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OfflineKizzle
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Recognizing and dealing with contamination * 118
    #23130868 - 04/18/16 02:01 PM (8 years, 19 hours ago)

This guide is a work in progress. Feel free to add any contributions, including additional information, high-quality pictures, and corrections to any inaccuracies. While there are many mushroom growing guides available, this one is unique in its focus on Cubensis. However, much of the information presented here can be applied to other mushroom species as well.

Signs of Contamination


Sectoring - This refers to the formation of distinct borders between two different fungal species growing in the same substrate. This phenomenon may be accompanied by the appearance of a line of metabolites where the two mycelia meet. In PF jars hourglass shaped mold colonies are typically caused by a compromised dry vermiculite layer, whereas circular mold colonies starting from an inoculation point are usually the result of contaminated inoculatant.



When the contaminant is bacterial the contaminated area appears uncolonized and are often rectangular shaped. When the mycelium encounters the infected area the edge loses it's thread-like appearance and metabolites may be present.



Sporophores - Sporophores are the structures of a fungus responsible for producing spores. In some cases, they can be visible to the naked eye without magnification. As the spores mature, most of them change color, making their presence obvious. However, with keen observation, they can be identified before reaching maturity. The early appearance of larger sporophores often resembles a small whisker with a white dot on the end.



Odor - Odor can be highly useful in identifying contaminants when they're not visible. It can also assist in distinguishing between mushroom mycelium and molds that resemble it. In some cases, a hidden mold in a spawn jar can be detected simply by smelling the spawn before use.

Odor can also play a helpful role in agar work. Cubensis cultures are known to have a distinct mushroomy odor. This aroma serves as a characteristic identifier during the process, providing a sensory clue to the nature of the culture.

Slime - A common indication of bacterial and yeast contamination is the development of a slimy appearance in the mycelium or grains. In areas where the substrate presses against the glass and condensation occurs, you may observe the presence of brown-yellow slimy rings around the grains. It's worth noting that oils and starches from burst grains can have a similar appearance, but they will already be present at the end of the sterilization process. Contaminants, on the other hand, will manifest later on, indicating an issue.



Dusty texture - As mentioned before, sporophores are usually too small to be seen individually. However, they often form a collective powdery layer that covers the substrate or mycelium. Paying attention to this texture is crucial for distinguishing sporophores from bruising or other discolorations that can occur in mushroom mycelium.



Discolorations - These are the most obvious signs of mold contamination. Molds often change color as they produce spores and some produce metabolites that can alter the color of the substrate.



There are also discolorations not caused by contamination, see "Not Signs of Contamination" below.

Overlay - Bright white mycelium that colonizes over a colonized substrate, casing layer or the vermiculite fruiting PF cakes have been rolled in is often the first sign of Trichoderma. Watch for the formation of green spores if these appear.



Soft patches - Contaminated substrate may become squishy or soft and crumble apart easily. The bright white patches Trichoderma can produce has the consistency of a squishy skin. PF cakes may crumble apart easily when contaminated.

Pinning in partially colonized spawn or PF jars - In a properly prepared PF or spawn jar this is contamination related. Unfortunately since the short half-pints have become difficult to find the tall jars are often used in the PF tek in which case that alone can cause pinning before full colonization. It's even common when pints are used for it so consider that first if no other signs are present.

Spongy mycelium - Molds, especially pins molds, can create a very dense mycelium in jars that seems to press against the glass and fill up the empty volume of the jar. The mycelium has a smooth texture compared to mushroom mycelium.




Not Signs of Contamination



Bruising - Bruising occurs when cell walls in mycelia/mushroom tissue are damaged. Most often this is result of touching, particularly while harvesting the mushroom, and can also occur from dehydration. Dehydration bruising is often widespread in the mycelium and occurs mostly around the base of pins and mushroom on that substrate. Bruising may be green or blue and very heavy bruising may appear black. Extreme bruising is normally found on the stumps of harvested mushrooms.



Spores - Spores produced by Cubensis are a dark violet with the exception of certain mutant/novelty strains. Spores often first appear on the torn veil but if left to sporulate mushrooms will drop large amounts of spores on the substrate and other mushrooms. Air currents may carry spores and deposit them on the tops of the caps.



