Cow manure is the best single ingredient substrate for all the Copelandias.
There is nothing better for resistance to contamination, yield, and ability to
achieve yield in shallow substrate layers.
Rye grain & bird seed both yield extremely small mature mushrooms.
If you can find cow manure USE IT.
The cambodian strain of Copelandia cyanescens in circulation fruits wall to
wall on straight rye grain, they just don't get LARGE. Wall to wall flushes
with 100+ shrooms yielding about 1-2 grams dry. Shroom size is 1-3 inch tall
with caps under 1/4 inch(usually about 1/8 inch)
1 inch substrate layer in a 8" x 8" brownie pan, cased with peat/perlite
at less then 1/4 inch.
THE USE of Manure or manure straw DRASTICALLY increases yield(approx. 7-14 times
the yield) and decreases contamination rate, speed to flush, and just about everything
Size of copelandias are Strain dependent first.
Usually small fruits are associated with Excessive humidity(moisture) without
the Air exchange to compensate for the wetness.
I just use bagged peat and bagged perlite or vermiculite and mix them myself.
Colonize substrate completely, wait 24 hours. Case with 1/4 inch or less of casing
soil. Bring up to field capacity by lightly misting if necessary. Let it incubate
in the dark for 24-48 hours, and place in fruiting chamber. Avoid misting !! Wait
till day 5 from casing, and start fanning at least once a day manually. When the
first pin forms I usually stop fanning for 24-48 hours until Many pins form. Then
start fanning at least 1 time a day manually.
I prefer a small tray. I have seen no advantage to using trays deeper then 3 inches
with Copelandias. Yields are actually reduced in bulk, relative to efficiency
of smaller trays.
Yes they grow on straw, very well. Without the manure. Only problem is straw contaminates
easier then manure based substrates, with Panaeolus. If you can keep it clean
till the end of the first flush, you are in for a great flush.
I have found NO NECESSITY for LIME with Pans.
Straight peat/perlite casing at a layer less then 1/4 inch works absolutely fine
PANS are FAST as hell. After casing, incubate for 24-48 hours at room temp(75-80F)
and right into the fruiting chamber they go.
pH is a concern for slower casing colonization and slow pin sets. Also for long
I wouldn't imagine you would need to buffer with anything other then coarse lime,
if you feel more comfortable with the LIME suggestions around about.
Anything in the same range as cubensis will work FINE.