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Invisiblemjshroomer
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How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.)
    #1466732 - 04/17/03 11:14 AM (14 years, 17 days ago)

The genus Psilocybe is quite large, consisting of over 246 known species.
More than 114 of these Psilocybe species are entheogenic. That is, they contain the alkaloids psilocine and/or psilocybine and related tryptamine compounds.

Psilocybe species have a wide variety of habitats which include: dung, manured soil, sandy soil, pastures, meadows, lawns, woods, among decayed twigs and leaves, spaghnum moss, woodchips and bark mulch.

Psilocybe species have certain characteristics common throughout the genus. These include: a conic to bell shaped cap, usually with a nipple or umbo at the top (see illustration below of various species with conical or cone-shaped caps).

The margins of the caps are often incurved when young. Some caps become convex and flat with age, others become wavy.

The caps are viscid when moist and the margin is translucent-striate (meaning that the lines of the gill plates are visable on the caps when moist). Psilocybe species have a viscid pellicle (a film or membrane which can easily be separated from the cap).

Colors of the caps may range from a dark olive brown or chestnut rusty color when fresh to pale yellow when dried. The caps are hygrophanous, meaning that they change color as they dry. A slight bluing may occur along the outer edges of the caps when damaged. In some species this bluing is very intense. The color of the gills may range from cinnamon
brown to dark chocolate or purple brown. The color of the spores are also chocolate to purple brown. The stems are hollow with a fine pith.

Some species such as Psilocybe semilanceata (the "liberty cap") can be wrapped around the finger like a piece of string. Certain varieties (psilocybe cubensis and/or Psilocybe subcubensis, Psilocybe fimetaria and Psilocybe stuntzii) usually have a dark chocolate-purple ring around the top of the stem where the mushroom cap has detached itself from the stem. The purple color of the ring on the stems of some Psilocybe species is due to spores falling on the stem after the cap of the mushrooms has opened. The color of the stems may range from a pallid yellow or yellow-brown to olive brown while other species have pure white stems.

Bluing on the white stemmed varieties is usually very intense. In some regions, some species occur throughout the year depending on their locations and and climatic environments.

There are, of course, certain chemical applications used to speed up the bluing reaction which occurs in psilocybian mushrooms. One method involves "metol", a chemical used in photographic developing. "Metol" can be legally purchased from any camera and photographic supply outlet.

Mix 1 part Metol with 20 parts water. Place the stem of the suspected mushroom in a "metol" solution and wait for approximately 1/2 hour. If the solution turns blue, you have actually collected a mushroom containing psilocybin.

In the illustration posted directly below are several species of psilocybian mushrooms, the first two are the mushroom from ergot from which LSD is made from. Then we also show a Pluteus and A Gymnopilus species and several Psilocybe species. Notice the variations of these mushrooms. Each is a separate speci9es from the other, yet they have trhe same characteristics of the genera in each one.



Now about Panaeolus and Copelandia species.

If the sporeprint is jet black, then the mushroom belongs to one of the following genera: Panaeolus and/or Copelandia species.

These are two families which have mushrooms found to contain the alkaloids known as psilocine and/or psilocybine.

Coprinus (shaggy Mane) and/or Anellaria also have jet black sporeprints but are not hallucinogeic.
Both Panaeolus and Copelandia mushrooms can be collected in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres and are found in the manure of four-legged ruminants.

mj


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Offlinecube421
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mjshroomer]
    #1466892 - 04/17/03 12:27 PM (14 years, 17 days ago)

so much information, so little time =(


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Anonymous

Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mjshroomer] * 1
    #1466924 - 04/17/03 12:39 PM (14 years, 17 days ago)

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InvisibleGGreatOne234
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: ]
    #1471644 - 04/18/03 11:04 PM (14 years, 16 days ago)

Save this post in the Mushroom Hunting FAQ Somewhere,

GG


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Anonymous

Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: GGreatOne234]
    #1482506 - 04/22/03 03:32 PM (14 years, 12 days ago)

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Invisibleno-tone
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mjshroomer]
    #1482961 - 04/22/03 05:25 PM (14 years, 12 days ago)

ALL Psilocybe spp. have a membranous pellicle?


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Offlinefuznickit
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: no-tone]
    #1500593 - 04/28/03 02:11 PM (14 years, 6 days ago)

If I have metol, it will tell me whether or not the mushrooms contains psilocybe....and whether or not I can eat it..right?


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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: fuznickit]
    #1500603 - 04/28/03 02:17 PM (14 years, 6 days ago)

You really do not need metol to test your shrooms and I am not sure it photo shops still sell it.

The bluing in a species is natural ffrom natural damages to the shrooms from wind, rain, falling leaves slugs chewing on them, humans walking on them. They all leave bluing maerks from damage to a fresh shroom or one in aging process.

mj


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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: no-tone]
    #1500606 - 04/28/03 02:18 PM (14 years, 6 days ago)

IT already says that above.

mj


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Offlinemycophat
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mjshroomer]
    #1501183 - 04/28/03 05:44 PM (14 years, 6 days ago)

Believe me I'm not trying to question you Mjshroomer but I am still a little unclear, any mushroom that falls within the characteristics stated above and turns blue is ok to eat? I had read somewhere that just because a mushroom turns blue does not mean you can eat it and that it STILL might be poison. Is there a poisonous speicies that turns blue when injured that you know of.