"Mutant" Blobs - Blobs usually appear when pinning first begin with less blobs being produced later. Mutant blobs are the result of genetic abnormalities and are particularly common in degenerated cultures and certain varieties such as Penis Envy. Environmental conditions also seem to play a role in blob development. On PF cakes they are mostly seen in when cakes are fruited immediately after full colonization.



Rhizomorphs - Rhizomorphs are large threads of mycelium that carry nutrients to pins hence they occur when pinning has begun. Very large rhizomorphs may occur when nutrients are being transferred to a pin growing on a non-nutritious surface such as a glass jar or the sides of a plastic tub. Aerial rhizomorphs are usually seen when a casing layer is used. They appear as cottony strands poking out of the casing layer many of which eventually knot and grow into pins.



Metabolites - Although a large amount of metabolites often indicates contamination, small amounts are common on fully colonized substrates and spawn/PF jars. Metabolites are normally yellow but red metabolites sometimes occur in spawn jars. Metabolites may also appear as a yelllow discoloration of the mycelium.



Aborts - Pins that stop growing, develop a black cap, but are not slimy or show other signs of disease do not seem to be caused by pathogens.



In vitro pinning - Tan growths pressing against the glass, usually developing a dark circle in the center and eventually forming into obvious pins.





Identifying Contaminants



Penicillium

Penicillium is a common mold found in indoor air and is one of the most commonly encountered contaminants in agar and spawn jars. It produces tiny spores that stay airborne for relatively long periods of time. Early growth is white and can be difficult to distinguish from mushroom mycelium. Colonies are typically circular with a white edge. Most species sporulate very soon after first appearance, producing green, yellow, or blue-green spores. This mold contaminant has the ability to spread quickly, overwhelming any mushroom mycelium that may be growing in the same substrate. Contamination after spawning is uncommon and usually has little effect on yield. Penicillium is sourced from soil, food, compost, and air, and has musty or dirt-like odors.



Aspergillus

Aspergillus, like Penicillium, is a commonly found mold in indoor air. It produces tiny spores that have the ability to travel significant distances before settling. Many species of Aspergillus are known contaminants of mushroom substrates, posing a challenge to mushroom cultivation.

The mycelium of Aspergillus is typically light grey, exhibiting linear threadlike growth that can be mistaken for mushroom mycelium. Some colonies may appear ringlike, with denser mycelium concentration near the edges. Aspergillus can exhibit different appearances, ranging from sporophores similar to pin molds to a resemblance to Penicillium. The color and size of sporophores vary depending on the species and substrate, with yellow, black, green, blue, and grey being common. This variability can make it difficult to differentiate Aspergillus from other mold species.

Aspergillus finds its sources in soil, wood, dust, and the surrounding air. Its odor profile tends to be musty or dirt-like.



Trichoderma

Trichoderma, despite being less commonly found as free spores in indoor air compared to other molds, has earned a notorious reputation as one of the most prevalent contaminants in mushroom cultivation due to its aggressive nature. Trichoderma often finds its way indoors through dust particles, which act as common sources and primary carriers of this mold.

The mycelium of Trichoderma is usually transparent to light grey, making it quite challenging to spot, depending on the substrate. However, one of the first visible signs of Trichoderma contamination is the development of a thick, bright white aerial mycelium that grows over the surface of the substrate. On this mycelium, spores are produced, giving it a yellow to green color, often surrounded by a noticeable bright white "apron."

While the wet spores produced by Trichoderma are too heavy to become airborne on their own within a fresh colony, they can adhere to airborne dust particles and spread through that means. Trichoderma sporulation can be triggered by factors such as light, changes in nutrient availability in the substrate, full colonization, and damage to colonies.

Contamination of substrates by Trichoderma typically occurs after spawning. Freshly spawned grains are particularly vulnerable when exposed to a high concentration of Trichoderma spores. Cross-contamination can occur during handling, especially when coming into contact with sources of the spores, such as dust and soil. Although Trichoderma spores are easily killed by pasteurization, sterilizing certain bulk substrates can ironically make them more susceptible to contamination. However, the recovery of spawn grains plays a crucial role as well. Slow recovery, often due to the presence of bacteria in the grains, is a common cause of Trichoderma infection. Anything that slows down the recovery process is a significant risk factor.

Infected substrates may display uncolonized patches where the mold's mycelium has taken hold, indicating the presence of Trichoderma mycelium.

Visibly growing Trichoderma on living mushrooms is a rare occurrence. In cases where the mold infects a mushroom, obvious dark brown damage or heavy bruising will be noticeable. As a general rule, when harvesting from an infected substrate, if the mushroom appears healthy, it can be kept.




