful hallucinogenic schedule I drugs...




Something tells me that isn't necessarily a factor we can 100% predict when using biochemical (I.e., biologically sourced) methods to splice & transfer genes. And again, we don't know whether this modification would make the yeast more or less fit. Psilocybin exists in other fungi for a reason, even if we don't know what that reason is.

Just my two cents.


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Edited by dizzy_simmons (04/20/20 04:26 PM)


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Offlinepolaritymind
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Registered: 10/10/16
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: dizzy_simmons]
    #26622601 - 04/23/20 05:03 PM (1 month, 4 days ago)

Quote:

dizzy_simmons said:
I really don't think so. The group with access to this yeast consists of a *small number of scientists* (to whom the release could easily be traced back to), and their *tiny amount of samples* will have to be officially destroyed to comply with the law and with their research waiver.





But as has been said before this one strain neendn't get out from this one lab but can easily be reproducd since their methods are described in their paper and also presuamby some company will actually do this on a mass scale and even possibly patent it (if the scientist havent done so) and then you will have much more opportunities where the genetics could be leaked out the lab.


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Edited by polaritymind (04/23/20 05:08 PM)


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Offlinealephdog
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Registered: 05/03/20
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: polaritymind]
    #26648394 - 05/04/20 03:36 PM (24 days, 4 hours ago)

Make one that produces Mescaline.

Address a real supply shortage.


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InvisibleCavemen

Registered: 11/21/12
Posts: 1,686
Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: alephdog]
    #26652889 - 05/06/20 02:41 PM (22 days, 5 hours ago)

make one that produces bread


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OfflineHolybullshit
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Re: De novo production of psilocybin in S. cerevisiae [Re: polaritymind]
    #26654634 - 05/07/20 10:17 AM (21 days, 10 hours ago)

Do you know a lot of people who do gene editing in their garage?


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