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Invisiblebreeg89
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Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast
    #25850577 - 03/03/19 10:20 PM (2 months, 15 days ago)

Pretty cool stuff. Sorry if it's a repost. Poor yield, but still nice to see labs making progress on this. Similar technology has previously been applied to make yeast produce opiods.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00714-9

Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast


Researchers modify microbe to manufacture cannabis compounds including the psychoactive chemical THC.

The yeast that people have used for millennia to brew alcoholic drinks has now been engineered to produce cannabinoids — chemicals with medicinal and sometimes mind-altering properties found in cannabis.

The feat1, described on 27 February in Nature, turns a sugar in brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) called galactose into tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in cannabis (Cannabis sativa). The altered yeast can also produce cannabidiol (CBD), another major cannabinoid that’s attracted attention lately for its potential therapeutic benefits, including its anti-anxiety and pain-relief effects.

The hope is that this fermentation process will enable manufacturers to produce THC, CBD and rare cannabinoids that are found in trace amounts in nature more cheaply, efficiently and reliably than conventional plant-based cultivation.

Previous work2,3 described constructing parts of the cannabinoid production line in yeast, but not the complete process. The latest study is the first that has “put it all together and shown that it actually works inside one cell, which is cool”, says Kevin Chen, chief executive of Hyasynth Bio in Montreal, Canada, one of at least ten companies working to produce cannabinoids in engineered yeast, bacteria or algae.

Researchers have produced anti-malaria drugs for commercial purposes, as well as opiates in the lab, using similar yeast-grown methods before. But the technology for making cannabinoids is nowhere near ready for market. David Kideckel, a cannabis analyst with AltaCorp Capital in Toronto, Canada, predicts that it will be another 18–24 months before synthetic cannabinoids are cost-effective enough to sell to either pharmaceutical companies or the general public.

Craft brew
To build their cannabinoid factory in yeast, synthetic biologist Jay Keasling at the University of California, Berkeley, and his colleagues modified several genes found in S. cerevisiae, and introduced others from five types of bacteria and from the cannnabis plant. In total, they needed to make 16 genetic modifications to transform galactose into inactive forms of THC or CBD. Heating the cannabinoids switches them into their active forms. The team produced roughly 8 milligrams per litre of THC and lower levels of CBD.

But those yields would need to increase by at least 100-fold for the cost to be competitive with plant-extracted cannabinoids, says Jason Poulos, chief executive of Librede, a company in Carlsbad, California, that holds the first patent on a process for making cannabinoids from sugars in yeast.

Scientists at Demetrix, a company formed by Keasling in 2015 to work on this problem, have already boosted the cannabinoid yield of this process by several orders of magnitude, says Jeff Ubersax, chief executive of the firm in Emeryville, California.

Keasling and his team have also been able to engineer their yeast to transform various fatty acids into cannabinoids that don’t occur in nature. It’s possible to screen these compounds for therapeutic properties; if any show promise, they could be patentable because they don’t occur naturally. That aspect of newly created cannabinoids could help to build interest among drug companies, few of which have actively explored cannabis-based medicines.

“The pharmaceutical industry will really lap those molecules up,” says Vikramaditya Yadav, a chemical engineer at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, who is working with InMed Pharmaceuticals in Vancouver to produce cannabinoids using bacteria4.

No plants needed
But some argue that yeast-based fermentation might not be the best way of making cannabinoids. Toronto-based Trait Biosciences, for example, is genetically engineering cannabis to produce water-soluble cannabinoids for the beverage industry. They’re also trying to modify their plants so that every tissue, not just the resin glands that normally secrete cannabinoids, can produce novel cannabis-derived compounds. “Everything you can do in yeast, you can do in the plant itself with far greater yield and purity,” says Trait’s chief strategic officer Ronan Levy.

And earlier this month, biochemist Jim Bowie of the University of California, Los Angeles, described5 a process for turning sugar into CBD without the need for the reactions to occur inside a cell. His team managed to produce a precursor to the inactive forms of THC and CBD in commercially viable amounts, and the researchers are aiming to develop the approach through a start-up called Invizyne Technologies.

“Cells are a useful vehicle for producing that pathway, but we don’t want the cells,” says Bowie. “We want the damn pathway.”

doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-00714-9


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OfflineThesunbeam
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: breeg89]
    #25850953 - 03/04/19 01:02 AM (2 months, 15 days ago)

Very exciting news, can’t wait to be brewing 55gallon drums of thc beer:awesomenod:


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Invisiblebreeg89
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: Thesunbeam]
    #25850962 - 03/04/19 01:08 AM (2 months, 15 days ago)

Yeah, even with the low yields, this facilitates the production of designer cannabinoids. And it's just another cool feat of genetic engineering to make a single-celled organism produce a complex plant secondary metabolite.


