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InvisibleSixTango
Mycota

Registered: 01/21/02
Posts: 1,996
Loc: A little North of Paradis...
In the beginning, there were spores.........
    #1519901 - 05/04/03 06:55 PM (13 years, 7 months ago)

CLICK HERE, TO LEARN MORE:

If your library can get these books: They contain some good info:


TITLE: Mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.
AUTHOR(S): Zhang-RuiHong; Li-XiuJin; Zhang-RH; Li-XJ
SOURCE (BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION): ASAE Annual International Meeting, Orlando, Florida, USA, 12-16 July, 1998. 1998, 10 pp.; ASAE Paper no. 984140; 9 ref.
PUBLISHER INFORMATION: American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE); St Joseph; USA
LANGUAGE OF TEXT: English
ABSTRACT: Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was studied. The effects of straw size reduction methods and particle sizes, spawn inoculation level, and types of substrate (rice straw vs. wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. The protein content of mushrooms produced was 27.2% on average. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1 to 44.3%. Yields were higher from substrates which had been ground-up to 2.5-cm lengths; further size reductions lowered yields. Mushroom cultivation is a highly efficient method for disposing of agricultural residues as well as producing nutritious human food.
PUBLICATION TYPE: Conference-paper
ACCESSION NUMBER: 980313834.

TITLE: Composting in aerated tunnels for mushroom cultivation: influences of process temperature and substrate formulation on compost bulk density and productivity.
AUTHOR(S): Noble-R; Gaze-RH; Szmidt-RAK
SOURCE (BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION): Proceedings of the international symposium on composting and use of composted materials for horticulture, Auchincruive, April 1997. Acta-Horticulturae. 1998, No. 469, 417-426; 16 ref.
LANGUAGE OF TEXT: English
ABSTRACT: Two partially enclosed composting processes were compared in terms of mushroom yield, compost density and odour pollution. The processes were a single tunnel system, based on a standard Phase II pasteurisation, and a two tunnel system, where a Phase II tunnel process was preceded by a six day, lower aeration, 'high' temperature phase. There were no significant odour emissions from either the single or 2-tunnel composting systems. The 2-tunnel process resulted in a compost with a higher bulk density and mushroom yield potential than the single tunnel process. The addition of a low rate of cellulase enzyme did not affect the bulk density or mushroom yield potential of the compost. Mushroom yields and bulk densities from the 2-tunnel system, using compost prepared with chopped straw and a proportion of recycled compost, were not significantly different to those obtained from conventionally prepared composts.
PUBLICATION TYPE: Conference-paper; Journal-article
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER: 90-6605-880-3
ACCESSION NUMBER: 981915055.

TITLE: Growth of mycelium of Agaricus bisporus on biomass and conidium of Humicola insolens.
AUTHOR(S): Bilay-VT; Lelley-JI
SOURCE (BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION): Angewandte-Botanik. 1997, 71: 1-2, 21-23; 4 pl.; 9 ref.
LANGUAGE OF TEXT: English
LANGUAGE OF SUMMARIES: German
ABSTRACT: Thermophilic fungi, including H. insolens, play an important role in the formation of substrates for cultivation of mushrooms. The growth of mushroom (strain X20) mycelia on biomass of H. insolens IBKF 519 (IMI 354859) was investigated. Mushroom mycelia grew better on live sporogenous biomass and conidia (on membrane filters) than on autoclaved conidia and sporogenous biomass. On the 2nd and 3rd days of growth on the live biomass and conidia, mushroom mycelia were orientated exclusively towards H. insolens. The exclusive orientation was not observed in autoclaved biomass and conidia. On the 7th day of cultivation, mushroom mycelium had grown 2-2.2 cm from the edge of the inoculum over live biomass, 1.2-1.8 cm over autoclaved biomass, 1.4-1.6 cm over alive conidia of H. ins
lens on membrane filters and 1-1.1 cm over autoclaved conidia of H. insolens on membrane filters. On live biomass and conidia of H. insolens, mushroom colonies were appressed and string-line. On autoclaved media of H. insolens, mushrooms formed a felted or pubescent colonies.
PUBLICATION TYPE: Journal-article
ACCESSION NUMBER: 970311538.

