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OfflineFennarioM
Registered: 03/29/15
Posts: 12,389
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A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind
    #24174506 - 03/19/17 01:11 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind

Researchers are investigating how hallucinogens might be used to model—and develop treatments for—psychosis

Source

LSD, “magic” mushrooms and mescaline have been banned in the U.S. and many other countries since the 1970s, but psychedelic medicine is making a comeback as new therapies for depression, nicotine addiction and anxiety. The drugs have another scientific use, too: so-called psychotomimetics, or mimics of psychosis, may be useful tools for studying schizophrenia. By creating a brief bout of psychosis in a healthy brain, as indigenous healers have for millennia, scientists are seeking new ways to study—and perhaps treat—mental illness.

“We think that schizophrenia is a group of psychoses, which may have different causes,” says Franz Vollenweider, a psychiatrist and neuroscientist at the University of Zurich. “The new approach is to try to understand specific symptoms: hearing voices, cognitive problems, or apathy and social disengagement. If you can identify the neural bases of these, you can tailor the pharmacology.”

Vollenweider and his colleagues have found an existing drug for anxiety that blocks specific effects of psilocybin, the psychoactive ingredient in magic mushrooms. When healthy people were given the drug before tripping, they did not report visual hallucinations and other common effects, according to a study published in April 2016 in European Neuropsychopharmacology. The effort is part of a burgeoning movement in pharmacology that seeks to induce psychosis to learn how to treat it.

And schizophrenia desperately needs new treatments. Seventy-five percent of afflicted patients have cognitive problems. And most commonly used drugs do not treat the disorder's “negative” symptoms—apathy, social withdrawal, negative thinking—nor the cognitive impairments, which best predict how well a patient will fare in the long term.

Psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms and mescaline (derived from the peyote cactus) all act on serotonin, a neurotransmitter tied to mood. Brain imaging of schizophrenic brains has revealed that networks involved in introspection and those for external attention bleed into one another, as they do in healthy brains on psychedelics. By finding drugs that block this boundary-blurring effect, scientists hope to home in on the biological basis of psychosis and help to prevent it.

“If someone is hallucinating, it may not matter if the person is experiencing hallucinations through Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia or a manic episode,” says Mitul Mehta, a neuropharmacologist and psilocybin researcher at King's College London, who was not involved in the Swiss study.

The goal of the study was to prevent the deluge of serotonin activation and the resulting hallucinations caused by magic mushrooms, using two nonhallucinogenic chemicals shaped similarly to LSD. The researchers recruited 36 people, each of whom took part in four sessions in the laboratory separated by at least two weeks. They divided people into two groups, each of which tested a different candidate antipsychedelic drug: buspirone, a drug prescribed for anxiety, or ergotamine, one used to treat migraines. The study participants took one of the antipsychedelics followed by psilocybin, a placebo followed by psilocybin, an antipsychedelic followed by a placebo or two placebos in a row. Three hours after taking the drug cocktails, the subjects reported their psychedelic experiences on a standardized questionnaire that measures dimensions of hallucinatory states, including euphoria, visual hallucinations and delusions.

Buspirone prevented some psychotic effects of psilocybin, the researchers found. They hypothesize that by binding to serotonin 1A receptors, which pair with and counteract the serotonin 2A (psilocybin) receptor, buspirone restrained the visual hallucinations, flood of memories and imaginative thinking commonly triggered by psilocybin. The drug had no impact on other psychedelic symptoms such as the anxious sense of ego dissolution or the fear of going insane that some people experience, nor did it prevent decreased alertness during the trip.

The psychotic effects blocked by buspirone are also common in early schizophrenia and Parkinson's. The first approved drug for treating psychosis in Parkinson's, pimavanserin, acts by blocking the serotonin 2A receptor. Vollenweider previously found that a blood pressure drug, ketanserin, blocks the serotonin 2A receptor and prevents virtually all psilocybin effects, but it has not been tested for schizophrenia. Eventually such medicines might not treat the catchall disease “schizophrenia” but alleviate a patient's specific symptoms.