Mucor

Mucor, also known as pin mold, derives its name from the small, grey to black sporophores that resemble tiny pinheads. It bears a striking resemblance to Rhizopus, another common mold. When observed on bulk substrates, Mucor contamination is typically a consequence of contaminated spawn.

Mucor originates from soil, plants, and the surrounding air. Keeping a vigilant eye and implementing proper hygiene measures can help prevent the introduction and spread of this mold.

Rhizopus

Rhizopus, known for its rapid growth, is one of the swiftest invaders among common contaminants. Its appearance bears a strong resemblance to that of Mucor, making it easy to confuse the two. Rhizopus has the additional ability to parasitize damaged or aborted mushrooms, further complicating matters for mushroom cultivators.

One notable characteristic of Rhizopus is its tendency to produce substantial amounts of aerial mycelium. This mycelium, often visible as a cottony or fluffy growth, can rapidly spread across the surface of bulk substrates.

Sources of Rhizopus include soil and dust.



Fusarium

Fusarium is a mold that originates from various sources such as soil, plants, unsterilized grain, and humidifiers. It exhibits a white mycelium that closely resembles mushroom mycelium and has the potential to produce vibrant colors such as purple, pink, orange, and yellow. However, it's important to note that color changes may not be evident in short-lived agar cultures.

Fusarium contamination has most commonly been seen as a result of contaminated spore syringes. The mold looks like mushroom mycelium and grows at a similar speed. It can take two weeks before the colors develops.




Cladosporium

Cladosporium, a frequent contaminant mold in spawn, exhibits distinctive characteristics that set it apart. One of its most noticeable features is the presence of dark-green spores, which tend to change in color as they age, transitioning from green to grey or black.

This mold carries a musty odor, providing a helpful clue for its identification. It is commonly encountered in spawn during mushroom cultivation processes.


Alternaria

Alternaria, a common mold found on agar and spawn, is characterized by its typically black or dark grey appearance. It emits a musty odor, which can aid in its identification.


Chaetomium

Chaetomium is a green mold that can be identified by the presence of numerous small green to tan bur-like structures scattered across the substrate during the spawn run. In some instances, mushroom mycelium may colonize these areas over time.

One notable characteristic of Chaetomium is the high heat resistance of its spores compared to other fungi. This means that they can withstand relatively short pasteurization times or low pasteurization temperatures. As a result, Chaetomium contamination is more commonly encountered in straw or compost that has undergone insufficient pasteurization.


Monilia

Monilia is a mold that typically appears as a powdery growth in shades of white, grey, or pink. It can be encountered in various environments, including mushroom cultivation settings.

One particular form of Monilia, known as Neurospora, exhibits rapid growth with the development of an aerial mycelium. Over time, this mycelium undergoes a color change, turning bright red or orange, providing a distinct visual cue for identification.


Neurospora on casing layer


Scopulariopsis

Scopulariopsis is a mold that manifests as patches of white mold with a powdery appearance. Over time, the color of the mold may transition to a slight pinkish hue, especially after approximately a week.

This type of mold tends to thrive in substrates with high pH levels or high ammonia content. When Scopulariopsis contamination occurs, it can have a significant negative impact on mushroom cultivation. In severe cases, it can lead to a complete absence of mushroom development, greatly reducing the overall yield.

Coprinus

Coprinus is a common mushroom-producing contaminant frequently encountered in mushroom cultivation. Its presence is an indicator of excess ammonia in the substrate, particularly in manure-based substrates. This high ammonia content inhibits the growth of normal mushroom mycelium, leading to the proliferation of Coprinus.

These contaminants typically appear during the spawn run phase and continue to emerge until the ammonia levels are depleted. Once the substrate becomes more suitable for normal mushroom mycelium, it may eventually colonize the substrate and replace the Coprinus growth. There are various species of Coprinus, resulting in variations in their appearance. However, they are generally recognizable and distinguishable from Cubensis.





Schizophyllum

Schizophyllum commune is a mushroom-producing contaminant. It can thrive in various substrates and environments, and its growth can adversely affect the desired mushroom species being cultivated. Its presence indoors is typically attributed to contaminated inoculant or spawn used in the cultivation process.




