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InvisibleYthanA
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Mushrooms may reduce risk of cognitive decline * 2
    #25870196 - 03/12/19 06:47 PM (6 days, 18 hours ago)

Mushrooms may reduce risk of cognitive decline
news.nus.edu.sg

A team from the Department of Psychological Medicine and Department of Biochemistry at the NUS Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine has found that seniors who consume more than two standard portions of mushrooms weekly may have 50 per cent reduced odds of having mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

A portion was defined as three quarters of a cup of cooked mushrooms with an average weight of around 150 grams. Two portions would be equivalent to approximately half a plate. While the portion sizes act as a guideline, it was shown that even one small portion of mushrooms a week may still be beneficial to reduce chances of MCI.

“This correlation is surprising and encouraging. It seems that a commonly available single ingredient could have a dramatic effect on cognitive decline,” said Assistant Professor Feng Lei, who is from NUS Psychological Medicine, and the lead author of this work.

The six-year study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2017, collected data from more than 600 Chinese seniors over the age of 60 living in Singapore. The study was carried out with support from the Life Sciences Institute and the Mind Science Centre at NUS, as well as the Singapore Ministry of Health’s National Medical Research Council. The results were published online in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease on 12 March 2019.

MCI is typically viewed as the stage between the cognitive decline of normal ageing and the more serious decline of dementia. Seniors afflicted with MCI often display some form of memory loss or forgetfulness and may also show a deficit in other cognitive functions such as language, attention, and visuospatial abilities. However, the changes can be subtle, as they do not experience the disabling cognitive deficits that affect everyday life activities, which is characteristic of Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.

“People with MCI are still able to carry out their normal daily activities. So, what we had to determine in this study is whether these seniors had poorer performances on standard neuropsychologist tests than other people of the same age and education background,” explained Asst Prof Feng. “Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks that can measure the various aspects of a person’s cognitive abilities. Some of the tests we used in this study were adopted from a commonly used IQ test known as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.” 

The researchers conducted extensive interviews and tests with the senior citizens to determine an accurate diagnosis. “The interview takes into account demographic information, medical history, psychological factors, and dietary habits. A nurse will measure blood pressure, weight, height, handgrip, and walking speed. They will also do a simple screen test on cognition, depression, anxiety,” said Asst Prof Feng.

After this, a two-hour standard neuropsychological assessment was performed, along with a dementia rating. The overall results of these tests were discussed in depth with expert psychiatrists involved in the study to get a diagnostic consensus.

This correlation is surprising and encouraging. It seems that a commonly available single ingredient could have a dramatic effect on cognitive decline.

Six commonly consumed mushrooms in Singapore were referenced in the study. They were golden, oyster, shiitake and white button mushrooms, as well as dried and canned mushrooms. However, it is likely that other mushrooms not referenced would have also indicated beneficial effects.

The researchers believe the reason for the reduced prevalence of MCI in mushroom eaters may be down to a specific compound found in almost all varieties. “We’re very interested in a compound called ergothioneine (ET),” said Dr Irwin Cheah, Senior Research Fellow from NUS Biochemistry. “ET is a unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory which humans are unable to synthesise on their own. But it can be obtained from dietary sources, one of the main ones being mushrooms.”

An earlier study by the team on elderly Singaporeans revealed that plasma levels of ET in participants with MCI were significantly lower than age-matched healthy individuals. The work, which was published in the journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications in 2016, led to the belief that a deficiency in ET may be a risk factor for neurodegeneration, and increasing ET intake through mushroom consumption might possibly promote cognitive health.

Other compounds contained within mushrooms may also be advantageous for decreasing the risk of cognitive decline. Certain hericenones, erinacines, scabronines and dictyophorines may promote the synthesis of nerve growth factors. Bioactive compounds in mushrooms may also protect the brain from neurodegeneration by inhibiting production of beta amyloid and phosphorylated tau, and acetylcholinesterase.

