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History of Iraq - Un-biased info - how bout that?
    #1404236 - 03/23/03 06:01 PM (21 years, 3 months ago)

Details a bit of Iraq's geopolitical history.

(sections highlighted for your convenience!)


By Derek Hopwood

Iraq has changed from being a western ally to an arch enemy in two decades. As troops gather at its borders once again, Derek Hopwood reflects on the fact that Britain and Iraq share a much longer history, with a very modern legacy.

An ancient civilisation

The present state of Iraq was founded by Great Britain in 1920, on land of great historical antiquity, then known as Mesopotamia. The country lay between two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates - and was the birthplace of the ancient civilisations of Sumeria, Babylon and Nineveh. 'This was the glittering city of the Arabian nights and of Harun al-Rashid.'

The present capital of Iraq, Baghdad, lies near the site of Babylon and was founded by the Arab Abbasid dynasty in the eighth century AD. This was the glittering city of the Arabian nights and of Harun al-Rashid, which in 1258 was destroyed by the invading Mongols and became a rather provincial backwater until it was conquered again, this time in 1534 by the Ottomans, who made it the chief city of the province of Baghdad.

Eventually, separate provinces of Mosul to the north and Basra to the south were created. These three provinces looked out in different directions. Mosul - a mountainous region largely inhabited by fiercely independent-minded Kurds - looked north to neighbouring Turkish Anatolia. Baghdad faced across the deserts to Syria and east to Persia. Finally Basra, at the head of the Persian Gulf, looked seaward as far as India.

'...by 1914 there was growing anxiety about the security of the Persian oilfields...'

In the 19th century Europeans (largely the British) began to take an interest in exploring, surveying, spying and trading in Mesopotamia, as well as in navigating its rivers. And by 1914 there was growing anxiety about the security of the Persian oilfields on the other side of the Gulf - these were the fields that supplied the Royal Navy.

World War One

The Ottoman Empire, which included the provinces of Baghdad, Basra and Mosul, entered World War One on the side of the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary), and immediately became a target for British imperial ambitions.

Winston Churchill conceived the disastrous campaign in Gallipoli as means of occupying Constantinople, while others, largely in India, favoured sending invading Allied forces via a longer route through Basra to Baghdad. They believed the area was suitable for colonisation, and thought an invasion would meet little resistance.

In India a substantial Anglo-Indian army was raised, which
landed in Basra in November 1914. The local defending forces soon fled, and the British decided to push on towards Baghdad. They totally miscalculated the strength and determination of the Turkish (Ottoman) forces, however, who trapped them in a terrible siege in Kut al-Amara on the Tigris. The Anglo-Indian force surrendered in April 1916 and many of the soldiers perished in prisoner-of-war camps. New British forces eventually arrived in Basra in greater numbers, and by March 1917 were able to capture Baghdad.

The foundation of Iraq

By the end of World War One, British forces were more or less in control of the three provinces and a shaky British administration in Baghdad had to decide on their future. The Ottoman Empire had collapsed, leaving the former Arab provinces in limbo, and the colonial powers of Britain and France aimed to absorb them into their empires; however, the Arab and other inhabitants felt strongly that they had been promised independence.

'The Arabs claimed this was a veiled colonialism...'

Under strong pressure from the United States, a sort of compromise was evolved whereby Britain and France were given mandates for the administration of these provinces, under international supervision, by the League of Nations. The Arabs claimed this was a veiled colonialism, because there was only an indefinite promise of independence.

Iraq (the old Arabic name for part of the region) was to become a British mandate, carved out of the three former Ottoman provinces. France took control of Syria and Lebanon. There was immediate resentment amongst Iraq's inhabitants at what they saw as a charade, and in 1920 a strong revolt spread through the country - a revolt that was put down only with great difficulty and by methods that do not bear close scrutiny. The situation was so bad that the British commander, General Sir Aylmer Haldane, at one time called for supplies of poisonous gas.
Indiscriminate air power was used to quell the revolt of the region's tribesmen, methods the British admitted did not win them friends and, as one of them said, implanted undying hatred of the British among the people of the area, and a desire for revenge.

The mandate united the three disparate provinces under the imported Hashimite King Faisal, from the Hijaz region of Arabia. Apart from its natural geographical differences, the new Iraq was a complex mix of ethnic and religious groups. In particular the rebellious Kurds in the north had little wish to be ruled from Baghdad, while in the south the tribesmen and shi'is had a similar abhorrence of central control. In implementing their mandate, the British had certainly sown the seeds of future unrest.

'The British imposed a monarchy and a form of democracy...'

