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InvisibleBilge
longtimenoC

Registered: 08/26/02
Posts: 1,858
Loc: USA
Psilocybe Features?
    #1425559 - 04/03/03 09:14 AM (14 years, 5 months ago)

can anyone post and/or point me to the distinguishing features of the genus Psilocybe? in other words, what primary features identify the Psilocybe species? i'm thinking spore characteristics, morphology, etc. etc. please excuse my lack of knowledge on this one.


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Edited by Bilge (04/03/03 09:15 AM)


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OfflineToxicManM
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Re: Psilocybe Features? [Re: Bilge]
    #1425642 - 04/03/03 10:30 AM (14 years, 5 months ago)

Quoting from How to Identify Mushrooms to Genus II: Field Identification of Genera, by David L Largent and Harry D Thiers.

The following features are used by us to distinguish some species of Psilocybe.
1. The basal portion of the stipe turns greenish to bluish green.
2. the gills are strongly adnate, not mottled, and typically black when the spores are mature.
3. the basidiocarp is usually reminiscent of a Collybia or a Mycena.
4. the pileus assumes some bizarre shapes, such as the shape of Psilocybe semilanceata.
5. the pileus is often distinctly viscid.
6. the basidiocarps are not truly coprophilous although they are frequently collected in pastures.


Quoting from How to Identify Mushrooms to Genus IV: Keys to Families and Genera, by Daniel E Stuntz.

Hymenophoral trama regular. Basidia not excessively long, 2- or 4-spored, lacking siderophilous granulation. ... Cystidia well differentiated on gill margin, frequently on gill face also, and there usually accompanied or replaced by chrysocystidia which are characteristically clavate or clavate mucronate. Hyphae usually with clamp connections, inamyloid, forming a homiomerous trama. Pileipellis a cutis of repent filamentous hyphae the desposition of which may be frequently masked by overlying filamentous velar remains, or hyphae erect to suberect to form a trichodermium which in some species approaching an epithelium in structure constituents often strongly colored and/or incrusted, and frequently overlying subcellular units.

Stipe central to somewhat excentric, not short and curved.

Chrysocystidia absent from the hymenium.

Spore print deep lilac or purple, or blackish purple or dark sepia or fuscous; spores in KOH olive brown tinged with fuscous as seen under the microscope, usually with a reddish chestnut line inside the endosporium seen at the point just above optical section.

Basidiocarp (especially the base of the stipe) staining blue or greenish blue where handled, or, if not, stipe not viscid (the pileus may be viscid, however).



Hope that's helpful.


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InvisibleBilge
longtimenoC

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Re: Psilocybe Features? [Re: ToxicMan]
    #1425683 - 04/03/03 10:51 AM (14 years, 5 months ago)

exactly what i wanted. thank you!


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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Re: Psilocybe Features? [Re: Bilge]
    #1425722 - 04/03/03 11:18 AM (14 years, 5 months ago)

From Mushroom John's Shroom World

How To Identify Psilocybian Mushrooms

Chocolate to Purple Colored Spores and Sporeprints

In order to properly identify and key a particular species of fungi
to its genus one must first make a sporeprint. A sporeprint will tell
which family a particular species of mushroom belongs to. First cut
the stem from off of the mushroom cap and then place the cap of the
mushroom face down on a piece of white paper. Next place an empty jar
over the cap of the mushroom. This will allow the spores of the mushroom
to settle on the paper below and the glass jar will keep the spores
from blowing away. After 20 minutes or more, remove the jar from the
paper and lift the mushroom cap from the paper.

Psilocybian mushrooms described in this guide can be identified by
an enzyme which occurs in fungi containing the alkaloids psilocybin
and/or psilocin, with an indole nucleus and producing by an oxidative
process, a blue pigment.


When the flesh of the stem or cap of a fresh mushroom is bruised or
damaged (whether from human handling, wind, insects or falling objects),
an enzyme occurs which oxidises as it comes into contact with air. This
causes the damaged area of the mushroom to turn blue or blue green.
Many species of psilocybian fungi have stems ranging in color from a
pallid yellow white to an off white. Bluing in psilocybian mushrooms
is common after damage has occurred. The bluing reaction occurs within
10 to 20 minutes after human handling but may already be noticible in
fungi damaged from natural elements and from bluing with aging.