TITLE: A practical enzymatic method to estimate wheat straw quality as raw material for mushroom cultivation.
AUTHOR(S): Chalau-XN; Libmond-S; Savoie-JM
SOURCE (BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION): Bioresource-Technology. 1995, 53: 3, 277-281; 20 ref.
LANGUAGE OF TEXT: English
ABSTRACT: Wheat straw is the principle raw material for edible mushroom substrate preparation in Europe and America. The biodegradation of wheat straw by saprotrophic microorganisms was examined. The composition of 29 samples of straw was determined and the effects of genetic variations, cultivation practices and sites were observed. Ash content, water soluble compounds of the straw and the in vitro degradability of polysaccharides were compared. Correlations between the measurements were determined with 52 straw samples and a practical simplified method was proposed. The in vitro degradability of polysaccharides was the most discriminative variate with the two first principle components. The significance of these measurements was investigated and discussed.
PUBLICATION TYPE: Journal-article
ACCESSION NUMBER: 961300780.

TITLE: Cobalt chloride and ethylene affect fruiting of Agaricus bisporus.
AUTHOR(S): Kurtzmann-RH Jr..
SOURCE (BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION): Mycologia. 1995, 87: 3, 366-369; 9 ref.
LANGUAGE OF TEXT: English
ABSTRACT: The addition of _0.8 mM cobalt chloride to the casing in mushroom cultivation caused a delay in the initiation of fruiting and a decrease in yield. Surprisingly, the addition of approximately 1.0 mM cobalt chloride to the casing often had far less apparent effect on mushroom initiation and yield. The cobalt from the casing was concentrated in the fruiting bodies. Exposure to ethylene reduced the cobalt-induced delay in the initiation of fruiting. However, since fruiting occurred even at high concentrations of cobalt, ethylene did not seem to be required for fruiting. The phenomena were reproducible, but some mushroom strains were apparently more affected than others.
PUBLICATION TYPE: Journal-article
ACCESSION NUMBER: 950315693.

TITLE: Mushroom cultivation on spent biomass from biogas plants.
AUTHOR(S): Gangulli-NK; Chanakya-HN
SOURCE (BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION): Current-Science. 1994, 66: 1, 70-73; 1 pl.; 12 ref..
LANGUAGE OF TEXT: English
ABSTRACT: The cultivation of Pleurotus flabellatus on the spent biomass residue of biogas plants is reported. The spent biomass, either containing Euphorbia sp. (50%), Synedrella nodiflora (30%), and mixed species (20%), or mainly Synedrella spp., was mixed or layered with paddy straw (in a ratio of 1:1). High yields of mushrooms were observed on these substrates compared with 100% paddy straw substrate.
PUBLICATION TYPE: Journal-article
ACCESSION NUMBER: 950304847

TITLE: Controlled environment composting for mushroom cultivation: substrates based on wheat and barley straw and deep litter poultry manure.
AUTHOR(S): Noble-R; Gaze-RH
SOURCE (BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION): Journal-of-Agricultural-Science. 1994, 123: 1, 71-79; 33 ref.
LANGUAGE OF TEXT: English
ABSTRACT: Substrates for mushroom cultivation were prepared, following a 2 day mixing and blending process, in bulk tunnels under a controlled temperature regime using forced ventilation. The temperature regime was based on a conventional bulk tunnel composting process (pasteurization at 60 ?C for 6 h followed by a conditioning phase at 47 ?C until clear of NH3). This process did not result in strong odours. The substrates were ready for inoculation with mushroom 'spawn' 7-12 d. after the initial mixing of the compost ingredients. Increased mushroom yields were obtained by increasing the N content of the compost from 1.1 to 2.5% dry matter. The increase was attained by increasing the quantity of deep litter poultry manure added to straw. Further increases in the substrate N content resulted in prolonged tunnel processing times, substrate desiccation, incomplete clearance of ammonia from the substrate and low or no mushroom yields. Substrate bulk density at the time of spawning decreased with increasing N content, but was increased by chopping the straw ingredient. Mushroom yields from composts prepared with barley straw were significantly lower than those from wheat straw composts, at equivalent N contents. Supplementation of prepared substrates with the proprietary protein-rich ingredient, Betamyl 1000, increased yields by 13.6%.
PUBLICATION TYPE: Journal-article
ACCESSION NUMBER: 951300761