Bacillus

Bacillus, with Bacillus subtilis being the most common species, is a bacterial contaminant frequently encountered in spawn. It is characterized by its distinctive odors, often described as resembling feet or rotten apples. When Bacillus contaminates the spawn, it manifests as a foul smell and the presence of brownish slime or crust on the grains.

The appearance of Bacillus bacteria is a sign that the sterilization process may have been insufficient. Additionally, Bacillus can be introduced through contaminated cultures or spores.

To prevent Bacillus contamination, it is crucial to ensure proper sterilization protocols are followed and maintained. Adequate drying of the spawn grains help minimize the risk of Bacillus growth.




Yeasts

Yeasts are a diverse group of microorganisms that can be encountered in mushroom cultivation, both in spawn and on agar. Yeast colonies actually resemble bacteria in their visual characteristics. Some yeasts are easily recognizable by the presence of tiny spots, typically white, pink, or yellow, that appear throughout the grain jar. However, there are other yeasts that are indistinguishable from bacteria based on visual appearance alone.

Yeast contamination is prevented with good sterile technique.




Pseudomonas

Pseudomonas is a genus of bacteria that contains many species, some of which can be found in mushroom cultivation. While certain strains of Pseudomonas are harmless or even beneficial to fruit bodies, problems can arise when there is prolonged contact between water and the mushroom surface. This often occurs due to condensation, misting, or excessive soaking.

When present in large amounts, Pseudomonas bacteria can produce enzymes that degrade the cell walls of the mushrooms. The symptoms of Pseudomonas contamination are typically superficial, manifesting as minor brown spotting on the mushroom surface. These spots generally do not affect the taste, texture, or odor of the mushroom. However, if the wet conditions persist, the contamination can progress to larger brown slimy patches and grooves, and may even lead to degradation of significant portions of the mushroom cap.

Since Pseudomonas bacteria are naturally present, prevention relies on providing adequate air exchange to facilitate the quick evaporation of moisture droplets. It is important to remove infected pins before misting, as the splashing can spread large amounts of the bacteria and accelerate the contamination process on other fruit bodies.




Cladobotryum

Cladobotryum is a genus of parasitic fungus that commonly infects mushrooms and casing layers in mushroom cultivation. It is typically sourced from soil and plants. There are multiple species of Cladobotryum, and the symptoms can vary depending on the specific species of mold and the type of mushroom being grown.

Cladobotryum infection leads to a condition known as cobweb disease. It is characterized by the growth of cobweb-like mycelium that covers the surface of the mushroom, resulting in the decay of the fruit body and heavy spore production. Spore spotting is particularly common when spores are present in the air. The growth and infection of Cladobotryum on the casing layer of mushrooms typically occur in later flushes, rather than during the initial pinning stage.

It is important to understand that Cladobotryum is primarily a casing layer and fruit body contaminant. It does not hinder the colonization of spawn or bulk substrate, nor does it serve as a source of infection for them. However, once the mushrooms have formed and the casing layer is in place, Cladobotryum can proliferate and cause significant damage to the fruit bodies.

The disease quickly spreads the substrate will stop producing healthy mushrooms and need to be discarded. You should avoid disturbing the contaminated substrate while indoors to prevent spores from being released into the indoor air.




Verticillium

Verticillium is a parasitic mold that can infect various mushroom species. It has multiple sources, including soil, plants, and flies. The severity and manifestation of Verticillium contamination can vary significantly.

The most common symptom of Verticillium infection is the appearance of brown spotting on the caps and stems of mushrooms. Unlike bacterial blotch, the spotting caused by Verticillium is dry, typically indented, and may develop a light gray fuzz in the center under high humidity conditions. The fungus often infects a specific side of a mushroom, causing growth to cease in that area. As healthy tissue continues to grow, it can lead to stem peeling, lesions, and cracking in the cap, which may result in a tilted appearance. When primordia (early stages of mushroom development) become infected, small "bubbles" of infected mushroom tissue may form. The infected tissue on both the bubbles and the growing mushrooms appears brown to gray and has a dry, leathery appearance.

Verticillium infection occurs when developing fruit bodies are exposed to Verticillium spores. Symptoms typically appear 7-14 days after exposure. Spawn is not typically a vector of contamination. Proper pasteurization of the substrate or casing material can destroy Verticillium spores, but maintaining good hygiene practices is essential to prevent recontamination.