The genus Psilocybe is quite large, consisting of over 246 known species.
More than 114 of these Psilocybe species are entheogenic. Psilocybe
species have a wide variety of habitats which include: dung, manured
soil, sandy soil, pastures, meadows, lawns, woods, among decayed twigs
and leaves, spaghnum moss, woodchips and bark mulch.

Psilocybe species have certain characteristics common throughout the
genus. These include: a conic to bell shaped cap, usually with a nipple
or umbo at the top. The margins of the caps are often incurved when
young. Some caps become convex and flat with age, others become wavy.
The caps are viscid when moist and the margin is translucent-striate
(meaning that the lines of the gill plates are visable on the caps when
moist). Psilocybe species have a viscid pellicle (a film or membrane
which can easily be separated from the cap).

Colors of the caps may range from a dark olive brown or chestnut rusty
color when fresh to pale yellow when dried. The caps are hygrophanous,
meaning that they change color as they dry. A slight bluing may occur
along the outer edges of the caps when damaged. In some species this
bluing is very intense. The color of the gills may range from cinnamon
brown to dark chocolate or purple brown. The color of the spores are
also chocolate to purple brown. The stems are hollow with a fine pith.

Some species such as Psilocybe semilanceata (the "liberty cap") can
be wrapped around the finger like a piece of string. Certain varieties
(psilocybe cubensis and/or Psilocybe subcubensis, Psilocybe fimetaria
and Psilocybe stuntzii) usually have a dark chocolate-purple ring around
the top of the stem where the mushroom cap has detached itself from
the stem. The purple color of the ring on the stems of some Psilocybe
species is due to spores falling on the stem after the cap of the mushrooms
has opened. The color of the stems may range from a pallid yellow or
yellow-brown to olive brown while other species have pure white stems.
Bluing on the white stemmed varieties is usually very intense. In some
regions, some species occur throughout the year depending on their locations
and and climatic environments.

There are, of course, certain chemical applications used to speed up
the bluing reaction which occurs in psilocybian mushrooms. One method
involves "metol", a chemical used in photographic developing. "Metol"
can be legally purchased from any camera and photographic supply outlet.
Mix 1 part Metol with 20 parts water. Place the stem of the suspected
mushroom in a "metol" solution and wait for approximately 1/2 hour.
If the solution turns blue, you have actually collected a mushroom containing
Psilocybin

Black Colored Spores and Sporeprints

If the sporeprint is jet black, then the mushroom belongs to one
of the following genera: Panaeolus and/or Copelandia. Coprinus (shaggy
Mane) and/or Anellaria also have jet black sporeprints but are not
hallucinogeic. Both Panaeolus and Copelandia mushrooms contain the
alkaloids psilocybin and psilocin.


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Offlinecardboard
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Registered: 08/07/00
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Re: Psilocybe Features? [Re: mjshroomer]
    #1425822 - 04/03/03 12:27 PM (14 years, 5 months ago)

Or you could tell the guy to do his own research cause thats how people learn.


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InvisibleBilge
longtimenoC

Registered: 08/26/02
Posts: 1,858
Loc: USA
Re: Psilocybe Features? [Re: cardboard]
    #1426026 - 04/03/03 01:42 PM (14 years, 5 months ago)

yeah, we should shut down this entire site so people can do their own research so they learn. from now on, no questions at all. everyone go research. good idea. not.

i've posted over 1700 times, fewer than 20 of them were questions. i've probably got 50 to 100 BS chat posts. all the rest (1500+ posts) are me trying to help others with their questions. and i came here to ask this question to help someone else. maybe i just should have told him "don't ask me. do research so you learn." bah.


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Edited by Bilge (04/03/03 01:47 PM)


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Offlinecardboard
digitalautomatedansweringmachine

Registered: 08/07/00
Posts: 761
Loc: pac northwest
Last seen: 7 days, 19 hours
Re: Psilocybe Features? [Re: Bilge]
    #1432038 - 04/05/03 08:28 PM (14 years, 5 months ago)

get a grip man youll be okay


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