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Offlinetrippinalice
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Mushrooms in New Zealand
    #2520621 - 04/03/04 03:32 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

I was wondering if anyone could tell me the species of magic mushrooms that grow in Auckland, New Zealand. The only ones I know for sure are Copelandia cyanescens and Psilocybe aucklandii. Does anyone know if Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe subaeruginosa grow here?
Also what kind of environment do the Psilocybe aucklandii grow in?

Anyone up north had any luck yet?


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Invisiblebluemeanie
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: trippinalice]
    #2520651 - 04/03/04 03:50 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

Aucklandii generally grows in soils rich in pine needles and looks quite different from the most common psilocybe in australian and new zealand, the all consuming Psilocybe subaeruginosa.
Sheepish has a confirmed aucklandii specimen so talk to him.
Semilanceata and makarorae are reported from the south island only, and buchanan suggests there is another unclassified species down there as well.


--------------------


Have: Agaricus bitorquis; Lepista saeva; Lepista nuda; SRA; Pioppino; Agaricus 'marzipan'

Looking for: Agaricus augustus, more SRAs and Torqs.


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OfflineSheepish
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: trippinalice]
    #2520714 - 04/03/04 04:49 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

Subaeruginosas do grow here - have a look around woodchip and mulch gardens. I personally have a lot of trouble trying to find any of these, so I don't usually try. Seems like I never see any; maybe because I'm not quick enough or don't know any secret spots. So I'll just stick with what I know for now.
For Aucklandii, you'll have to venture into forest. As bluemeanie said, they grow in soil littered with pine needles. So check the forests in the area once it gets colder and wetter. I had a look the other week, and there was no sign of anything - but it's meant to be quite wet next week, so here's hoping this kick starts the Aucklandii season.
I am hoping to get a digital camera soon, so I will be able to post pics of Aucklandii to help out others in the Auckland region. It's quite frustrating trying to find this at first (and I didn't even know what I had until I got it properly analysed) and there is only about 2 pictures on the net that I've seen.


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OfflineResolute
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: trippinalice]
    #2520818 - 04/03/04 06:48 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

If your looking for Subaeruginosa golf courses are a good place to find them, I find them under old pine trees growing in the grass. I also find them in obscure places like a small box garden outside McDonald's, you'll have as much luck finding them in urban areas as you will out in the bush.

There is also another species I have found twice but I haven't come upon any pictures or references to it on the internet. When young they look similar to P. Subaeruginosa apart from the fact they are deep black with a white stem but when they mature the cap flattens out and turns light gray. There not as potent as Subaeruginosa and give a different trip, I've found them in a pot plant and a woodchip garden in central Auckland. I'll have to get some pics up when the season starts.


--------------------
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Invisiblemjshroomer
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: trippinalice]
    #2521065 - 04/03/04 10:30 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

PSILOCYBIAN MUSHROOMS IN NEW ZEALAND
Until the late 1970's, the fact that psilocybin containing mushrooms grew in New Zealand (NZ) was known to very few. The perception of those interested in psychedelic drugs was that `magic mushrooms' were an Australian phenomena, and that the only mushrooms of this nature to be found in NZ had arrived via the post. Indeed, all of the analyses performed by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) for the police at this time were upon P. cubensis which had been sent to NZ in the mail, and intercepted by customs. Not until the early l980's did a more general awareness appear, within the psychedelic drug-using subculture, that psilocybin containing mushrooms could be found in both islands of NZ. It is likely that persons experienced with the Australian situation recognized C. cyanescens and P. tasmaniana growing in the New Plymouth sand dunes, particularly at Khomenii beach which is popular with surfers. At about the same time, a botanist from the United Kingdom recognized P. semilanceata (liberty cap) growing on the Otago peninsula, near the city of Dunedin in the South Island. The botanist informed a circle of friends with an interest in psychedelics, and the knowledge spread rapidly by word of mouth.

Thus, it was not until l982 that articles with titles such as `Magic Mushroom Danger Warning' (Unsigned l982) began to appear in the press, and occasional reports of prosecutions appeared. As in Australia, media reports were usually quite inaccurate in describing the effects of the mushrooms, while giving precise instructions as to where they could be found. For example, in the aforementioned `Danger warning' (Unsigned, l982), a New Plymouth-based alcohol and drug abuse officer is quoted as saying that "it (the mushroom effect) was like setting off a time bomb..... most common was an instant `high' which put stress on the respiratory and heart functions....." The article goes on to say: "They were very dangerous, he warned. People had died from them." At the same time, there were reports on national television showing mushrooms being picked in the New Plymouth paddocks. Consequently, there was a sudden and dramatic increase in popular knowledge of the mushrooms, resulting in large-scale autumnal pilgrimages to this area of the country.

