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Offlinewoefuljungle
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mushroom life cycle
    #8045435 - 02/20/08 01:00 AM (6 years, 8 months ago)

The links in this article should work feel free to learn more!!!!
Fungi reproduce asexually by disseminating spores. Mushrooms, along with bacteria and molds, break down waste materials. They are known as scavengers, saprophytes or parasites. A scavenger is an organism that feeds off of another dead organism, in this case, usually dead wood.


Fungi begin their life cycle as spores, released into the environment by a mature mushroom. The spores are carried by wind or are redeposited by an animal. Once the spores are in a resting state, a fine web of mycelium begins to cover the spores. Growing at a rapid pace, mycelium gains nutrients and continues to develop into a network, eventually forming into tight, circular colonies. These small colonies begin to emerge from the web of mycelium and are known as mushroom primordium. From mycelium to primordium, the process only takes a few days to a week or two. From the primordium, the fruiting body, or mushroom, begins to grow. As the fruitbody grows, the parts of the mushroom develop. If it is a basidiomycete, basidia begin to develop on the edges along the gills inside the cap. The basidia eventually develop into full-grown spores and wait to be liberated from the cap.
The life of a mushroom-----













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mushroom info-
Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions including "to mushroom" or "mushrooming" (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and "to pop up like a mushroom" (to appear unexpectedly and quickly). In actuality all species of mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushroom fruitbodies, though they do expand rapidly by the absorption of fluids. The cultivated mushroom as well as the common field mushroom initially form a minute fruiting body, referred to as the pin stage because of their small size. Slightly expanded they are called buttons, once again because of the relative size and shape. Once such stages are formed, the mushroom can rapidly pull in water from its mycelium and expand, mainly by inflating preformed cells that took several days to form in the primordia. Similarly, there are even more ephemeral mushrooms, like Parasola plicatilis ([1] formerly Coprinus plicatlis), that literally appear overnight and may disappear by late afternoon on a hot day after rainfall. The primordia form at ground level in lawns in humid spaces under the thatch and after heavy rainfall or in dewy conditions balloon to full size in a few hours, release spores, and then collapse. They "mushroom" to full size. The slang term "mushrooms" is a gang-related term for victims accidentally shot as collateral damage simply because they popped up suddenly, as do fungal mushrooms.[4]


Not all mushrooms expand overnight; some grow very slowly and add tissue to their fruitbodies by growing from the edges of the colony or by inserting hyphae


Though mushrooms are thought to be short-lived, the fungus that forms the mushroom fruitbodies can itself be long-lived and massive. A colony of Armillaria ostoyae in Malheur National Forest in the United States is estimated to be 2,400 years old, possibly older, and spans an estimated 2,200 acres. Most of the fungus is underground and in decaying wood or dying tree roots in the form of white mycelia combined with black shoelace-like rhizomorphs that bridge colonized separated woody substrates.[5]

Main article: Psychedelic mushrooms
Psilocybin mushrooms possess psychedelic properties. They are commonly known as "magic mushrooms" "mush" or "shrooms" and are available in smart shops in many parts of the world, though some countries have outlawed their sale. A number of other mushrooms are eaten for their psychoactive effects, such as fly agaric, which is used for shamanic purposes by tribes in northeast Siberia, Russia. They have also been used in the West to potentiate, or increase, religious experiences. Because of their psychoactive properties, some mushrooms have played a role in native medicine, where they have been used in an attempt to effect mental and physical healing, and to facilitate visionary states. One such ritual is the Velada ceremony. A practitioner of traditional mushroom use is the shaman and curandera (priest-healer) María Sabina.



Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose principle active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin. Psilocybe cubensis belongs to the Strophariaceae family of fungi and was previously known as Stropharia cubensis. The mushroom's cap is reddish-cinnamon brown to golden brown in color with white to yellowish stipe and will turn bluish/greenish when bruised.[1]
·

Psilocybe cubensis is a coprophilic fungus (one that prefers to grow on dung or manured soils) that often colonizes the dung of large herbivores, most notably cows and other grazing mammals. It prefers humid grasslands and has been found in tropical and subtropical environments. In the US, it is sometimes found growing wild in the South, generally below the 35th parallel in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.[2] It is found in Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guadalupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and Fiji.[2]
This species was first described as Stropharia cubensis by F.S. Earle in Cuba in 1904 (hence the specific name). The name Psilocybe is derived from the Greek roots psilos (ψιλος) and kubê (κυβη) and translates as "bald head". It was later identified independently as Naematoloma caerulescens in Tonkin in 1907 by N. Patouillard and as Stropharia cyanescens by W.A. Murrill in 1941 in Florida. These synonyms were later assigned to the species Psilocybe cubensis.
[edit] Entheogenic use
Its major psychoactive compounds are:
· Psilocybin (4-Phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine)
· Psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine)
· Baeocystin (4-Phosphoryloxy-N-methyltryptamine)
· Norbaeocystin (4-Phosphoryloxytryptamine)
Individual brain chemistry and psychological predisposition play a significant role in determining appropriate doses. For a modest psychedelic effect, a minimum of one gram of dried Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms is ingested orally. 0.25-1 gram is usually sufficient to produce a mild effect, 1-2.5 grams usually provides a moderate effect. 2.5 grams and higher usually produces strong effects.[3] For most people, 3.5 dried grams (1/8 oz) would be considered a high dose and may produce an intense experience. For many individuals doses above 3 grams may be overwhelming. For a few rare people, doses as small as 0.25 grams can produce full-blown effects normally associated with very high doses. For most people, however, that dose level would result in virtually no effects. Due to factors such as age and storage method, the psilocybin content of a given sample of mushrooms will vary. Therefore, some users prefer to use a formula or dosage calculator [4] to tailor the dosage to the level they wish to experience.
Effects usually start after approximately 20-60 minutes (depending on method of ingestion and stomach contents) and may last from four to five hours, depending on dosage. Hallucinatory effects often occur, including walls that seem to breathe, a vivid enhancement of colors and the animation of organic shapes. At higher doses, experiences tend to be less social and more entheogenic, often intense and spiritual in nature.
It's nearly impossible to overdose on psilocybin mushrooms since one would have to consume several dozen pounds of fresh mushrooms .[5] Nevertheless, the effects of very high doses can be overwhelming. Depending on the particular strain, growth method, and age at harvest, Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms can come in rather different sizes. It is recommended that one weigh the actual mushrooms, as opposed to simply counting them. People taking MAOIs need to be careful, as psilocybin and psilocin are metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. A MAOI reduces the body's ability to handle the mushrooms (roughly doubling their potency), and can lead to an unpleasant, prolonged, or dangerously strong experience.


Dried Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms





[edit] Legality
Although it is illegal in many countries to possess psilocybin-containing mushrooms or mycelium (which can contain psychoactive substances at certain stages), it is legal in several places to own and sell spores. In the United States only the psychoactive compounds (see above) are scheduled under federal law. The spores do not contain either (but possession is prohibited by state law in Idaho, Georgia and California).[6]
[edit] Cultivation
Personal-scale cultivation of Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms ranges from the relatively simple and small-scale PF Tek and other "cake" methods, that produce a limited amount of mushrooms, to advanced techniques utilizing methods of professional mushroom cultivators, such as Paul Stamets. These advanced methods require a greater investment of time, money, and knowledge, but reward the diligent cultivator with far larger and much more consistent harvests. A number of books and online guides have been written that discuss the various techniques. The Shroomery and Mycotopia are two of the largest and most notable internet communities dedicated to sharing this type of information, another being ShroomTalk. Extreme caution is suggested if one is seeking to find psilocybin mushrooms in the wild; there are many mushrooms that look similar to Psilocybe cubensis that are actually poisonous.







