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OfflineSubbedhunter420
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Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus * 1
    #7008112 - 06/04/07 04:43 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

A guide to Hunting and Identifying Panaeolus Subbalteatus


September/15/06

A little history:
This mushroom's psilocybin potency ranges from weak to moderate, but might be the only mushroom you will ever be able to find. The Panaeolus Subbalteatus is likely the most widespread hallucinogenic mushroom in the world as it has been found in Asia, S. America, N. America, and Europe. It has been given many nicknames in the past including "Subbs, Red caps, Subtle tea tits (shroomery members), and "Weed Panaeolus". The last nickname was given to it because it was always found growing unexpectedly in edible mushroom farms and thus, it had to be "weeded out". It is also the third most grown psilocybin mushroom in Amsterdam.

Characteristics:

Cap: (1/4 to 4 inches) The cap color, shape, and size varies greatly with this mushroom. Zonates (bands on the cap) are usually found and have 2-3 of them. Zonates may not be present if the caps have been in the sun for too long/disappear after being picked. Most caps will be slightly deformed or funky in shape. The caps may become dry and cracked with age if under hot or dry conditions. Here is an example of the many different cap variations:

May/21/07 Notice the variations...


Sept/15/06 Notice the zonates and the variations within this cluster


May/20/07 Notice the zonates and the size of cap variations

Gills: The gills of this mushroom are tightly packed and rarely fall below their margin (lowest part of the cap). They are usually lightly lined gray/brown on the gill fringes and jet black in between. They are completely black with age. They are attached to the stem.

May/21/07 Subbalteatus gills on a fully mature specimen.


February/14/07 A younger specimen.

Stems: The stems of this mushroom in my opinion are the easiest way to identify this species. The stem has "lines" that run up and down it. These lines DONT go straight, but twist and turn up the stem. Stem color is also important. It ranges from an off white in fresh and younger specimens to a light tan, to a dark red, to brown. The stem is usually very thick and long (1-4 inches Long, 1/8-1/2 inches thick) (Notice the huge variation). Bluing on the base of the stem is also a dead give away that it is an active specimen.
here are some pictures to clarify:

September/15/06 This stem shows all the color variations at once.


September/15/06 Bluing at the bases


May/23/06 More blue based stems



September/15/06 Notice the "whitish stems" from these fresh ones.

Notes: When young, it can be especially hard to identify them and take a spore print. Here is a picture of Subbs in pinning stages:

February/14/07

Spore Print: The print MUST be Black (Absent of light). If it's not, and it's a little ambiguous or just very dark, you may not have a subbalteatus. here is a sheet of spore prints I've taken.


Now that you know what it looks like, lets get to the other stuff.

When to find them and Where:

When: Subbalteatus can be found in varying temperatures and multiple seasons. Subbalteatus can be found from early spring(February) to the early fall(September). It fruits near 100% humidity and temperature ranges from 80-86 degrees farenheit. If the weather in your area is temperate enough (California) they may grow all year round.

Where: The most common places Subbalteatus can be found is in Compost piles, Well fertilized/sodded lawns, horse dung, and gardens.
I have found almost all of my finding off of front lawns and grassways. (There should be no reason for anyone to be trespassing on farmlands when you can just walk up to someones front door and ask em to get rid of those pesky lawn mushrooms as a part of your "botany project".) I will be focusing on the grass habitat since they've seemed the easiest to pick and find there.

Hint: Look in the newest and richest neighborhoods. (Big lawns, lots of water and fertilizer.) Subbs grow abundantly on newly laid lawns. The newer the lawn, the better the chances of them being there. But be advised, after a few months or a year, the patch will absorb all of the nutrients from the lawn and they will never appear there again.

Growth Patterns:
Subbalteatus Have been known to cluster together, be gregarious, or spread out over an area. They can also make fairy rings.


Here are habitat pictures of Pan. Subbs:


May/21/07 Cluster growth on a new lawn.


May/20/07 A lone subb on a lawn that was installed 2 weeks prior.


February/14/07 A fairy ring growth pattern on a freshly sodded lawn.


February/14/07 Some younger specimens on a lawn grouping together


September/17/07 A scattered patch of Subbalteatus on a sodded lawn.

Look-alikes and Indicator Mushrooms:

There are many mushrooms that grow next to and with Subbalteatus. Some species of mushrooms will commonly grow in the same habitat and conditions as subbalteatus so you can use them as good nindicators that you are in the right area. Many of them are also black spored mushrooms so don't get them confused. The look-alike and indicator species vary from habitat to habitat so you wont have the same look-alikes or indicator mushrooms on a lawn as you will on a compost pile.

Compost pile/Dung Indicator species:
Panaeolus Antillarum
Panaeolus Semiovatus
Panaeolus Sphinctrinus
Panaeolus Campatulantus
Coprinus Micaeus

Grass Species Indicators:
Panaeolina foenisecci
Panaeolopsis Nirimbii (my experiences)
Panaeolus castanefiolus (also active)
other grass Panaeolus species

Look-alikes:
Panaeolina Foenisecci
Panaeolopsis Nirimbii
Panaeolus Retrugis

As a note, the closest look-alikes on lawns are the Panaeolina Foenisecci. They have a brownish-purple spore print and grown almost all year round (but prolifically in the spring time). their stems are thinner and white/tan, the caps are smaller, and they never will bruise blue. Here is a picture of them to show how close they are.