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OfflineThesunbeam
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: breeg89]
    #25850985 - 03/04/19 01:27 AM (2 months, 15 days ago)

Hellyeah, even with low yields, a lot can be done.  Do we have any idea what the current yield is?


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Invisiblehummingbird
Registered: 06/30/14
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: Thesunbeam]
    #25851074 - 03/04/19 02:44 AM (2 months, 15 days ago)

Maybe now they can get rid of the evil cannabis plant someday, synthetic cannabinoids have such a great track record too!


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OfflineFractal420
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: hummingbird]
    #25851318 - 03/04/19 09:19 AM (2 months, 15 days ago)

Those arent synthetic cannabinoids youre thinking of, as they dont occur in the cannabis plant. Youre thinking of cannabamimetics

And some of those did have great promise. If they werent locked away by the hundreds, at least a few of those compounds might have had a chance at helping to cure cancer. And perhaps orally active, perhaps with much better anti-cancerous activity than THC itself, as these compounds had all sorts of binding at CB1 and CB2.

So, i dunno if jwh-073 for example would be a good medicine (maybe though, but it was one of the more abused ones) but maybe one of the hu-xxx or any of those many, many, many synthetics that share similar effects to thc.

Just because theyre stronger when you smoke them and have no ceiling effect doesnt mean they wouldnt be good medicine. Maybe that would make them more effective at treating disease for all we know. Just dont smoke packets of mixed unknown chemicals


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Offlinejellyfish


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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: Fractal420]
    #25851489 - 03/04/19 11:16 AM (2 months, 15 days ago)

Really depends on your definition of cannabinoid. Since endocannabinoids are a class of cannabinoid and are not found in the cannabis plant, JWH etc. are still technically cannabinoids as they bind to the cannabinoid receptors. With opiates an opiate is found in the poppy plant where as an opioid is basically anything that is either structurally similar or binds to the same receptors. Would be nice if we had different words to mean same compound from cannabis or purely artificial.

This yeast thing is a lot more of a complex problem than the media makes it sound. If it wasn't, someone would have done it with cocaine. You would obliterate the cartels in a day. Usually it's not as simple as just taking a gene sequence from one organism and inserting it in the other. It's multiple sequences all over the place and the way their proteins interact with organelles that create a system where that product is biosynthesized. TBH, I'm real excited for when someone does this with cocaine and then the US can give up their coca eradication program to make the plant extinct. Making things extinct by accident always fucks with the ecosystem, doing it on purpose is just messed up.

edit:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_cannabinoids

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coca_eradication


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Edited by jellyfish (03/04/19 11:18 AM)


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OfflineFractal420
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: jellyfish]
    #25853428 - 03/05/19 05:21 AM (2 months, 14 days ago)

the real definition of cannabinoid is a substance From the cannabis plant. The synthetic ones simply mimic the action of thc, without having any actual relation to the cannabis plant. Thats why scientifically they are called cannabamimetics (they "mimic" thc and other cannabinoids). However from all the articles about JWH and all those media reports meant to scare people away from them, they are usually called cannabinoids. Its not really accurate. Its like saying 4-aco-Dmt or whatever is a Psilocybian tryptamine. It does not actually exist in the mushroom, so its really just an analog of psilocin (or some say a pro-drug, but in either case, does not exist in the mushroom)

I get what you mean, it *is* just language, but just pointing out that these "cannabinoids" without ceiling effects and possibility of full on delirium are not from the natural cannabis herb. So IMO a different term should be used for them. I also hear things like "chocolate contains cannabinoids" and i dunno which ones, so if its something that exists in the plant, then its accurate. Otherwise chocolate also contains "cannabamimetics".

However, words are words. Like in Fahrenheit 451, communicating things accurately so that everyone understands is very important. Its like now how everyone thinks khat/cathinone is some hard drug because of the way that term has been used


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Invisiblehummingbird
Registered: 06/30/14
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: Fractal420]
    #25854064 - 03/05/19 01:02 PM (2 months, 13 days ago)

I agree with you on some of that. Non-naturally occurring compounds or analogs shouldn't exactly be named with the ones that are, just because they have affinity for the same receptors. Its just words and labels, but that can be important.