There were other contentious issues. The Iraqis deeply resented the borders imposed on them that cut them off from Kuwait, a mini-state that they believed to be a part of their country. These borders also meant that Iraq had only limited access to the waters of the Gulf. The British imposed a monarchy and a form of democracy but, even after the grant of formal independence in 1930, most Iraqis believed that the British really ruled the country.

The rise of the army

In fact Iraq remained a satellite of Britain for the next three decades, under the terms of a treaty signed the same year (1930), which included the retention of British military bases and an agreement to train the Iraqi army. Ironically, this army became a breeding ground of resentment against the British presence, particularly amongst new nationalist officers. They deeply resented both the British policies in Palestine and the local civilian politicians, who were seen as British puppets. After the death of King Faisal in 1933 the country was virtually ruled by a group of colonels who saw themselves as the future liberators of an oppressed Iraq.

'They deeply resented both the British policies in Palestine and the local civilian politicians...'

During World War Two the British were once again dragged into Iraq - to protect the oil fields in the north and to put down a pro-Nazi coup amongst the army officers. Some 3,000 Iraqi troops were killed, and 3,000 nationalist officers were purged. The British remained to support the monarchy, and a pro-British prime minister, Nuri al-Said, was in place until, in 1958, monarch and politicians were swept away in a vicious nationalist army revolt.


The leaders of the coup were the Free Officers, young Arab nationalists of the type of Gamal Abd al-Nasser in Egypt, who were determined to right all the wrongs of imperialism and in particular to expel the Zionists from Palestine. Other grievances included the position of borders between Kuwait and Iran.
In 1961, after Kuwait had gained independence from Britain, the Iraqi leader, General Kassem, claimed it as an integral part of Iraq and concentrated his troops on the frontier, with the intention of taking it by force. Britain was ready, however, and dispatched troops stationed in the Gulf region to dissuade the Iraqis from armed conflict. The crisis was settled temporarily by a coup in Baghdad that overthrew Kassem, and was organised - it would seem - with the help of the United States. Iraq agreed to recognise Kuwait, but continued to make claims for an adjustment of the borders - claims that were to be the cause of further trouble in the future.

'...Saddam Hussein seized power in Iraq in the name of the Arab nationalist Ba'ath Party...'

In 1979 the most aggressive and tyrannical of the Iraqi officers, Saddam Hussein, seized power in Iraq in the name of the Arab nationalist Ba'ath Party, a secular organisation devoted to achieving the unity of all Arabs. Saddam's aims included the elimination of Israel, Arab unity under Iraqi leadership, and the rectification of previous wrongs - and he was a man with sufficient fire to try to put these aims into practice.
Saddam Hussein sees Iraq as the successor of the ancient empires of Mesopotamia and himself as another Nebuchadnezzar, fit to assume the mantle of leader of the Arabs and of the strongest power in the region. His energetic policies have included building up a large army equipped with an array of conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction. One aim has been to try to equal the strength of Israel, and one use of the army's weapons was in the attempt to defeat the rebellious Kurds in the north of the territory, who were gassed by Iraqi forces.

'...he sees Iraq as the successor of the ancient empires of Mesopotamia...'

The 1979 Islamic revolution in neighbouring Iran offered Saddam, so he believed, the opportunity to invade Iran when the country was in a weakened state. This invasion would stifle the potential threat of revolutionary Islam, assert Iraqi hegemony and readjust the borders between the two countries. In September 1980 Iraqi troops crossed into Iran, but the quick success Saddam had hoped for turned into a bloody conflict that lasted eight years. During this period the west, Germany, Britain, France and the United States all armed Iraq - in an effort to create a bulwark against the spread of the Islamic threat. Help was given to develop all kinds of weapons.

The invasion of Kuwait

The Iranians finally cracked, after terrible losses and when faced with weapons of mass destruction (poison gas) and missiles. Iraq had become the major power in the region, although after much suffering. Saddam's ambitions widened. He called for the elimination of the American presence in the Gulf, and for the extinction of Israel. To finance his aims he needed greater wealth and once again Iraqi eyes turned to Kuwait. This time, in 1990, Iraqi troops occupied and annexed the emirate - before the outside world could stop them. Meanwhile Iraqi historians expended much effort in trying to prove that Kuwait had always been an integral part of Iraq.

'He called for the elimination of the American presence in the Gulf...'

It took an enormous effort by United Nations forces, led by America, to expel the invaders. From being an ally of the world, Iraq became an outcast and every effort has been made by the United Nations to force Saddam to give up the weapons originally supplied by the west. Another invasion seems likely. Will British troops be seen once again in Mesopotamia?