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Onlinemusiclover420
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Registered: 11/06/12
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Fennario]
    #24174993 - 03/19/17 04:00 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

Interesting, narcan for mushrooms :strokebeard:


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Don't worry about me, I've got all that I need. And I'm singing my song to the sky

You know how it feels, With the breeze of the sun in your eyes. Not minding that time's passing by

I've got all and more, My smile, just as before. Is all that I carry with me

I talk to myself, I need nobody else. I'm lost and I'm mine, yes I'm free



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OfflineMorel Guy
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: musiclover420]
    #24175224 - 03/19/17 05:23 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

I would of thought 5HT2a was more the visual.  According to this article 5HT1a is the visual.

They already have so many antagonist.  This is just a partial antagonist of 5HT1a.  Makes me think it's more of a drug hype article.


--------------------
Nike made me do it


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OfflineAdas
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Morel Guy]
    #24175416 - 03/19/17 06:14 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

5-HT1A is hardly involved in hallucinations. The article only says its activation may lessen them. Which seems interesting. Lavender essential oil is supposedly an agonist at 5-HT1A, it would be nice to test if it really decreases visuals.

I would test it if I had enough mushies at hand.


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OfflineMorel Guy
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Adas]
    #24175474 - 03/19/17 06:30 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

You are confused

You said lavender is an agonist so no that would not decrease activation.

I read up on the drug in this article.  It's a partial antagonist of 5HT1a and absolutely nothing else at all.


--------------------
Nike made me do it


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OfflineAdas
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Morel Guy]
    #24175503 - 03/19/17 06:42 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

You are the one confused. A 30 second search on Wikipedia will show you Buspirone is an AGONIST of 5-HT1A.

Your second statement is also not true, Buspirone also affects D2 receptors to some extent. Please check the facts before spewing nonsense.

I'm not an expert on the 5-HT1A receptor, but to my knowledge it's an autoreceptor, which means it's activation causes decrease of serotonin release, therefore indirect inhibition of serotonergic pathways. Which makes sense.


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OfflineMorel Guy
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Adas]
    #24175507 - 03/19/17 06:44 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

I can't read all that dude.

First of all wiki isn't an authority.

It's a partial antagonist making it a partial agonist as well.  That's the partial part.


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Nike made me do it


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OfflineKonyap
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Morel Guy]
    #24175906 - 03/19/17 09:17 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

This stuff is stupid
They want to treat the disease by making the person ignore all of the symptoms of the disease
It's like giving someone a broken leg painkillers and watch them hobble off
Then there's all of the negative effects they don't tell you about
People are being forced into using these drugs because their parents are told they have a mental disease
How many of these drugs you think lead to things like dementia and alzheimers?
They already said that the more people are treated the more reduced parts of their brains are.

If you have schizophrenia be happy. The drugs worked. Go exercise.:shrug:


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OfflineCaddilac
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Konyap] * 1
    #24176041 - 03/19/17 10:10 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

I guess this is a start. What about methamphetamine induced psychosis? If that acts on dopamine? I think theyre looking in the wrong places.  They want to create drugs that stop the euphoria of psychedelics. Mind control weapons. Or perhaps advanced psychedelics. I may be talking while on the can. But shit I think this has to happen then.


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OfflineCaddilac
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Caddilac]
    #24176082 - 03/19/17 10:22 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

because i dont think hallucinogens are actual schizophrenia inducing. They persist in after affects of mental health i.e depression. Not continual effects like methamphetamine induced psychosis. Which a person can be high for a month .. Hear what im sayin?


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Offlinethe_way
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Registered: 10/07/16
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Caddilac]
    #24176193 - 03/19/17 11:09 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

I think quality education is a very strong combatant to psychosis and the delay of dementia. I wouldn't suggest people diagnosised with behavior or other neouro disturbances(allergy heavy people) consume drugs of any sort. perhaps accidentally though most people do suffer some form of ailment and should not partake in the goodies of psychedelic drugs. I do think it will more likely worsen functional people who have been able to suppress mental illness.