If you need more information on Look-alike differentiation I reccomend you take a look at Gumby's ID guide to Subbalteatus also.
Here's the link.
http://www.impakt.net/~tyler/subbs/

Thank you for reading this. I hope it will help. Please comment if you desire. and now for....

The Goldmines...

My babies...













Have a shroomy day.


Edited by Subbedhunter420 (06/05/07 04:08 PM)


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Invisibleyob
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: Subbedhunter420]
    #7008268 - 06/04/07 05:11 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

Great guide, man


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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: Subbedhunter420]
    #7008441 - 06/04/07 05:47 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

You should also read a step by step id of this mushroom in the Shroomery's FAQ's under Close Encounters of the Panaeolus Kind.

http://www.mushroomjohn.com/panaoluskind1.htm

While it does appear in pastures, those are rare finds and very rarely ever a full pasture. Most pastures may only have one or two cow pies with P. subbalteatus in them and most won't. Although I know of one on Maui. Gumby and/or Lizard King had fields in Georgia, but since his original post three or four years ago, he has not found them again in the quantity of his first find.

GGreatOne234 had one field in Florida.

Joshua had one in Eugene for one picking only and they never came back. HE posted beautiful images here of that lawned area. Mitchnast has a field in Nova Scotia of them in cow dung. Still any riding stable or race track is easy to access without any difficulty. And they are always there.

The greatest find I had seen in years was angry Shrooms compost heap in Central California. Some of those images of the compost heap and what is there is posted on the mj shroom world site at:

http://www.mushroomjohn.com/panaeolussubbalteatus2.htm

Since Gerhardt has reduced the numbers of species in the genera Panaeolus, less are now called other names and many collections as shown in the herbarium listings for P. subbalteatus were originally identified as several other species than as P. subbalteatus.

P. Semiovatus and Coprinus mushrooms in no way are similar to P. subbalteatus, nor are any from the P. Campanulatus/sphinctrinus in any way similar to P. subbalteatus and neither is Panaeolus antillarum.

Other wise nice report. Check out the single compost heap at the MJ shroom world site for a great collection of subbs which where not there the following years.

\Once the nutrients they live off of are gone, then so are the shrooms.

mj

The Close Encounters article from Psychedelic Illuminations is an excellent step-by-step process of how to id a Panaeolus subbalteatus.

one more note is that the Hawaiian pasture on Kula Highway and Polipoli rd along the Kualau Ranch homes properties did stain blue completely on their stems in a color of blue similar to those of Shroomy Dan's Ovoideocystidiata bluing.

Several Hawaiian collections of what I thought were Macroscopically identical to Panaeolus subbalteatus from manure on Oahu near Ulapalakua Ranch were later correctly reidentified by their microscopic features by Gerhardt as Panaeolus retirugis and were found to be active.

Lawns generally only grow from between one to three years and turf the landscapers do not refertilize they do not grow back later in the season. And in Different parts of the world, they grow at different times of the year.

In Seattle and Olympia, we have picked them in topsoil laid over with woodchips in December and January and February when we have had no snow or freeze for the year.

The caps fade from their bands of colors to a straw-yellow to a palid white with age in some and some retain a little of the zonated areas of colors.

They also become pitted, cracked and wrinkled with age in dryer climates.

mj


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InvisibleLouiseLouise
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: Subbedhunter420]
    #7008449 - 06/04/07 05:49 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

OUTSTANDING! 
All the proper characteristics are covered

You get 5 just for taking the time to put together such a comprehensive post :mushroom2:


--------------------
"That's why you get in close to them, and then take the picture!! Don't be a pussy!" ~CC


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Invisiblecoon
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: Subbedhunter420]
    #7008924 - 06/04/07 07:24 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

very nice work subbedhunter.I know I'll read it repeatedly throughout the season,really gets you hyped up.:):thumbup:


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Offlineeiffelrev
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: coon]
    #7009320 - 06/04/07 09:09 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

haha i was about to post an id request on a shroom that i found on my friends lawn today immediately before i was ready to go subb hunting...and i was somewhat convinced that this mushroom was a subb...although, through you're guide, it was a common look alike...thanks a lot!

and there was no luck today with the subbs...i'll be out tomorrow!


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Invisiblescout24
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: eiffelrev]
    #7009759 - 06/04/07 10:44 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

Great effort. Thanks.

Just wondering... does the wind seem to whisper over and over, "pick me, pick me if you dare" when you encounter these mushrooms on the green planet we call earth?


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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: scout24]
    #7011604 - 06/05/07 01:50 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

They did that for me in hawaii with my first Collection of Copelandia cyanescens on Maui near Ho'o'kipa. Just north of Paia

mj


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OfflineCosmicFunGuy
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: mjshroomer]
    #7011826 - 06/05/07 03:13 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

excellent guide subbedhunter! I just got back and now you've convinced me to go back out, i'll bring the camera and some bags this time.