The potential next stage of research for the team is to perform a randomised controlled trial with the pure compound of ET and other plant-based ingredients, such as L-theanine and catechins from tea leaves, to determine the efficacy of such phytonutrients in delaying cognitive decline. Such interventional studies will lead to more robust conclusions on the causal relationship. In addition, Asst Prof Feng and his team also hope to identify other dietary factors that could be associated with healthy brain ageing and reduced risk of age-related conditions in the future.


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Offlinemusiclover420
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Re: Mushrooms may reduce risk of cognitive decline [Re: Ythan]
    #25870335 - 03/12/19 08:04 PM (6 days, 17 hours ago)

Ayahuasca also has some potential neuroprotective effects: The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca:

Quote:

ayahuasca may also exhibit neuroprotective and neurorestorative qualities. Hence, it has been suggested that ayahuasca can be applied therapeutically in Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases (Samoylenko et al., 2010). Ayahuasca’s high content of bioactive materials points toward a combined mechanism of the various effect and calls for further clinical research to reveal the detailed pharmacology of the constituents.




Quote:

The Possible Role of DMT in Tissue Protection and Neuroregeneration


Since the Sig-1R is also known to regulate morphogenesis of neuronal cells, such as neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and myelination (Ruscher and Wieloch, 2015); neurorestorative effects are reasonably expected from DMT. In a previous paper (Frecska et al., 2013) we concluded that the function of DMT may extend central nervous activity and involve a more universal role in cellular protective mechanisms. We provided converging evidence that while DMT is a substance which produces powerful psychedelic experiences, it is better understood not as a hallucinogenic drug of abuse, but rather an agent of significant adaptive mechanisms like neuroprotection, neuroregeneration, and immunity.





Quote:

Nevertheless, immunoregulation by DMT is a bidirectional process. Sig-1Rs are expressed together with 5-HT receptors in immune cells conveying both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals (Szabo, 2015). These receptors are essential in the “fine-tuning” of innate and adaptive immune responses. Human clinical studies showed that ayahuasca can alter the number and distribution of blood immune cells in a way that can increase the antiviral and anti-tumor immunity of the consumer (reviewed in Frecska et al., 2013). Ayahuasca also influences the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulation: CD4 lymphocytes decrease and the number of natural killer cells increase significantly with time (dos Santos et al., 2012). The possible anti-cancer activity of the decoction makes it a promising candidate for further researches in novel pharmacotherapies (Schenberg, 2013). Furthermore, DMT may also be an adaptogen increasing the survival rate of neurons or other cell types during acute hypoxia or under chronic oxidative stress.




Quote:

Additional neurophysiologic mechanisms for ayahuasca’s therapeutic effects involve neuroplasticity, the ability of neurons to alter their synaptic connections. Constituents of ayahuasca may affect brain derived neurotropic factor release through effects on the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. These are involved in producing neuroplastic changes through triggering changes in gene expression which affect the architecture and communication between neurons. These exert effects on the existing neural circuits which mediate maladaptive addictive habits in stimulating the production of new circuits supporting new behaviors, with ayahuasca facilitating a neurological rewiring of the brain’s reward pathways. This model is supported by animal experiments (Oliveira-Lima et al., 2015) which demonstrated that ayahuasca not only inhibits early behaviors associated with the initiation and development of alcohol addiction, but also has long-term effects in preventing the reinstatement of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization.




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Don't worry about me, I've got all that I need. And I'm singing my song to the sky

You know how it feels, With the breeze of the sun in your eyes. Not minding that time's passing by

I've got all and more, My smile, just as before. Is all that I carry with me

I talk to myself, I need nobody else. I'm lost and I'm mine, yes I'm free



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Invisibletyrannicalrex
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Re: Mushrooms may reduce risk of cognitive decline [Re: musiclover420]
    #25871270 - 03/13/19 10:00 AM (6 days, 3 hours ago)

@Ythan: Thank you for that report.

@ Musiclover: Thanks, I just printed that for some friends to read.


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