BCP (beta caryophllene), is being called a cannabinoid by some because it acts on cb2 pathways. Even though BCP occurs naturally in many cannabis strains, its not really the same thing as THC and CBD, etc. Or like how Anandamide (which is in chocolate and some other foods), is considered an endogenous cannabinoid because it works with cb1 and cbd2 receptors. I don't think it actually occurs in the cannabis plant, but the whole pathway system is called the endocannabinoid system. A lot of people are using the term "phytocannabinoids" to distinguish recently. Then there is all the jwh type crap that came out...

Maybe something cool will come from this, who knows. It just seems like a novelty thing at best, and a drug patent search at worst to me.

I do believe we still have a lot to learn about the whole endocannabinoid system, as well as the cannabis plant itself.


Edited by hummingbird (03/05/19 01:13 PM)


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Offlinejellyfish


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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: hummingbird]
    #25854662 - 03/05/19 06:41 PM (2 months, 13 days ago)

I am a medicinal chemist and in my profession cannabanoid includes THC and the JWH drugs. So I don't how that's not a "real" definition. DMT wasn't even found in nature until after it was synthesized, until then it was considered purely synthetic. 4-AcO-DMT probably does exist in mushrooms in trace amounts. I realize the JWH compounds are unlikely to every be found in the cannabis plants because of how weird their structures are especially with the fluorine atoms. But those are the definition.

edit: Like I said it would be nice if we had words like we do for opiates to distinguish between from the plant and not. But the real definiton of cannabinoid is a drug that acts on cannabanoid receptor. A synthetic cannabinoid could be lab made THC or JWH. An artificial cannabinoid does not include THC


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Edited by jellyfish (03/05/19 06:42 PM)


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Invisiblebreeg89
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: jellyfish]
    #25855284 - 03/06/19 12:45 AM (2 months, 13 days ago)

^ I'm also a chemist, and I second that. Semantics aside, it's just cool that yeast has been engineered to make bioactive terpenoids.


Edited by breeg89 (03/06/19 01:41 AM)


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Invisiblehummingbird
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: breeg89]
    #25855369 - 03/06/19 02:08 AM (2 months, 13 days ago)

Something like "Phyto-opiates"?

Yeah, there is a difference between synthetic and artificial, and it would be nice if that was more distinguished sometimes...especially when it comes to naturally occurring vs. non.


Edited by hummingbird (03/06/19 03:21 AM)


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Offlinejellyfish


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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: hummingbird]
    #25856574 - 03/06/19 06:38 PM (2 months, 12 days ago)

with opiates generally opiate means ones found in the plant and opioids means ones found anywhere. So morphine is an opiate and an opioid but tramadol is an opioid. Where as cannabinoid is crazy broad. Phytocannabinoid is actually pretty good, includes synthetic THC but excludes all the weird JWH etc. etc. poisons.


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OfflineFractal420
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: jellyfish]
    #25857570 - 03/07/19 05:17 AM (2 months, 12 days ago)

Tramadol is also a chemical with serotonin activity. They say just the metabolite ("M1/desmethyltramadol") is an opioid

But hell, i really dont like tramadol so i dont research it too much

I know that most tramadol OD (its happened to rappers like ODB iirc) happens from the serotonin effects or combos with serotonin substances. I took it with effexor before when i was a teen, thank god nothing bad happened

I know with dxm tramadol can straight kill you


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And comforting me with it's three warm and wild eyes.

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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: Fractal420]
    #25860040 - 03/08/19 05:09 AM (2 months, 11 days ago)

Doesn't matter if something also does something else. Tramadol is an opioid and some other weird scary shit seizure inducing shit and its metabolite is an opioid that does less other weird scary shit. By loose definition if it has any opioid receptor activity it's an opioid agonist, or opioid. None of these categories are exclusive. Look at MDMA. Stimulant, psychedelic, entactogen, empathogen. And that's not even the best example I'm just remarkably lazy.


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OfflineFractal420
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Re: Scientists brew cannabis using hacked beer yeast [Re: jellyfish]
    #25861152 - 03/08/19 04:24 PM (2 months, 10 days ago)

Dxm is a weird one.

Mdma i feel more like is just unique in its action, cause really its an amphetamine that also has heavy serotinergic activity. But like i said it sure is unique in what it does and only a very few analogs have that same action

DXM on the other hand is a dissociative with opioid, stimulant and sedative properties. The Levo isomer is a powerful full fledged opioid from what i understand. Now thats an interesting substance, at least from a scientific standpoint. Mdma of course is interesting too


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It's bright and blue and shimmering.
Grinning wide
And comforting me with it's three warm and wild eyes.

Prying open MY third eye



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