The primary source of Verticillium spores is soil. Exposure can occur through airborne dust, insects, contact with contaminated surfaces (e.g., hands and clothes), and most notably, through aerosols created during misting. Even a single spray of water hitting a contaminated mushroom or surface can launch Verticillium spores up to two feet away.

Despite it's reputation, Verticillium infection is not common with indoor Cubensis and symptoms caused by bacteria are often mistaken for it.




Mycogone

Mycogone is a parasitic fungus that infects primordia (early stages of mushroom development) and small pins, resulting in monstrous deformations and rotten smelling fruitbodies. Like Verticillium this one has a big reputation but there's little evidence of it infecting Cubensis. Nevertheless strange growths of unknown causes are often blamed on it.



Cause of Contamination



Contaminated inoculant
Causes: Mold or bacteria in PF jars
        Mold or bacteria in grain spawn
        Mold or bacteria during or after spawn run (uncommon)

When a spore syringe is contaminated most or all jars inoculated with that syringe usually show the same contaminants. They are common problem for new cultivators. Obtain syringes from a reputable vendor and use peer reviewed techniques for making your own.

When spores transferred from a particular area of a spore print are contaminated the result is usually a single contaminated jar or plate. Any syringes made from that transfer will usually be contaminated. Limit transfers to small amounts of spores only to help avoid this. Avoid taking spores from outer edges of the printed area.

Liquid cultures are easily contaminated as all contaminants in the inoculant used to create them will be directly exposed to the medium (the broth). Contaminated liquid culture jars usually appear normal even when contaminated although heavy bacterial contamination can give it a cloudy appearance or create blob-like formations.

Agar cultures can be contaminated without showing signs. The contaminant could be something that landed on a colonized area or something growing beneath the mycelium. To avoid this isolate mycelium from spore or tissue inoculated plates by transferring a small piece of mycelium from the outer edge of the colony with an inoculation loop. Fully colonized plates should be avoided as the hyphae can grow up and out the sides of the plate. It may be helpful to smell the inoculation after a transfer if you suspect a contaminant may be present.

Botched inoculation
Causes: Mold or bacteria in grain spawn
        Mold or bacteria in PF jars
        Mold during or after spawn run
        Bacteria or stalling during spawn run

When steps have been taken to prevent cross-contamination this will result in a single contaminated jar, and at some or all inoculation points in PF jars. Things that can contaminate an inoculation include: touching a needle, scalpel, or inoculation with something that isn't not sterile, touching the sterile inside part of a jar with your gloves, exposure of sterile items to airborne contaminants, moving unsterile item over sterile areas, or moving unsterile items between the filter and sterile while using a flow hood.

Botched grain to grain transfer
Causes: Mold in spawn jars     
        Slow recolonization or stalling in spawn jars
        Slow colonization during spawn run
        Bacteria or stalling during spawn run
        Mold during or after spawn run (most common)
       
Similar causes to botched inoculations. The contaminant typically does not show up until the jar has been spawned. Contaminated g2gs often lead to a large number of jars becoming contaminated. G2Gs should always be done in a still air box or in front of a flow hood. Jars should be checked for odors before spawning. It's particularly important that jars and lids be disinfected as the vibrations created during the transfer can easily shake loose contaminants into the receiving jars.

Insufficient sterilization
Causes: Bacteria and stalling in spawn jars (most common)
        Bacteria and stalling in PF jars     

When sterilization temperature/times are not adequate bacterial contamination may occur. The bacteria is usually widespread in the substrate appearing days to weeks after the sterilization. It's important that steam fills the entire pressure cooker/pot before you start timing the procedure.

Larger substrates require longer times for the heat penetrate to the center, i.e. a gallon jar requires longer than 4 quart jars even though it's same amount of substrate.

Whole grain jars contain a lot of empty space between the grains which slow down heat penetration and require either a pressure cooker or very long sterilization times.

Compromised dry vermiculite layer
Causes: Mold or bacteria in PF jars (most common)
        Mold on dry vermiculite layer of PF jars
        Mold on PF cakes after birthing

When doing the PF the dry vermiculite layer on top acts as a filter. If it fails before the jar is fully colonized contaminants may start to grow in the uncolonized areas. This a common cause of contamination that first appears away from the inoculation points.

If the layer is shifted while moving the jar it creates an opportunity for the contaminated vermiculite on the surface to reach the sterile substrate. For that reason it's a good idea to have the layer fill the entire of the jar so the lid will help hold it in place. Coarse vermiculite in less effective so fine vermiculite should be used. If the layer becomes damp it will not prevent contaminants from reach the substrate.