Like I said I'm not trying to question you or your knowlage of shrooms,I'm just trying to use what you know to my advantage so as I dont go and eat a poisonous one by mistake and end up dead.


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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mycophat]
    #1501449 - 04/28/03 06:55 PM (14 years, 6 days ago)

Boletus cyanescens, B. satanicus and a few others turn blue when injred but thgey are Boletes and do not have gills but spongy bottoms. If the mushroom does not have choclate to purple brown spores,, then do not pick or eat them.

mj

Where are you?



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Invisibleno-tone
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mjshroomer]
    #1503457 - 04/29/03 06:37 AM (14 years, 5 days ago)

From what I've seen in pictures, the pellicle on P. semilanceata is really different from P. cubensis. Of course, I don't have that much experience so i may be wrong, but it appears that Libs are much more membranous and moist.


--------------------
Man thinks. God laughs. - Jewish Proverb


Edited by no-tone (04/29/03 12:28 PM)


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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: no-tone]
    #1503752 - 04/29/03 10:58 AM (14 years, 5 days ago)

Well P. cubensis use to be a Stropharia.

Stropharia cubensis Earle

Now it is called Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Singer.

Of course it really is notnhing like most smaller Psilocybes.

But it is microscopically a Psilocybe.

mj


Edited by mjshroomer (04/29/03 10:59 AM)


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InvisibleKOPELANDIAA
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mjshroomer]
    #1504868 - 04/29/03 05:02 PM (14 years, 5 days ago)

this "metol test" is incredibly precious !!!
everybody must know that ! Maybe less accidents could occur thanks to this method...and thanks to Mjshroomer too !


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OfflinemotamanM
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mjshroomer]
    #1505621 - 04/29/03 08:29 PM (14 years, 5 days ago)

thanks mjshroomer ..for the great post....  :laugh: 


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Offlineghoo
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mjshroomer]
    #1519942 - 05/04/03 07:18 PM (14 years, 7 hours ago)

Hi fellow travellers, hi mjshroomer.

First I want to thank you mushroom John for many great writings and webpages.

Second, I want to give some views from a newbie perspective.

I the guide we can first read:
Quote:

If the sporeprint is jet black, then the mushroom belongs to one of the following genera: Panaeolus and/or Copelandia species.




Then as a newbie, one really believes that if the sporeprint is jet black, the mushroom belongs to either Panaeolus or the Copelandia species.

But, then comes the confusing contradiction:
Quote:

Coprinus (shaggy Mane) and/or Anellaria also have jet black sporeprints...





This makes me lost.

Imho, mushroom-guides are most essential for newbies, therefor they must be concrete and able to be trusted.


Lets update the mushroom guide?


Peace,

ghoo


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Offlineblaze2
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: ghoo]
    #1520243 - 05/04/03 09:25 PM (14 years, 5 hours ago)

coprinus dont usually grow from dung


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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Registered: 07/22/99
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: blaze2]
    #1520555 - 05/04/03 11:45 PM (14 years, 2 hours ago)

The following Genera beolong to the family of Coprinacea and include: Coprinus, Annalaria, Panaeolus and Copelandia and they all have black spore prints. The former are not psychoactive and the latter two genera are.

Copelandia and Panaeolus grow directly out of manure.

WE were talking about psilocybian mushrooms.

Panaeolus have mushrooms with [psilocybine/psilocine and then they one ones which do not.

All 13 species of Copelanda have psilocybine/psilocine in them.

Nopt all pastures have magic shrooms growing in them and then that depends on when the cattle are in the pens or paddocks and how they move to and from from vartious penned in areas for feeding purposes and after four to six weeks of decomposition of the manure and the right weather conditions can make for or not produce a good crop of shromms.

One is more likely to find Panaeolussubbalteatus in composting hay then in manure.

One will always find Copelandia species in manure, form one to 200 or more mushrooms in a single cowpie.

In short grass in manure or in tall grass in manure.

And the species is usually one or two Copelandias in a partucular field.

P. cubensis grow in manure, but the majority of Psilocybian mushrooms (191 species) grow in manured soil or in woodchips and bark mulch and not directly in manure.

mj


Edited by mjshroomer (05/04/03 11:47 PM)


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OfflineWysefool
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Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: mjshroomer]
    #1522056 - 05/05/03 04:11 PM (13 years, 11 months ago)

So is it safe to say that any mushroom with a jet-black sporeprint that grow in British Columbia in the spring is Hallucinogenic, or at least edible? How about one with a light grey print?


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Anonymous

Re: How to identify Psilocybe Species and Panaeolus. (Illus.) [Re: Wysefool]
    #1522097 - 05/05/03 04:24 PM (13 years, 11 months ago)

Listen to MJ, he's cool man!


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