I think it's absolutely fine for the healthy mind but who is healthy fast food nation

never give a cop a psychedelic(they'll never be able to handle it)


--------------------
end the war on free will


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OfflineKonyap
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Caddilac]
    #24176283 - 03/19/17 11:51 PM (4 months, 5 days ago)

Quote:

Caddilac said:
I guess this is a start. What about methamphetamine induced psychosis? If that acts on dopamine? I think theyre looking in the wrong places.  They want to create drugs that stop the euphoria of psychedelics. Mind control weapons. Or perhaps advanced psychedelics. I may be talking while on the can. But shit I think this has to happen then.




It's all about the money dude

makes you wonder how many rats they killed coming up with this concoction
it's kind of sick to think about


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OfflineAdas
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: the_way]
    #24176635 - 03/20/17 03:42 AM (4 months, 5 days ago)

Quote:

Morel Guy said:
I can't read all that dude.

First of all wiki isn't an authority.

It's a partial antagonist making it a partial agonist as well.  That's the partial part.




Okay so you say something incorrect and I correct you, you "can't read all that", and then you continue spreading false information (partial antagonist and partial agonist are 2 different things!). And you continue and continue and continue arguing. The ignorance is extreme with this one.

You have so little pharmacology background but act like know-all.

Quote:

the_way said:
never give a cop a psychedelic(they'll never be able to handle it)




Watch the video by PsychedSubstance "Taking MDMA with a COP". Cops can't even handle freakin MDMA!!!


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Invisiblenooneman
Male

Registered: 04/25/09
Posts: 9,518
Loc: California
Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Fennario]
    #24176772 - 03/20/17 06:44 AM (4 months, 4 days ago)

They already tried making antipsychotics based on drugs that prevent people from tripping. That's why so many antipsychotics are already 5HT2A antagonists, and for most people with schitzophrenia they're ineffective. I don't think this line of research is going to pan out.

Schitzophrenia is a very different thing than a psychedelic experience, even though there may be broad similarities. Clearly, targeting the receptors responsible for the actions of psychedelic drugs hasn't worked in the current antipsychotics we have. There is little reason to assume that it will work in new antipsychotics.


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InvisibleThemanwiththeplan
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Registered: 01/12/17
Posts: 101
Loc: Nc,USA
Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: nooneman]
    #24177114 - 03/20/17 11:01 AM (4 months, 4 days ago)

I don't thank this would work..


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Have I been here before..I'm pretty sure I've been here before..


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Invisiblemynakedrat
The phantom hourglass
I'm a teapot User Gallery


Registered: 02/16/17
Posts: 3,767
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Konyap]
    #24177210 - 03/20/17 11:43 AM (4 months, 4 days ago)

Quote:

Konyap said:
This stuff is stupid
They want to treat the disease by making the person ignore all of the symptoms of the disease
It's like giving someone a broken leg painkillers and watch them hobble off
Then there's all of the negative effects they don't tell you about
People are being forced into using these drugs because their parents are told they have a mental disease
How many of these drugs you think lead to things like dementia and alzheimers?
They already said that the more people are treated the more reduced parts of their brains are.

If you have schizophrenia be happy. The drugs worked. Go exercise.:shrug:



I like Your response.


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OfflineMorel Guy
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Registered: 01/23/13
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: mynakedrat] * 1
    #24177551 - 03/20/17 01:50 PM (4 months, 4 days ago)

They want happy little productive slaves, I mean citizens.

Anyone who speaks out is called mentally ill.  That's the way it's been for a long time.  Russia did that too.

An overly pharmicutialized nation totally complacent.


--------------------
Nike made me do it


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Offlinedurian_2008
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Re: A Trip inside the Schizophrenic Mind [Re: Konyap]
    #24188456 - 03/24/17 12:40 PM (4 months, 15 hours ago)

Quote:

Konyap said:
They want to treat the disease by making the person ignore all of the symptoms of the disease




The symptoms were anxiety, migraine, apathy, social withdrawal, negative thinking.

What is the disease.

Maybe, it's neither anatomical, nor chemical.


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