Filter failure
Causes: Mold in spawn jars
        Bacteria or stalling in spawn jars       

When a filter becomes damaged, wet, or leaves any kind of open gap around the air holes

Improper pasteurization
Causes: Mold in later flushes (most common)
        Mold during spawn run or early flushes

Pasteurization temperatures range from 130-170F. The lower end of that range is not always sufficient in preventing survival of heat resistant molds.

In contrast, when temperatures are too high or sustained for too long it destroys more of the beneficial bacteria which would normally survive. Manure and compost substrates are most vulnerable to this. A common result from excessive pasteurization temperatures is incomplete colonization of the bulk substrate (early pinning) followed by visible Trichoderma infection.

Cross contamination after pasteurization
Causes: Mold during or after spawn run

When spawning it's important to limit exposure of the spawn grains and pasteurized substrate to contaminants. Hands, clothes, and hair are major vector for recontamination of pasteurized substrate. Cooling substrate should be protected from dust as much as possible.

Casing material is also vulnerable and contaminated casing material may lead to diseases like cobweb or verticillium. If using unpasteurized casing material it should be used straight from freshly opened or sealed bags.

Insufficient gas exchange during spawn run
Causes: Bacteria or stalling during spawn run
        Mold during spawn run
        Fermentation odor during spawn run

A lack a gas exchange while bulk substrates are colonizing creates anaerobic conditions which can stall the recovery and colonization of the mushroom mycelium and promote the growth of anaerobic bacteria. A fermentation odor may develop. In serious cases the mushroom mycelium does not recover allowing mold to colonize the grains.

Insufficient cooling of bulk substrate
Causes: Bacteria or stalling during spawn run
        Mold during spawn run

Mushroom mycelium is easily killed by high temperatures. All of the bulk substrate must be cooled to room temperature before spawning.

- Unfinished

*title edited 3/28/2020

Edited by fahtster (01/19/24 09:41 AM)

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InvisiblePastywhyteMDiscord
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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Kizzle] * 7
    #23130900 - 04/18/16 02:16 PM (8 years, 19 hours ago)

Fantastic work Kizzle, stickied :congrats:

I would like to chime in that verticillium fungicola has been reclassified as Lencacillium fungicola to distinguish it from the verticillium species that attack plants.

Very nice work man.

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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Pastywhyte] * 3
    #23131962 - 04/18/16 06:50 PM (8 years, 14 hours ago)

:takingnotes:

Excellent write up Kizzle.


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OfflinemyceliumEX
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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Grey] * 4
    #23132191 - 04/18/16 07:37 PM (8 years, 14 hours ago)

:whathesaid:
Very easy to follow, and great info on how to identify contams.


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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: myceliumEX] * 2
    #23133079 - 04/19/16 12:54 AM (8 years, 8 hours ago)

Great post! I've bookmarked it.:thumbup:

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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: jimmyjams] * 2
    #23143527 - 04/22/16 07:41 AM (7 years, 11 months ago)

great post! this is amazing, and ill deff be saving this as a bookmark!

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OfflineGreenPrayingMantis
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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: SpicyWizard] * 2
    #23201691 - 05/08/16 09:38 AM (7 years, 11 months ago)

thanks for the very good guide

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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: GreenPrayingMantis] * 2
    #23225531 - 05/14/16 10:49 AM (7 years, 10 months ago)

How to deal with bacteria endospores? I have suspicion that spore prints might be contaminated after repeatedly getting ruined PF cakes.


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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: sauroman1] * 2
    #23225653 - 05/14/16 11:23 AM (7 years, 10 months ago)

Usually endospores are a problem in cereal grain and we deal with them via pressure cooking. If your inoculate is the vector then you either need to get new prints or start working with agar to clean it up. Actually agar is the better road IMO. At that point tho most people get pressure cookers and start with grains.

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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Pastywhyte] * 2
    #23230050 - 05/15/16 01:33 PM (7 years, 10 months ago)

Yes, agar dish has advantages, but used it only for cyanescens. Endospores can be problem in any nutritious enviroment. Question is what it's vulnerable sides compared to cube spores? Keeping in water for long time can eliminate spores?
Don't have currently access to pressure cooker. But I've read that for Pf cakes it's not prerequisite.