Written before the attack obvously...

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Re: History of Iraq - Un-biased info - how bout that? [Re: dee_N_ae]
    #1405842 - 03/24/03 10:20 AM (21 years, 3 months ago)

Your avatar is amazing.


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Re: History of Iraq - Un-biased info - how bout that? [Re: Learyfan]
    #1405950 - 03/24/03 11:00 AM (21 years, 3 months ago)

I try to post thought provoking things and all I get is people drooling over my avatar... :wink:

HB altered it so it has the shrooms, and yes it's the fucking bomb.

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Re: History of Iraq - Un-biased info - how bout that? [Re: dee_N_ae]
    #1405982 - 03/24/03 11:14 AM (21 years, 3 months ago)

That rules :smile:

-Alien :cool:

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Re: History of Iraq - Un-biased info - how bout that? [Re: dee_N_ae]
    #1406116 - 03/24/03 12:09 PM (21 years, 3 months ago)

Sorry for not commenting on the post, but I honestly didn't read it.

Alien: How can you only have a little more than 1000 posts? You're a legend around here. You have your own tek and everything.


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Re: History of Iraq - Un-biased info - how bout that? [Re: dee_N_ae]
    #1406697 - 03/24/03 04:15 PM (21 years, 3 months ago)

more history.

182,000 Iraqis were killed during the Anfal.
300,000 Iraqis were killed during the uprising.
600,000 Iraqis were killed during the Iraq/Iran war.
Hundreds of thousands of Iraqis died and continue to die as a result of both the internal sanctions imposed by the regime and the external economic sanctions.

Here is small sample of real people who lost their lives on the hands of the Iraqi regime since 1963.