TITLE: Physical management and interpretation of an environmentally controlled composting ecosystem.
AUTHOR(S): Harper-E; Miller-FC; Macauley-BJ
SOURCE (BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION):
Australian-Journal-of-Experimental-Agriculture. 1992, 32: 5, 657-667; 33 ref..
LANGUAGE OF TEXT: English
ABSTRACT: Compost for mushroom cultivation was prepared in an
environmentally controlled composting (ECC) system of 10 t maximum loading. Early in processing, ventilation was manually controlled to provide aerobic conditions. When the desired compost temperatures were reached, temperature feedback control was used. Physical uniformity of processing conditions was achieved by recirculating large volumes of air within the reactor. Heat production peaked early in the composting process, reaching a maximum of about 8-9 W/kg initial wet (67-71%) substrate. When compost temperatures were allowed to rise to 63?C, maximum heat production occurred at 55-63?C. Total heat production per initial wet weight averaged 1.23 MJ/kg (range 0.92-1.51 MJ/kg), or 5.11 MJ/kg (range 4.04-7.57 MJ/kg) when measured per initial volatile dry matter. Heat evolution averaged 18.3 MJ/kg decomposed (range 15.4-22.0 MJ/kg). Oxygen usage followed a pattern similar to that of heat production, reaching a maximum in the 55-63?C range. Peak O2 usage was about 9 x 10-7 kg O2/kg compost, or in volume terms, 2.9 x 10-6 m3 air/kg compost. During temperature feedback control, O2 levels were maintained at about 19%. The enclosed ECC system permitted mass balance data to be collected for various components. Trials demonstrated that temperature and 02 could be closely controlled, resulting in good compost uniformity.
PUBLICATION TYPE: Journal-article
ACCESSION NUMBER: 931979451

TITLE: Adjustment of the composting process for mushroom cultivation based on initial substrate composition
AUTHORS: Straatsma_G, Gerrits_JPG, Thissen_JTNM, Amsing_JGM, Loeffen_H, VanGriensven_LJLD
JN: BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 2000, Vol.72, No.1, pp.67-74
ABSTRACT: The feasibility of adjusting individual composting processes to be able to produce the desired mass of compost of the required composition was evaluated. Data sets from experiments in tunnels were constructed and analyzed. Total mass and dry matter contents at the start and at the end of composting contained much statistical error. Error was propagated into the calculated central parameter of the process, the loss of dry matter. Water loss was estimated based on dry matter loss, heat generation and evaporation in a model. Estimated and actual losses from individual processes almost lacked correlation but the averages were rather similar. It is not the model but the error in input data that prevent the accurate prediction of the losses of water and of total matter. Moreover, error masked any correlation between the loss of dry matter and processing parameters. A model cannot be successfully applied to adjust an individual composting process. Compost producers should focus on getting the composition of the substrate constant at the start of processing. Adjusting an individual process is not a very reliable option. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

TITLE: Influence of wheat cultivars on straw quality and Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation
AUTHORS: Labuschagne_PM, Eicker_A, Aveling_TAS, deMeillon_S, Smith_MF
JN: BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 2000, Vol.71, No.1, pp.71-75
ABSTRACT: The main raw material for Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) cultivation is wheat straw. Estimation of straw biodegradability from 15 different spring wheat cultivars under irrigation in South Africa was determined using linear discriminant analysis to discriminate or group the 15 cultivars by combining chemical analysis and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were found between ash, nitrogen, reducing sugars, anthrone reactive- carbohydrates, water-soluble dry matter, and oyster mushroom yields. The significance of these measurements was investigated and discussed. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

TITLE: Determination of the content of water and rice bran in solid media used for mushroom cultivation using near-infrared spectroscopy
AUTHORS: Yano_T, Suehara_K, Nakano_Y
JN: JOURNAL OF FERMENTATION AND BIOENGINEERING, 1998, Vol.86, No.5, pp.472-476
ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was employed for the simultaneous determination of the water and rice bran content in solid media used for mushroom cultivation. The solid media were prepared by addition of water to a mixture of sawdust with rice bran and wheat bran. The medium packed in a polyethylene bag was placed in a near-infrared spectrophotometer. The reflected rays, in the wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm, were measured at 2 nm intervals. To obtain a calibration equation for water content, a simple linear regression was carried out on the near-infrared spectral data at 1450 nm and on the water content of a calibration sample set (sample number, n=113) obtained using dry-weight method. The values of the simple correlation coefficient and the standard error of calibration were 0.995 and 1.33%, respectively. On the basis of the result of a multiple linear regression on the content of rice bran in the solid media, a calibration equation using the second- derivative reflectance data at the wavelengths of 672 and 2100 nm was obtained, with the values of the multiple correlation coefficient and standard error of 0.978 and 1.73%, respectively. To validate the calibration equations obtained, water and rice bran content in the prediction sample set (n=56) not used for formulating the calibration equations were calculated using the calibration equations, and compared with the values obtained using the dry-weight method based on the mixing ratio. For both the water and rice bran content, excellent agreement was observed between the results of the conventional method and those of NIR method. The simple correlation coefficient and standard error of prediction mere 0.995 and 1.33% for water content and 0.975 and 1.84% for rice bran content. The content of water and rice bran in the solid media could be analyzed simultaneously by NIR. The NIR procedure was simple, and the operation time required to determine the content was only 5 min. These results indicate that NIR may be a useful method for monitoring the content of water and rice bran in solid media used for mushroom cultivation.