As in the U.S.A., the New Zealand police were not vigorous in attempting to prosecute mushroom pickers, and tended to avoid involvement unless specifically called by a farmer. Attempts to prosecute cases were hampered by the wording of the Misuse of Drugs Act, l975, which declared Psilocybe mexicana Heim and P. cubensis, neither of which have ever been found growing in NZ (although the latter has been intercepted in the incoming mail), to be prohibited plants, while psilocybine and psilocine were class A substances. Most judges, with one notable exception (Unsigned l986) felt that a mushroom was not a substance (chemical) and thus prosecutions tended to fail. For this reason, an Amendment to the Act was passed in early l988 which declared that all members of the genera Psilocybe and Panaeolus were prohibited plants. This has not, however, led to a marked increase in prosecutions and sentences continue to be mild.

NZ is an isolated country with a prolific native flora. While the importation of cattle may have been responsible for introducing P. cyanescens to NZ, there are at least five indigenous species, four of which have yet to be described in detail and named (Johnson and Buchanan l988, D.S.I.R., Pers. Comm.). The fifth is Psilocybe novo zealandiae, which has been characterized by Guzm?n (l983). P. novo zealandiae is found primarily in the native forests of the southern South Island, and as such is unlikely to have played a significant role in human ingestion. This latter species is not psychoactive.

Copelandia cyanescens (`blue meanies') predominates in the New Plymouth region, an area of intensive dairy farming. The mushrooms appear in autumn, most commonly under lupine bushes in coastal paddocks. In the lower South Island, particularly the Otago area and Dunedin city, the species consumed by users is P. semilanceata (`liberty cap').

In so far as epithets are concerned, the most popular term is `magic mushrooms.' Neither the Australian term `gold tops' nor the English and American `liberty caps' has been widely adopted, although the term `blue meanies' is occasionally used to refer to P. cyanescens. In a study involving in depth interviews (and follow up questionnaires) of 150 people, carried out between l982 and l989 all over NZ (Jansen, Pers. Comm. l989) it was clear that many users knew that `gold tops' referred to an "Australian" mushroom (P. cubensis) which was different from those used in NZ.

In the study referred to above, the only case requiring emergency room treatment was a musician who, due to impaired coordination, had fallen and cut his head. The hospital staff were not told of his intoxication, he was sutured without difficulty, and departed the emergency room with his companions. All persons in the study were asked if they knew of anyone who had required acute medical treatment, and except for the case discussed above there were no other instances known to those in the sample. According to Dr. K. L. R. Jansen, there are no reported case histories in the NZ medical literature. However, 3 out of the 150 cases (Approximately 2%) suffered prolonged psychological difficulties following their mushroom experiences. Two of these cases involved the precipitation of a severe paranoid psychosis, eventually requiring psychiatric treatment which was still in progress at the time of the interview. In both cases there were obvious predisposing features, but there was clearly no pre-existing psychosis while following the mushroom experiences there was frank and prolonged psychosis. These cases illustrate the point which has often been made concerning psychedelic drugs: that there are certain persons who are psychologically at serious risk from these substances, and must be urged to avoid them.

In terms of physical effects, no evidence was found to support the claims made in the `Danger Warning' that psilocybian mushrooms placed a major stress on the heart and respiratory systems, nor is there any evidence of any deaths occurring in NZ due to psilocybian mushroom ingestion. The potentially lethal practice of driving back to Auckland city from New Plymouth while intoxicated on mushrooms has not yet resulted in a serious accident. There were several descriptions of a very rapid start to the altered state which might be described as an `instant high', but nothing to indicate that this was a serious threat to health.