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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Pastywhyte] * 2
    #23274034 - 05/26/16 01:56 PM (7 years, 10 months ago)

How is the bacteria manifesting? I mean is it showing up right away? Is it localized to the inoculation points or what?


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Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Kizzle] * 2
    #23281741 - 05/28/16 03:47 PM (7 years, 10 months ago)

:thumbup:


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OfflineSgt. Overkill
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Registered: 05/24/16
Posts: 10
Last seen: 6 years, 7 months
Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: PsilocyBen17] * 2
    #23355549 - 06/17/16 05:52 PM (7 years, 9 months ago)

Great guide! Very informative


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Sgt. Overkill of the 23rd Agar Division, Reporting for Duty!

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Invisiblefunkymonk22
In Service to the Ineffable..
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Registered: 01/25/16
Posts: 469
Loc: The Big O
Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Sgt. Overkill] * 2
    #23357709 - 06/18/16 11:14 AM (7 years, 9 months ago)

Yes, great post here...kinda answered the wuestion in my post, but hoping for a more specific answer to my problem...great job


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"The clouds didn't look like cotton, they didn't even look like clouds.."-Townes Van Zandt

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Offlinefundyfresh
Just bubbles
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Registered: 02/28/13
Posts: 11
Last seen: 7 years, 9 months
Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: funkymonk22] * 2
    #23374176 - 06/23/16 03:34 PM (7 years, 9 months ago)

Any thoughts on this. After first flushhttp:/

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InvisiblePastywhyteMDiscord
Say hello to my little friend
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Registered: 09/15/12
Posts: 37,844
Loc: Canada Flag
Trusted Cultivator
Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: fundyfresh] * 1
    #23374252 - 06/23/16 03:56 PM (7 years, 9 months ago)

Trich. At least ya got a flush.

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OfflineSkillzd
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Registered: 06/11/16
Posts: 197
Last seen: 7 years, 6 months
Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Pastywhyte] * 2
    #23391770 - 06/28/16 05:46 PM (7 years, 9 months ago)

Great post.  This is awesome.        Hey I have a question.  Sorry for the long text.  Wanted to explain quickly.    I was looking for a good place to check and I guess this is as good as any.      Ok so here's what happened.  Two of my cakes were too moist and started to ferment just a little.  I make wine and know the smell well and caught it early.    Mushrooms grow naturally around here and used to outback the neighbor said but someone dug a bunch up and never came back.    So I knew a perfect spot and dumped the cakes out in some shade but where light is perfect.  And hunidty and moisture is great.  I sprayed them down a bit so they would be rinsed and maybe grow hopefully.    I found a chunk of Mycellium growing about 2weeks later and it was under a leaf on a chunk of the cake I missed when rinsing.      I grabbed it up carefully and put it in some pasturized horse poo/straw/coco coir/Verm.  And put the chunk in the middle and layer of coco/Verm On top of it with some dry Verm too. 
I set it in an Aqaurium I had and slid it under my Motorhome so it wouldn't get rained on or in the sun.    Today here's what it looks like.    Is this anything I should keep still?    It really looked like the proper nice white Mycelium but now since its come thru the casing layer it's looking a tad bit different and just wanted a few opinions on wether j should keep or toss

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OfflineDubtubs420
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Registered: 07/21/16
Posts: 2
Last seen: 7 years, 8 months
Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Skillzd] * 2
    #23478319 - 07/26/16 10:39 AM (7 years, 8 months ago)

Is this contamination? Pitching it regardless, other jar has no progress, can post more photos.
Day 13 now for this jar.


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Offlinenakano
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Registered: 05/21/16
Posts: 10
Last seen: 7 years, 5 months
Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: Dubtubs420] * 2
    #23568780 - 08/23/16 10:47 AM (7 years, 7 months ago)

Basically anything not white, right?

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OfflineShaker77
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Registered: 04/30/16
Posts: 2
Last seen: 7 years, 6 months
Re: Recognizing and dealing with contamination [Re: nakano] * 2
    #23575511 - 08/25/16 09:49 AM (7 years, 7 months ago)

Good Morning, I was hoping that someone would be able to help me. I'm in my first flush and pining has started, however I have, what looks like some contamination occurring, on half of the surface,it looks like green mold, I tried to scoop it all out, but it just keeps coming back, should I salt that whole area, and hope for the best, or do I just let it go for now. Any help from someone with more knowledge then me would be greatly appreciated. Looking forward to hearing from someone. Thank-you

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