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InvisiblePrimal Glitch
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A Possible New Category of Medications: Psychoplastogens
    #25857081 - 03/06/19 09:56 PM (2 months, 11 days ago)

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/demystifying-psychiatry/201807/possible-new-category-medications-psychoplastogens

Quote:

A Possible New Category of Medications: Psychoplastogens
Psychoplastogens enhance connections between brain cells.
by Eugene Rubin MD, PhD, and Charles Zorumski, MD

In an article published recently in the journal Cell Reports, David Olson, Calvin Ly, and colleagues investigate the biologic actions of a class of drugs that they have named psychoplastogens. The authors provide the following description of drugs that fall into this new class: “To classify the growing number of compounds capable of rapidly promoting induced plasticity, we introduce the term ‘psychoplastogen’ from the Greek roots psych- (mind), -plast (molded), and -gen (producing).” These drugs cause nerve cells in the brain to form new neurites, i.e., projections that extend out from the cell body and have the potential to become axons and dendrites. In addition, these agents enhance the ability of nerve cells to interact with other nerve cells by increasing the number of synapses — the regions where nerve cells connect with one another.

Ketamine appears to be an example of one such drug. Ketamine has been shown to have rapid antidepressant and anti-suicidal properties. Ketamine-like drugs are likely to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of depression in the future. Ketamine works by influencing brain receptor systems that respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate. The glutamatergic system then stimulates a variety of chemical pathways in nerve cells that control cell growth and cell connections.

Ly, Olson, and colleagues elegantly demonstrate that another group of drugs are as powerful, or even more powerful, than ketamine in causing cellular changes in brain cells. Whereas ketamine exerts its effect through glutamate-related systems, these other drugs work through serotonergic systems. Although they involve different neurotransmitters, the effects of both groups of drugs lead to similar influences on the chemical systems inside neurons that are involved in growth and development.

The group of serotonergic drugs that the authors studied include psilocybin (magic mushrooms), LSD, ayahuasca, and ecstasy. They note that there is preliminary clinical evidence that these drugs may be helpful in treating several psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety states, and possibly addictive states. These drugs are currently undergoing formal clinical trials.

The authors note that while ketamine can be addictive, these non-ketamine drugs are not. However, they have psychedelic properties and have long been known to be abused for their mind-altering effects, including perceptual changes that some people find enjoyable and other people find terrifying. Thus, the continued development of these drugs as therapeutic agents will have to consider risks, potential benefits, and methods of administration carefully in well-designed clinical trials. Olson and colleagues are hopeful that new medications can be derived from the existing drugs that retain the psychoplastogen properties while eliminating the psychedelic effects.

The next decade will be a very interesting time with respect to the development of truly unique pharmacologic approaches for the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and addiction — disorders that are among the most impairing of all illnesses.



a couple of extra sources:
Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity
Psychoplastogens: A Promising Class of Plasticity-Promoting Neurotherapeutics


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Offlinesycodelix
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Re: A Possible New Category of Medications: Psychoplastogens [Re: Primal Glitch]
    #25857177 - 03/06/19 10:46 PM (2 months, 11 days ago)

I thought ketamine was already used to treat depression...🤔


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InvisiblePrimal Glitch
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Re: A Possible New Category of Medications: Psychoplastogens [Re: sycodelix]
    #25857581 - 03/07/19 05:44 AM (2 months, 11 days ago)

yes, I think it's been used for that.
these studies are focused on the capabilities of some compounds to promote neural plasticity. this can be helpful in treating many other things and also keeping a healthy or "younger" brain


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Re: A Possible New Category of Medications: Psychoplastogens [Re: Primal Glitch]
    #25862922 - 03/09/19 12:36 PM (2 months, 9 days ago)

I don't know how people find ketamine to be helpful
I once injected it and it smacked the hell out of me.


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OfflineHolybullshit
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Re: A Possible New Category of Medications: Psychoplastogens [Re: danish322]
    #25866548 - 03/10/19 10:37 PM (2 months, 8 days ago)

When used for depression the goal is to stay just below the threshold of psychedelic activity. Although small bumps could provide some benefit as well, K-holing is most definitely not going to help your mental health.

It is generally administered through IV drips. A nasal spray has just been approved, which is administered in office, from what I have read the effect of the nasal spray do cross said threshold but not by much. I'm not sure if the protocol calls for one spray to be administered, or multiple sprays at a certain interval. The idea is the spray will allow for great access to the treatment at lower costs, right now the projected costs are basically equal, but hopefully that will change over time, and insurance companies are MUCH more likely to cover the spray in the near future, there are very close to zero insurance plans which cover the infusions.

Given the length of the infusions, I would imagine more than one spray, but perhaps since the dosage of one spray raises blood levels higher than what occurs during an infusion it isn't required to keep levels steady for as long a period.

Hopefully soon people will be able to use the spray, or similar product at home, if a device can be engineered which only delivers one treatment total, and someone could receive 2-4 devices a month, even if they have to wait a week before picking it up from the pharmacy. Despite the availability of powerful opioid narcotics it seems the DEA/FDA are completely against allowing people to have access to ketamine in any way shape or form.

IMO a patch would solve all those concerns, and possibly be the most effective route of administration for home use.

Recreational ketamine does not illicit the same positive benefits for mental health, the way traditional psychedelics can.

Something I find interesting is the spray is S-Ketamine, yet early research suggested that a possibly mechanism of action of ketamines  AD effect was a metabolite of R-Ketamine and in fact said metabolite and other drugs based on it are in the development pipeline and last I read were proving effective as well.


Edited by Holybullshit (03/10/19 10:47 PM)


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