TITLE: Effect of bacterial inoculants on mycelial growth, pinning, yield and quality of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)
AUTHOR: Ahlawat_OP
JN: JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, 1998, Vol.57, No.10-11, pp.686-691
ABSTRACT: With a view to preparing microbial inoculants for white button mushroom cultivation, a total of 50 bacterial isolates, including 36 from pasteurized compost and 14 from spent compost based pasteurized casing have been isolated. All the bacterial isolates have been tested for interactional studies against 9 strains (S- 11, S-310, S- 791, U-3, NCS-5, NCS-11, NCS-12, P-1 and MS-39) of A. bisporus under in vitro conditions on compost extract agar medium. After screening for various types of interactions a total of 8 bacterial isolates, including 4 strong synergists and 4 strong antagonists have been selected for further investigations. In in vitro studies under liquid culture conditions and in vivo studies for pinning initiation and fructification only 3 promising strains (S-ll, S-791 and U-3) of A. bisporus have been used. It is found that under liquid culture conditions the autoclaved cells of synergistic isolate Ca-5 and Ca-17 stimulate mycelial growth of all strains of A. bisporus. Under in vivo studies, the inoculation of synergistic isolate Ca-5 in casing 1:100 v/w at the time of casing induce pinning earlier than other treatments in all strains, but is at par with pasteurized casing treatment. It is observed that the inoculation of this isolate in casing also enhance yield in 6 weeks of cropping in all the three A. bisporus strains while, the response of other isolates inoculations varies with the mushroom strain. However, the inoculation of synergist Ca-5 and Ca-17 in casing is found to improve mushroom quality in all strains, as compared to pasteurized casing and antagonist inoculation treatments in casing soil.

TITLE: Controlled environment composting for mushroom cultivation- substrates based on wheat and barley straw and deep litter poultry manure
AUTHORS: Noble R, Gaze RH.
JN: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE, 1994, Vol.123, No.Pt1, pp.71-79
ABSTRACT: Substrates for mushroom cultivation were prepared, following a 2 day mixing and blending process, in bulk tunnels under a controlled temperature regime using forced ventilation. The temperature regime was based on a conventional bulk tunnel composting process, i.e. pasteurization at 60-degrees-C for 6 h, followed by a conditioning phase at 47-degrees-C until the substrate was clear of ammonia. With the exception of ammonia, which increased with increasing compost nitrogen content, this process did not result in strong odours. The substrates were ready for inoculation with mushroom 'spawn' 7-12 days after the initial mixing of the compost ingredients. Increasing the compost nitrogen content from 1.1 to 2.5% of the dry matter by increasing the quantity of deep litter poultry manure added to straw in the ingredients resulted in a greater subsequent yield of mushrooms. Further increases in the substrate nitrogen content resulted in prolonged tunnel processing times, substrate desiccation, incomplete clearance of ammonia from the substrate and subsequently low or no mushroom yields. Substrate bulk density at the time of spawning decreased with increasing nitrogen content, but was increased by chopping the straw ingredient. Mushroom yields from composts prepared with barley straw were significantly lower than those from wheat straw composts, at equivalent nitrogen contents. Supplementation of prepared substrates with the proprietary protein- rich ingredient, Betamyl 1000, increased yields by 13.6%.

6T  :tongue: 


--------------------
~whiskey river rafting, hot tubbing, dirty dancing & spending money on - wild women - having fun & just gonna waste the rest~


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OfflineMike Elium
.the Mycelium

Registered: 02/04/03
Posts: 245
Loc: on the edge
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
Re: In the beginning, there were spores......... [Re: SixTango]
    #1520629 - 05/05/03 12:10 AM (13 years, 7 months ago)


6T....thanks.....cool


--------------------
your inside is out, and your outside is in.


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InvisiblePrisoner#1M
Even Dumber ThanAdvertized!
 User Gallery

Registered: 01/22/03
Posts: 191,681
Loc: Pvt. Pubfag NutSuck
Trusted Cultivator
Re: In the beginning, there were spores......... [Re: Mike Elium]
    #1520921 - 05/05/03 01:51 AM (13 years, 7 months ago)

ong from this viod 6T said...'let there be fruits'...'no...wait...mushrooms'.....and he ate them and they were good....

how in the hell you gleaned that info I'll never know....but I do apreciate it....now, if I can teach the neighbors cows to read....I'll be in buisness....


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Amazon Shop for: Agar

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