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Invisiblebluepie
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Registered: 03/30/03
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Mineral and Viatimin Additive for Casing Mixture HELP!
    #1420353 - 03/31/03 08:51 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Hey,

Does anyone here know of any viatamins or protiens that one can add to ones casing mixture to produce a stronger and healtheir mushroom? What kind of protiens or amino acids do mushrooms need? would it be beneficial to add these to the casing mixtures?

does anyone know the recipie for the keepers brew? i want to run down to my local muscle bulder GNC store and buy some viatimins for my growth but dont know what to get, ideas? I dont know, but plain vermiculite and boiled water doesnt necessarly seem to healthy for a mushrooms growth, how can i improve it?


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OfflineTheShroomHermit
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Re: Mineral and Viatimin Additive for Casing Mixture HELP! [Re: bluepie]
    #1420496 - 03/31/03 10:35 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Water.
It makes up 90% of mushrooms. This is probably more important that any other additives (assuming a base of BRF and VERM) PF style. Just make sure your cakes have plenty of available moisture...
Cakes will contam long before it will use up it's nutrients, anyways. If you still want to invest in vitamins after what I've had to say, than thats ok too.

Good luck!


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OfflineLegoulash
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Re: Mineral and Viatimin Additive for Casing Mixture HELP! [Re: TheShroomHermit]
    #1420545 - 03/31/03 11:18 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Experiment.. And then fill us in!!


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OfflineExhausted_Prayers
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Yeast Peptone [Re: Legoulash]
    #1420630 - 04/01/03 12:12 AM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Hi, I was wondering if anyone had any experience with adding yeast extract or peptone to their jars or casings, as I've seen this a lot on commercial mushroom supplier sites. if so was there any effect on growth rate or fruit size? Also what amount would you add? I plan to try this myself next week unless anyone else has any ideas. I just figured like everyone else that adding any extra nutrients just makes it easier to allow bugs to take over the substrate. thanks


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OfflineDim
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Re: Yeast Peptone [Re: Exhausted_Prayers]
    #1421288 - 04/01/03 10:33 AM (13 years, 8 months ago)

I dunno about adding too many nutrients to the casing layer, boys.... I understand that it should be largely devoid of them. My friends, however, are going to try some additives in the poo layer to aid the mycelium colonise faster.
Peptone, yeast extract, dextrose, etc. are usually added to agars for the same reasons.

But yeah, you should experiment with different chemical extracts and tell us what you find. Good luck, bro.


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InvisibleDiploidM
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Re: Yeast Peptone [Re: Exhausted_Prayers]
    #1421314 - 04/01/03 10:56 AM (13 years, 8 months ago)

Quote:

adding yeast extract or peptone to their jars or casings




Nutrients should be in the substrate only where the well-established mycelium protects it from contamination. The casing layer has no such protection and any nutrients there will increase the likelihood of contaminants taking hold.

-Diploid


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4) We need a smaller, less-intrusive government.


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InvisibleSixTango
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Re: Mineral and Viatimin Additive for Casing Mixture HELP! [Re: bluepie]
    #1421403 - 04/01/03 12:11 PM (13 years, 8 months ago)

IMHO, adding nutes to a casing mixture, simply invites contam's that come in contact with it, to thrive there.

6T

Stamet's say's........................
THE CASING LAYER

Covering the substrate surface with a layer of moist material having specific structual characteristics is called CASING. This practice was developed by Agaricus growers who found that mushroom formation was stimulated by covering their compost with such a layer. A casing layer encourages fruiting and enhances yield potential in many, but not all, cultivated mushrooms.

SPECIES
1. Ag. Brunnescens
2. Ag. Bitorquis
3. C. comatus
4. Fl. velutipes
5. Lentinus Edodes
6. Lepista nuda
7. Pl. ostereatus
8. Pl. ostereatus (Florida variety)
9. Pan. cyanescens
10. Pan subbalteatus
11. Ps. cubensis
12. Ps. cyanescens
13. Ps. mexicana
14. Ps. tampanensis
15. S. rugoso-annulata
16. V. volvacea

Casing Optional: 3, 6, 10, 11
Casing Required: 1, 2, 9, 13, 14, 15
Casing Not Required: 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 16

In all of the species where the use of a casing has been indicated as optional, yields are clearly enhanced with the application of one. The chart above refers to the practical cultivation of mushrooms in quantity. It excludes fruiting on nutrified agar media or on other substrates that produce but a few mushrooms. Consequently, casing has become an integral part of the mushroom growing methodology.