1. ^ botit.botany.wisc.edu - The lobster mushroom
2. ^ Chang, S., and Miles, P.G., Mushrooms, Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, CRC Press, 2004
3. ^ Ramsbottom J (1954). Mushrooms & Toadstools. A study of the Activities of Fungi.
4. ^ Sherman LW et al (1989). "Stray bullets and “mushrooms”: Random shootings of bystanders in four cities, 1977–1988". J. Quantitative Criminology 5(4): 297-316.
5. ^ A Fungus Among Us. Extreme Science (n.d.). Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
6. ^ "Bringing Mushrooms Out of the Dark", MSNBC, April 18 2006. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
Psilocybe cubensis
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Psilocybe cubensis

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Strophariaceae
Genus: Psilocybe
Species: P. cubensis

Binomial name
Psilocybe cubensis(Earle) Singer
Approximate Range of Psilocybe cubensis
Psilocybe cubensis
mycological characteristics:
gills on hymenium
cap is convex or flat
hymenium is adnate or adnexed
stipe has a ring
spore print is purple
ecology is saprophytic
edibility: psychoactive

Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose principle active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin. Psilocybe cubensis belongs to the Strophariaceae family of fungi and was previously known as Stropharia cubensis. The mushroom's cap is reddish-cinnamon brown to golden brown in color with white to yellowish stipe and will turn bluish/greenish when bruised.[1]
Contents[hide]· 1 Overview · 2 Entheogenic use · 3 Legality · 4 Cultivation · 5 Notes · 6 Further reading · 7 External links
[edit] Overview
Psilocybe cubensis is a coprophilic fungus (one that prefers to grow on dung or manured soils) that often colonizes the dung of large herbivores, most notably cows and other grazing mammals. It prefers humid grasslands and has been found in tropical and subtropical environments. In the US, it is sometimes found growing wild in the South, generally below the 35th parallel in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.[2] It is found in Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guadalupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and Fiji.[2]
This species was first described as Stropharia cubensis by F.S. Earle in Cuba in 1904 (hence the specific name). The name Psilocybe is derived from the Greek roots psilos (ψιλος) and kubê (κυβη) and translates as "bald head". It was later identified independently as Naematoloma caerulescens in Tonkin in 1907 by N. Patouillard and as Stropharia cyanescens by W.A. Murrill in 1941 in Florida. These synonyms were later assigned to the species Psilocybe cubensis.
[edit] Entheogenic use
Its major psychoactive compounds are:
· Psilocybin (4-Phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine)
· Psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine)
· Baeocystin (4-Phosphoryloxy-N-methyltryptamine)
· Norbaeocystin (4-Phosphoryloxytryptamine)
Individual brain chemistry and psychological predisposition play a significant role in determining appropriate doses. For a modest psychedelic effect, a minimum of one gram of dried Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms is ingested orally. 0.25-1 gram is usually sufficient to produce a mild effect, 1-2.5 grams usually provides a moderate effect. 2.5 grams and higher usually produces strong effects.[3] For most people, 3.5 dried grams (1/8 oz) would be considered a high dose and may produce an intense experience. For many individuals doses above 3 grams may be overwhelming. For a few rare people, doses as small as 0.25 grams can produce full-blown effects normally associated with very high doses. For most people, however, that dose level would result in virtually no effects. Due to factors such as age and storage method, the psilocybin content of a given sample of mushrooms will vary. Therefore, some users prefer to use a formula or dosage calculator [4] to tailor the dosage to the level they wish to experience.
Effects usually start after approximately 20-60 minutes (depending on method of ingestion and stomach contents) and may last from four to five hours, depending on dosage. Hallucinatory effects often occur, including walls that seem to breathe, a vivid enhancement of colors and the animation of organic shapes. At higher doses, experiences tend to be less social and more entheogenic, often intense and spiritual in nature.
It's nearly impossible to overdose on psilocybin mushrooms since one would have to consume several dozen pounds of fresh mushrooms .[5] Nevertheless, the effects of very high doses can be overwhelming. Depending on the particular strain, growth method, and age at harvest, Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms can come in rather different sizes. It is recommended that one weigh the actual mushrooms, as opposed to simply counting them. People taking MAOIs need to be careful, as psilocybin and psilocin are metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. A MAOI reduces the body's ability to handle the mushrooms (roughly doubling their potency), and can lead to an unpleasant, prolonged, or dangerously strong experience.