Abbass Ali al-Wa'ili
Abbass Fa'iq Mukhtar
Abd al-Rahman al-Bazzaz
Abdul Alim Ali Albaghdadi
Abdul fatah Mahmood Ubaid
Abdul Husain Hassan Alshamy
Abdul Salam Zahra Sufar
Abdul Satar Hikma Nasir
Abdul Wahab Dhari Faleh
Abdulah Awni Diham Aldury
Abdulah Husham Naji Aljubouri
Abdulhadi Hussain Ne'ma
Abid Abdulah Omar Suq
Abid Awad Nihad
Ahmad Hassan Mohammad
Ahmad Nuriddeen Kayachi
Ahmed Muhammad Al-Sammaeri
Akram Abdulrahman Aldulaimi
Akram Sultan Mahdi
Akram Sultan Mahdi
Alewi Shentaf
Ali Hassan Hussain
Ali Jassem Al-Ashram
Ali Kadhem 'Alewi
Ali Kathim Salman
Ali Mohammad Redhr Du'aibel
Ali Yaychili (Afthal Abdollah)
Allawi Mohsin Hussain
Alwan Yassin Ghaleb
Amir Eshaq Oraha
Amir Kareem Ali
Amir Mohammed Merdan
Alalwiyya Alsayida Amina Al-Sadr (Bint Al Huda)
Anwar Saber Mahmood
Anwar Shahen Dawwod
Aqeel Faysel Jassem
Arjan Yawoz Mohammed
Arkan Ma'ad Ali Alsamaraie
Asaad Mohammed Jabar
Asaad Omar
Ashur Odisho
Awad Saleem Shakir
Aymen Abdul Mun'm Dhari
Aymen Hamza Kati'
Azad Abdulah Fakhuldeen
Baito Yousif Mikhael
Bakhtiar Sulaiman Mohammed
Bakir Yaseen Mohammed
Beplo Warda Daniel
Bishko Najim Rashid
Burhan Tawfiq Ali
Burhan Tawfiq Ali
Captain Awad Mutleq Ayed
Captain Awed Hussein Hayder
Captain Ramadhan Sabah Al-Rwi
Captain Sabir Khalil Al-Tikriti
Chebeh David Yousif
Daniel Juna Juna
Dawood Oshana
Dayekh Hassoun Al-Jubouri
Dr. Derwish Al-Haydari
Dheidan Mohammed Hamed
Dhiauldeen Mahmoud Ali
Dia Malah Jabar Aldulaimi
Dia'a Saifulah Hussain
Edward Gewargis
Emad Giliana
Emad Salim Ali
Eshaq Adam
Eshaya Warda Shlemon
Esho Oraha Shela
Esho Qeryaqous Hanna
Eskharia Aziz Yacoub
Fadel Ali Hussain
Fadhel Ahmed Mehdi
Fadhil Mohammed Rahim
Fadi Wisam Ali Alshamkhi
Fadil Abdulah Najim
Fadil Mohammed Rahim
Fadly Mohammed Kareem Aldury
Faidey Hamad Nawaf
Faisal Mohammad Hussain
Faisal Mohammed Hussain
Falah Humadi Dia'a Alnu'aimy
Faqil Alawi Nasrullah
Faraidon Hama Ali
Faraj Ali Noori
Farhad Nasruldin Ali
Farhad Nasruldin Ali
Farhad Rasheed Jafar
Farhan Noori Kareem
Farida Esa Oraha
Farqad Hilmi
Fawaz Amir Ali
Fawzi Mahmoud Al-Sammaraei
Fayez Hassan Taleb
Firsan Saleem Yaser
First Lieutenant Abid Mohammed Al-Samarraei
First Lieutenant Hassan Thabit Al-Douri
Dr. Fatima Hameed Al-Khirsan
Francis Shabo
Fu'ad Izat Jalil
Fu'ad Kadhem Nadem
Fu'ad Kadum Nadum
Fu'ad Ramadan Kareem
Fu'ad Ramadhan Kareem
Fu'at Izzat Jalil/Kirkuk
Ghanem Saleh Mehdi
Goriel Aziz Abdal
Goriel Youkhana Kasha
Hadi Rasoul Amin
Hakem Kadhem Abed Zayd
Halo Mohammed Baban
Hamama Polous
Hamaneh Mikhael
Hamid Sabry Ismail Alubaidy
Hamood Salah Husham
Hana Polis Luqa
Hani Radhi Abdul Hassan
Hasheem Mohammed Albayati
Hashem Ali Qassem
Hash?m Mohammed Albayati
Hassan Abdulsadeh Alnua'imy
Hassan Hameed Hussein
Hassan Nasroldin Kareem
Hassoun Mehdi Abbass
Hayder Mekki Abbass
Helaneh Dawood
Hirmiz Nicola
Hormiz Kena Giliana
Hormiz ShmooYousif
Humeiza Jassoum Al-Yasseri
Husham Mohanned Hussei
Husni Ali Al-Sammarei
Hussain Ali Mohammed
Hussein Abbas Rasoul
Hussein Baqer Ismael
Idan Falih Kareem Aljubouri
Imad Mohammed Mardan
Islam Madhi Kadhem
Ismail David Yoykhana
Jabr Kandouh Mayyal
Ja'far Llli Muhannad
Ja'far Muhalhal Hantoush
Jalil Hussain Mahdi
Jamal Abdul Wahab Aldury
Jamal Mohammed Kareem
Jamal Mohammed Kareem
Jameel Abdul Kamel
Jameel Nasir Daham
Jameel Nuruldin Allawi
Jangiz Qahraman Waly
Jangiz Qara Man Waly
Jarjes Mohammed Nuruldin
Jarjes Mohammed Nuruldin
Jasam Alawi Mathlum
Jasim Hamad N'uman Altimimi
Jasim Widad Tu'ma
Jawad Abdulsada Hassan
Jawad Kathum Badie Alrifaie
Jawdat Kamal Dai Ali
Jawdat Kamal Dai Ali
Jawhar Mahdi Hussain
Jihad ala'a Mohammed Albasry
