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My tummy hurts...
    #2551143 - 04/12/04 01:56 PM (13 years, 9 months ago)

I was looking for info on poisonous mushrooms, just for fun.

Here's an excerpt from a report at mushworld.
just imagining going through this makes my mind reel.

I.A) Amatoxins: (Cyclopeptide Poisoning)

Amanita verna

The mushrooms in this group includes Amamita phalloides, A. virosa (Death Cap or Destroying Angle), A. verna (The fool's Mushroom), A. bisporigera, A. ocreata, and along with Galerina autumnalis (Autumn Skullcap), G. marginata, G. venerata. In addition; following may have toxic concentrations of the primary poisons, but no poison have been officially reported. The species includes Amanita suballiacea, A. tenuifolia, and Conocybe filaris. These mushroom species produces a poison called as 'Amanitin', which is chemically a cyclic octapeptide and ten times more lethal than a cyanide. This toxin attacks the nucleus of the cell, inhibit RNA Polymerase, interrupt the synthesis of DNA and RNA thus prevent cell division. After consumption of these or any one species, the symptoms that occurs due to this poisoning are as follows:
A long latent period (of 6 to 48 hours, but usually of 6-15 hours) during which the patient shows no symptoms.
Symptoms occurs at the end of the latent period and which last for a day or so, in the form of sudden and severe seizures of abdominal pains, persistent vomiting, watery diarrhea, extreme thirst, lack of urine production, and nausea. If these symptoms ceases early, then the patient may appear to recover for a short period, but this period will generally followed by a rapid and severe loss of strength, prostration, and pains-caused restlessness.
Death in 50-90% of the cases from progressive and irreversible liver, kidney, cardiac, and skeletal muscle damage may follow within 48 hours (in cases of large doses i.e. consumption in large quantity), but the disease more typically lasts for 6-8 days in adults and for 4-6 days in children.
Two to three days later the onset of the later phase, jaundice, cyanosis and coldness of the skin occurs.
Death usually occurs after a period of coma and occasionally convulsions. If recovery of the patient occurs, it requires at least a month and is accompanied by enlargement of the liver.

Autopsy will usually reveal fatty degeneration and necrosis of the liver and kidney. Currently there is no antidote for amanitin. However, treatment consists of attempts to go for haemodialysis, hemoperfusion and apheresis to remove toxins from the system. Recommended intravenous injection of vitamin C twice a day, two capsules of nifuroxazide three times a day and two tablets of dihydrostreptomycin thrice a day. Measure to control fluid and electrolyte balance and administered penicillin.

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Re: My tummy hurts... [Re: debianlinux]
    #2552143 - 04/12/04 08:02 PM (13 years, 9 months ago)

That family of toxins is responsible for about 95% of all mushroom fatalities. There are actually several chemically similar amatoxins as well as another related family called phallotoxins. Research on the phallotoxins seems to show that, fortunately, the human digestive system renders them harmless.

Not mentioned in the list of mushrooms containing dangerous levels of those toxins are several species of Lepiota that have caused many fatalities.

Here is the best list I know of for mushrooms containing clinically active Amatoxins:

Amanita bisporigera
A. hygroscopica
A. magnivelaris
A. ocreata
A. phalloides
A. suballiacea
A. tenuifolia
A. verna
A. virosa

Conocybe filaris
C. rugosa and closely related species are suspected

Galerina autumnalis
G. badipes
G. beinthii
G. fasciculata
G. marginata
G. sulcipes
G. unicolor
G. venenata

Lepiota brunneoincarnata
L. castanae
L. helveola
L. heteri
L. josserandii
L. scobinella
L. subincarnata

Anybody who picks and eats wild mushrooms (for any reason) needs to be able to exclude every mushroom listed above. Galerinas and Conocybes should not be eaten by anybody. There are a few edible species of Amanita, but only those very advanced at mushrooms identification should consider eating Amanitas. The edible Lepiotas are easily distinguished from the dangerous species listed above, as the poisonous species are all small and the edible species large.

There are normally no symptoms until after the toxins have been pretty much completely absorbed into the body. Treatment is primarily symptomatic.

In severe cases, liver transplants have saved victims' lives. Many fatal cases involve victims who do not seek medical attention at all.

Happy mushrooming!

Happy mushrooming!

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