Functions

The basic functions of the casing layer are:

1. To protect the colonized substrate from drying out.

Mushroom mycelium is extremely sensitive to dry air. Although a fully colonized substrate is primarily protected from dehydration by its container (the tray, jar or plastic bag), the cropping surface remains exposed. Should the exposed surface dry out, the mycelium dies and forms a hardened mat of cells. By covering the surface with a moist casing layer, the mycelium is protected from the damaging effect of drying. Moisture loss from the substrate is also reduced.

2. To provide a humid microclimate for
primordia formation and development.

The casing is a layer of material in which the mushroom mycelium can develope an extensive, healthy network. The mycelium within the casing zone becomes a platform that supports the formation of primordia and their consequent growth into mushrooms. It is the moist humid micro climate in the casing that sustains and nurtures mycelial growth and primordia formation

3. To provide a water reservoir for maturing mushrooms.

The enlargement ot a pinhead into a fully mature mushroom is strongly influenced by the available water, without which a mushroom remains small and stunted. With the casing layer functioning as a water reservoir, mushrooms can reach full size. This is particularly important for heavy flushes when mushrooms are competing for water reserves.

4. To support the growth of fructification enhancing microorganisms.

Many ecological factors influence the formation of mushroom primordia. One of these factors is the action of select groups of microorganisms present in the casing. A casing prepared with the correct materials and managed according to the guidelines outlined in this chapter supports the growth of beneficial microflora.

Properties

The casing layer must maintain mycelial growth, stimulate fruiting and support continual flushes of mushrooms. In preparing the casing, the materials must be carefully chosen according to their chemical and physical properties. These properties are:

1. Water Retention: The casing must have the capacity to both absorb and release substantial quantities of water. Not only does the casing sustain vegetative growth, but it also must supply sufficient moisture for successive generations of fruitbodies.

2. Structure: The structure of the casing surface must be porous and open, and remain so despite repeated waterings. Within this prous surface are small moist cavities that protect developing primordia and allow metabolic gases to diffuse from the substrate into the air. If this surface microclimate becomes closed, gases build up and inhibit primordia formation. A closed surface also reduces the structual cavities in which primordia form. For these reasons, the retention of surface structure directly affects a casing's capability to form primordia and sustain fruitbody production.

3. Microflora: Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of beneificial bacteria in the casing layer. High levels of bacteria such as Pseudomonas putida result in increased primordia formation, earlier cropping and higher yields. During the casing colonization period these benificial bacteria are stimulated by the metabolic gases that build up in the substrate and diffuse through the casing. In fact, dense casing layer and deep casing layers generally yield more mushrooms because they allow slow diffusion. It is desirable therefore to build up carbon dioxide and other gases prior to primordia formation.

The selection of specific microbial groups by mycelial metabolites is an excellent example of symbiosis. These same bacteria give the casing a natural resistance to competitors. In this respect, a sterilized casing lacks beneficial microorganisms and has little resistance to contaminants.

4. Nutritive Value: The casing is not designed to provide nutrients to developing mushrooms and should have a low nutritional value compared to the substrate. A nutriative casing supports a broader range of competitor molds. Wood fragments and other undecomposed plant matter are prime sites for mold growth and should be carefully screened out of a well formulated casing.

5. pH: The pH of the casing must be within certain limits for strong mycelial growth. An overly acidic or alkaline casing mixture depressed mycelial growth and supports competitors. Agaricus brunnescens prefers a casing with pH values between 7.0-7.5. Even though the casing has a pH of 7.5 when first applied, it gradually falls to a pH of nearly 6.0 by the end of cropping due to acids secreted by the mushroom mycelium. Buffering the casing with limestone flour is an effective means to counter this gradual acidification. The optimum pH range varies according to the species.

6. Hygienic Quality: The casing must be free of pests, pathogens and extraneous debris. Of particular importance, the casing must not harbor nematodes or insect larvae.


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