The major physical danger from ingesting psilocybin mushrooms in NZ arises from the use of fungicidal and other agricultural sprays (c.f., see Young et al l982), which have been used in both the North and the South Island by farmers and enforcement authorities. Karl L. R. Jansen, (a medical doctor from the University of Auckland) has attended a person at their home suffering from marked weakness of the respiratory muscles, with attendant shortness of breath, following ingestion of sprayed mushrooms. The signs and symptoms of poisoning continued for at least 18 hours after the return of a normal mental state, indicating that the muscle weakness was unlikely to have been due to psilocybin which may sometimes cause weakness acutely. Others ingesting the mushrooms from this paddock also suffered various forms of muscle weakness (e.g. lazy eyelid, which is extremely unlikely to have a `psychological' origin), extending in all cases for many hours beyond the end of the change in consciousness. In several cases, strong and robust men with extensive experience of psychedelic drugs collapsed while crossing the road due to severe muscle weakness - a potentially life-threatening situation. It is thus clear that spraying mushrooms represents a greater public health threat than the mushrooms themselves, and should be discontinued.

Finally, it was suggested by several persons in the study that the Maori (the indigenous race) may have used psilocybin mushrooms. This possibility was also mentioned by R.G. Wasson on a visit to NZ, in relation to the theory which holds that concepts of divinity may have arisen in primitive peoples out of psychedelic drug experiences. In fact, there is no evidence of any sort to support the use of these mushrooms by the pre-conquest Maori. The Maori are quite distinctive for having used no consciousness altering drugs of any kind, and were highly skilled at treating food to remove toxic substances. This conclusion was supported by all of NZ's Professors of Maori studies, and many other scholars of the Maori culture, in a series of consultations carried out in l988. It appears that the Maori culture represents at least one instance of a complex and rich theology and mythology, involving priests (tohunga's) and the frequent invocation of deities in daily life, which did not require the use of consciousness-altering chemicals.

Some New Zealand Psilocybian Mushrooms:

Copelandia cyanescens:
In New Zealand, this species is mainly found on the west coast of the North Island in the New Plymouth area especially in the paddocks near the airport and in the dunes at Khomenii Beach. Also at Whatipu beach near Auckland and some west coast beaches near Wellington (Otaki and Foxton). They tend to occur in the lupin covered zone between pasture and sand. The New Plymouth lupins have recently been decimated by disease and the effect upon fungal growth has yet to be determined.




P. aucklandii:
Documented Locations: In New Zealand, 25 km north of Auckland, Wood Hill State Park. Gregarious on brown clay soil partially covered with pine needles of Pinus radiata D. Don, in a mixed pine and dicotyledonous native tree forest.

P. australiana:
In New Zealand, 20 km West of Auckland near Oratia. Fruits in April. This species is very similar to P. cyanescens Wakefield.

mj excerpted from Magic Mushrooms of Australia and new Zealand. The NZ portial was written by Allen, MErlin and jansen. 1990. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.

P. semilanceata:
In New Zealand, this species appears largely confined to the south of Cook Island, in particular the Otago Peninsula and Mount Cook in soil in high-altitude grasslands and has been observed in Mackenzie: vic. Mt. Cook, Otago Lakes and in the vicinity of Queenstown. Has been used recreationally since the early l980's. There is a specimen in the DSIR collection which was found on a suburban lawn in Auckland; also collected Southeast of Wakefield, Inangahua Junction.

P. subaeruginosa:
Johnston and In 1995, this species was reported from New Zealand at Auckland, Waikato, Bay of Plenty, Taranaki, Wanganui, Nelson, Buller, Southland as being common on small pieces of buried wood on rough coastal farmlands and pastures and especially on sandy soil, and in gardens, especially on mulches of Pinus radiata bark. The presence of psilocybine in this species in Australia was detected in 1970 and three years later, Dr. Malcomb Hall reported its use as a recreational drug.


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Offlinetrippinalice
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: mjshroomer]
    #2522112 - 04/03/04 06:10 PM (10 years, 7 months ago)

Yeah its really hard to find any detailed info about the aucklandii ive only ever seen 2 pics on the net.
Thanks for the article i have read it before on erowid its really good.


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OfflineOOISI
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: trippinalice]
    #2522534 - 04/03/04 08:13 PM (10 years, 7 months ago)

heres ps makarorae

Psilocybe makarorae P.R. Johnst. & P.K. Buchanan
Article: Johnston, P.R.; Buchanan, P.K. (1995). The genus Psilocybe (Agaricales) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of

Article type: Protologue (NZ)
Description:

Pileus 15-55 mm diam., conical to campanulate, expanding to convex with prominent, often more or less pointed umbo;
dry to slightly tacky; yellow-brown to orange-brown, often paler towards the finely striate margin; staining greenish-blue
with damage; flesh white.

Gills adnexed, pale greyish-brown; margin concolorous.