Dried Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms
[edit] Legality
Although it is illegal in many countries to possess psilocybin-containing mushrooms or mycelium (which can contain psychoactive substances at certain stages), it is legal in several places to own and sell spores. In the United States only the psychoactive compounds (see above) are scheduled under federal law. The spores do not contain either (but possession is prohibited by state law in Idaho, Georgia and California).[6]
[edit] Cultivation
Personal-scale cultivation of Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms ranges from the relatively simple and small-scale PF Tek and other "cake" methods, that produce a limited amount of mushrooms, to advanced techniques utilizing methods of professional mushroom cultivators, such as Paul Stamets. These advanced methods require a greater investment of time, money, and knowledge, but reward the diligent cultivator with far larger and much more consistent harvests. A number of books and online guides have been written that discuss the various techniques. The Shroomery and Mycotopia are two of the largest and most notable internet communities dedicated to sharing this type of information, another being ShroomTalk. Extreme caution is suggested if one is seeking to find psilocybin mushrooms in the wild; there are many mushrooms that look similar to Psilocybe cubensis that are actually poisonous.
[edit] Notes


P. cubensis growing in a culture medium
1. ^ Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Ten Speed Press, pg. 108. ISBN 0-89815-839-7.
2. ^ a b A Worldwide Geographic Distribution of the Neurotropic Fungi
3. ^ Erowid (2006). Erowid Psilocybin Mushroom Vault: Dosage (shtml). Erowid. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
4. ^ http://www.shroomery.org/6257/Magic-Mushroom-Dosage-Calculator
5. ^ Shroomery (2006). How many dried mushrooms would I have to eat to die from an overdose of psilocybin?. Mind Media. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
6. ^ Erowid (2006). Legality of Psilocybin Mushroom Spores (shtml). Erowid. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
Further reading
· Nicholas, L.G.; Ogame, Kerry (2006). Psilocybin Mushroom Handbook: Easy Indoor and Outdoor Cultivation. Quick American Archives. ISBN 0-932551-71-8.
· Oss, O.T.; O.N. Oeric (1976). Psilocybin: Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide. Quick American Publishing Company. ISBN 0-932551-06-8.
· Stamets, Paul; Chilton, J.S. (1983). Mushroom Cultivator, The. Olympia: Agarikon Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0.
· Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0.


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Offlinexbabyboy4021x
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Re: mushroom life cycle [Re: woefuljungle]
    #8045463 - 02/20/08 01:05 AM (6 years, 8 months ago)

good post...alot of reading, but definately a very good post


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Offlinewoefuljungle
here to gain andshare knowlege
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Registered: 02/05/08
Posts: 172
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Last seen: 5 years, 10 months
Re: mushroom life cycle [Re: xbabyboy4021x]
    #8045470 - 02/20/08 01:06 AM (6 years, 8 months ago)

thanks!


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Offlinexaxphaanes
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Re: mushroom life cycle [Re: woefuljungle]
    #8045768 - 02/20/08 02:03 AM (6 years, 8 months ago)

why would you post a collection of other peoples work?....this stuff has been posted god knows how many times.


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OfflineMuShQuEsT
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Re: mushroom life cycle [Re: xaxphaanes]
    #8046801 - 02/20/08 01:15 PM (6 years, 8 months ago)

Well I've never seen it and thought it was a good read!


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Fry: But existing is basically all I do!
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InvisibleRickster
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Re: mushroom life cycle [Re: MuShQuEsT]
    #8047093 - 02/20/08 02:30 PM (6 years, 8 months ago)



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Offlinewoefuljungle
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Re: mushroom life cycle [Re: Rickster]
    #8047275 - 02/20/08 03:16 PM (6 years, 8 months ago)

i posted it so ppl can read it ..who cares if ppl before us have read it some havent i wanted to spead a little info around...is this bad?


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