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Yes, it's common for mushrooms to come up in the same spot for several years. How long they keep coming up depends on the site and the mushrooms.
If the mushrooms are saprophytes, then they will disappear when whatever they're breaking down runs out. Most (if not all) psychedelic mushrooms fall into this category. If the material breaking down is dung, then addition of more of the same kind of dung will prolong the presence of the associated mushroom species. If it's wood, then you could prolong things by adding wood chips of the same type. In both cases you would need to be careful to minimize alterations to the habitat or you might cause a change in the mushroom species present.
If the mushrooms are mycorrhizal, then the age of their host is usually the thing which determines. At different ages many trees will start or stop producing various terpenes and other chemicals which their mycorrhizal fungi might like or dislike. Since there is usually competition for the space on the tree roots, the lack of a desirable substance or presence of an undesirable one can easily tip the balance and cause the mycoflora around the tree to change.