Jihad Fakhruldin Mohammed
Jihal Fakhruldin Mohammed
Julia Leon Kadhem Khunyab Mer'ish
Kameran Mohammed Noori
Kameran Nasruldin Fatah
Kamil Mehdawy Saeed Ali
Kareem Mahdi Hassawy
Kathum Jabar Hussain
Kena Giliana
Khalil Ahmed Nashwan
Khalil Hussain Miaqanie
Khawa Sawa
Khinzada Youkhana
Khudher Ali Nader
Labib Salih Noruldin Albayaty
Labib Salih Noruldin Albayaty
Labib Tu'msh Hassan
Lamie Nawaf Jawad
Lieutenant Abdul Wahab Salih Al-Darwish
Lieutenant Colonel Futyaan Hamad Al-Rawi
Lieutenant Colonel Mohammad Hassan Ali
Lieutenant Farhan Hadi Yassin
Mahdi Hussain Jabur
Mahdi Younis Kamel
Mahir Abdul Aziz
Majed Hassan Jawad
Majeed Ubaid Faiad Aldury
Majid Alawi Abu Alawda
Majid Sarhan Sha'lan
Major Abdul Karim Talal Al-Yaghmi
Major Ahmed Jasim Abdul Razzaq
Major Hashim Abdulla Al-Ubaidi
Major Mohammed Mizban Khalaf
Major Muzahim Ni'ma Al-Dulaimi
Major Shaalan Abbess
Maki Ali Nasir
Maki Omar Fahad Alubaidy
Marbina David Youkhana
Mar'ie Abas Nihad Alrubai'ie
Mariwan Khalifa Najim Talib
Marwan Taha Namaan
Mdher Saheb Ali
Melo Marogel Mesho
Melo Sada Mikhae
Meska Wardina Sheba
Mgawi Nadheef Lateef
Milad Alawi Naseer
Miran Kareem Saeed
Mithaal Alil Younis
Grand Ayatollah Sayid Mohammed Baqir Al-Sadr
Mohammad Harbi Al-Jubouri
Mohammed Noor Aldin Sabar
Grand Ayatollah Sayid Mohammed Sadiq Al-Sadr
Moner Elia Yousif
Monera Marogel Mesho
Mousa bdul-Haq Abed
Sayyid Mu'ammal Al-Sadr
Muhsin Uda Kareem Alshawy
Mukaram Abdulellah Alnasiry
Murad Salih Mohammed
Murad Salih Mohammed
Mursheed Saood Falih
Musa Nu'man Falih Aljubouri
Muslih Nasih Falah Aldury
Mussadaq Muslim
Sayyid Mustafa Al-Sadr
Nabil Yousif Youkhana
Naf'e Yasin Aldugramachi
Naf'e Yasin Doghramaji
Najim Awad Hamdi Aldulaimy
Napleon Yousif Youkhana
Nariman Shuker Sufie
Narsa Warda Shlemon
Nasir Mujahid Naf'e
Nasirallah Hussain Hassan
Nasrullah Hadi Mohammed
Nasrullah Hadi Mohammed
Nawfal Abdul Hadi Hassan
Nawfal Humady Abood Alhashimy
Nazeh Youkhana
Nimrod Dinkha Gewargis
Nuhad Mukaram Abadie
Nu'man Kareem Alqaisy
Nuraldin Mohammed Rustam
Nuraldin Sabir Waly
Nur-el-Deen Ayed Hamdan
Polous Aziz Sheba
Qader Abbass Abdul Rahman
Qa'ed Adil Issa
Qara Man Jabar Rasheed
Radi Ahmed Husham
Rahi Abbas Al-Janabi
Ra'id Talal Shaalan
Ramadan Jamal Kareem
Ramadhan Jamal Kareem
Riad Husham Hamod Aldulaimy
Riad Juma Muslih Aljubouri
Riad Mahmood Abid Alqazaly
Saad Abdullah Mohammed Alyousefy
Sabah Hashim Allawi
Sabiha Polous
Sabour Ufan Mohammed Aldouri
Sadruldin Hamood Al Buriash
Saffar Mahmoud Hussein
Safwat Abdulhussain Hamood
Saheel Karam Hadi
Sahib Kareem Najmuldin
Saifuldin Ali Hashim
Saifuldin Ali Hashim
Sajid Mahmood Flaih Alrawy
Saleem Khalid Aldury
Salih Mohsin Jaseem
Salman Dawood Hamadi
Salman Mahdi Younis Alsab'awy
Sami Abdul Wahab Albayaty
Sami Abdul Wahab Albayaty
Samir Naji Hilal
Saqar Ali Hussain
Sermed Hussain Abdul Jabar
Shabo Shmoel Yousif
Shaikh Abdulaziz Flaih
Sherenh Khoshaba Audisho
Shihab Waisy Ismail
Shlemon Youkhana
Sirwan Salih Hama Noori
Sudad Ali Nasih
Sudad Ali Nasih
Sultan Hisham Safwat
Taha Nu'man Muslim
Taha Nu'man Muslim
Taha Yassin 'Alewi Al-Salami
Talal Ahmed Al-Hassoon
Talal Alawi Mohammed
Talal La'eq Abid Mohsin Aldulaimy
Talal Mghawish Al Nassiri
Tarek R. Al-Hillawi
Tariq Ahmad
Tariq Kareem Haj Majeed
Wa'ad Imad Mugeer
Wajdy Sultan Naf'ie
Waleed Daham Aljubouri
Waleed Shihab Alzawba'ie
Warda Badreh Khnano
Warda Esho Warda
Warda Ismaeil Zaka
Yasin Faqi Mohammed
Yasin Taha Mohammed Aljubouri
Yasin Taha Nu'man
Yasmeh Youkhana
Yassin Jalil Abbass
Youbert Shlemon
Youkhana David Youkana
Youkhanna Jajjo
Yousef Majeed Shamel

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