--------------------


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OfflineSubbedhunter420
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: CosmicFunGuy]
    #7011972 - 06/05/07 03:57 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

Thank you all for contributing your praises and recommendations.

Mj, I'll start to correct the faults in my post. I believe it is only right to spread the correct knowledge and im glad you could give me so much more input on it. Thanks.

As for the look-alikes not being look-alikes, i guess i was actually saying that they are often found in the same habitat and are also black spored mushrooms. so in my opinion, to the novice, they should be known as indicators. Don't know what i originlly thought.


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OfflineMarleryCatooOO
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: Subbedhunter420]
    #7013741 - 06/05/07 11:50 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

Thank you!!


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OfflineSurCal
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: MarleryCatooOO]
    #7014188 - 06/06/07 01:35 AM (10 years, 1 month ago)

Nice guide.
I was wondering if you think i should go check out my local cow ranch for some subbs because the subbs im finding in lawns are only like 2 at a time and arent that big and i thought maybe id find more and better ones in some cow shyt?
btw its perfect condition for subbs were im at right now
Di subbs like cow shyt or a well fertilized lawn better?


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OfflineSunshineSuperman
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: SurCal]
    #7014230 - 06/06/07 01:45 AM (10 years, 1 month ago)

Quote:

SurCal said:
Nice guide.
I was wondering if you think i should go check out my local cow ranch for some subbs because the subbs im finding in lawns are only like 2 at a time and arent that big and i thought maybe id find more and better ones in some cow shyt?
btw its perfect condition for subbs were im at right now
Di subbs like cow shyt or a well fertilized lawn better?




Try on manure piles with rotting hay and stuff. You'll probably find them there by the bagful.


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InvisibleDebuteMachine

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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: Subbedhunter420]
    #7015215 - 06/06/07 12:40 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

Very nice guide! I need to read through it a couple of times, lots of info.


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Invisiblecoon
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: SurCal]
    #7015536 - 06/06/07 02:53 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

horse shit seems to be better than cow if looking in shit piles.:igor:


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OfflineSubbedhunter420
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: coon]
    #7015680 - 06/06/07 03:44 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

I don't know about that. I think it varies with lawn to lawn and the shit to the shit. ya know?

All i know is some lawns i will find none, others ill have to print all the foes just to find 2 or 3 subbs, some lawns will have a handful...

and then some have a 1000 mushrooms growing on it in a day.

I have one of these such lawns in my area and i just keep going back to it at night. I literally don't have any more drying space for them in my room anymore. I cant pick them all. I crammed my paper bags full 2 nights ago with a 1000 grams and i only picked about a quarter of what was there. I mean HUGE finds. and it keeps coming back every 2 days with MORE. I've collected pounds now...


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Invisiblecoon
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: Subbedhunter420]
    #7015715 - 06/06/07 03:57 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

just saying in my experience horse shit piles from stables is better around here.california is a whole different world than where I live.I've only found one subb in grass last year,in a cow pasture.found a few in a cow shit pile and found more so in horse stable piles.people dont really do that manured grass thing much out here,I was a landscaper for years and never seen or heard of it being done.I live in a pretty mountainous area though.:igor:


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OfflineSubbedhunter420
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: coon]
    #7015734 - 06/06/07 04:03 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

of course. the more natural area for them to be found would be in compost and manure.

I DO think there is a general preference out here in southern california though. There is no water so the poo is dry and the stable shavings are usually cleared away frequently.

Lawns are watered year round and are much more common than horse pastures. especially since the majority of lawns in my area are all less than 8 years old.

Where you live though it would make complete sense to look in compost, poo and stables.


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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: Subbedhunter420]
    #7016346 - 06/06/07 06:47 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

I've read that pan subbs favor new lawns because over time they deplete needed nutrients from the soil. Can these nutrients be replenished via grass fertilization in your experience, Subbed? MJ? Anyone? Thanks.


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OfflineAlan RockefellerM
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Re: Subbedhunter's Complete Guide to Panaeolus Subbalteatus [Re: scout24]
    #7016406 - 06/06/07 07:05 PM (10 years, 1 month ago)

The reason lawns get less fertile over time is that when most people cut the grass, they collect the clippings and take them elsewhere, removing important nutrients from the lawn. It is much better for the health of the grass itself and the mushrooms growing on it to leave off the grass catcher bag, allowing all the cuttings stay on the lawn.

Adding fertilizers do keep mushrooms like Pan subbs coming back.

I hate lawns and I think they are one of the worst ideas people ever came up with. If you are going to grow something, at least grow something useful! A lawn made using a Cymbopogon species would be awesome! I have some growing at home that looks like lawn grass and has the most wonderful and strong lemon smell.

You could also modify a lawn mower by adding an extra fuel pump that gives a tiny squirt of Pan subbalteatus spore oil or liquid culture on the blade every time the engine turns over.


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