Stipe 30-60 x 2-4 mm, cylindrical, silky,
innately fibrillose, white, often brownish at base, staining greenish-blue with damage, with white rhizoids at base; veil
cortinoid, its remnants often visible on stipe, but never forming annulate ring. Basidia 25-31 x 7-8.5 ?m, sub-clavate,
tapering slightly to base, 4- spored, clamped. Cheilocystidia 18-26 x 6-9 ?m, ventricose-rostrate to mucronate, with simple
neck 3-5 ?m long, hyaline, thin-walled, clamped. Pleurocystidia similar in shape to cheilocystidia, but narrower, 4-8 ?m
wide, and neck usually shorter, 2.5-4 ?m.

Spores (6.5-)7.5 9.5(-10.0)x 5.5-6.5 x 4.5-5.5 ?m, average 8.7 x 6.0 x 5.3 ?m,
in face view ovate to subrhomboid, in side view elliptical: Wall brown, smooth, about 0.8-1 ?m thick, with apical pore.
Pileipellis a cutis of long-celled, 2-3 ?m diam., gelatinised hyphae. Hypodermium filamentous, of 4-6 ?m diam. cells with
pale brown walls. Clamps common. Subhymenium poorly developed, sub-cellular, of 2-4 ?m diam. cells with very pale brown
walls. Hymenophoral trama more or less regular, of short cylindric, 3-6 ?m diam. cells with hyaline walls.

Type:

New Zealand. OTAGO LAKES: Haast Pass, vie. Makarora, Blue Pools Track, on rotten Nothofagus wood, P. R. Johnston, B. P. Segedin & R. H. Petersen, 16 May 1990, PDD 57396.

Habitat:

Fallen, rotting wood.

Collections examined:

New Zealand. BAY OF PLENTY: vie. Rotorua, Mt. Ngongotaha, on fallen wood, Y. Doi, 5 May 1987, PDD 58419. WESTLAND: Franz Josef Glacier moraine, on fallen twigs, J. L. Austwick, 27 May 1970, PDD 31361; Franz Josef Glacier, Peter's Pool Track, on litter, G. M. Taylor, 17 May 1969, PDD 49788. DUNEDIN: vie. Dunedin City, Woodside Glen picnic ground, on rotting wood, G. M. Taylor, 29 Apr 1967, PDD 49787.

Distribution:

Notes: Named after the geographic locality of the type specimen. Margot & Watling (1981) examined FDD 49788, and considered that it was similar to P. caerulipes (Peck) Sacc. P. caerulipes, belonging in section Semilanceatae of Guzman (1983), is distinguished by its lack of pleurocystidia, different spore shape, and longer-necked cheilocystidia. Spore shape and the blueing reaction place P. makarorae in section Mexicanae of Guzman (1983). The size of the caps, the presence of pleurocystidia, and the short-necked cheilocystidia distinguish P. makarorae from the six species accepted in this section by Guzman.


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Invisiblebluemeanie
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: OOISI]
    #2523633 - 04/04/04 04:19 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

i take that this is straight from Buchanan's work?? Buchanan's article is by far the best source for information on New Zealand Psilocybes. He also talks about another southern species that has yet to be named or delineated.
Sheepish - i would be keen to hear from you as to whether those two much used photos of aucklandii even resemble the mushroom. Im sure OOSI could post Buchanan's detailed description on here as well for aucklandii as its quite good also - apparently this mushroom is very similar microscopically to Ps.zapotecorum.
Lastly, MJ - i have to take acception to a number of points contained in your post - and work on erowid. Although i have always enjoyed reading your material, some of the info is a little misleading. Ps.australiana as a species is a misnomer and has been correctly lineated as a phenotype of Ps.subaeruginosa. Therefore to differentiate collections of two phenotypes of the same mushroom in different areas of New Zealand is erronous. Recent isozyme, dna and rna analysis of Ps.australiana specimens have demonstrated that they are synonymous with Ps.subaeruginosa, and what's more there are some even more interesting conclusions being made...
As for this line :'P. tasmaniana growing in the New Plymouth sand dunes, particularly at Khomenii beach which is popular with surfers. '
No specimen from herbarium specimens from Guzman/Watling or any other collections in New Zealand have been made of a coprophilus Psilocybe with forked pluerocystidia - therefore the reports of Ps.Tasmaniana are most likely erronous. Buchanan and Johnson where unable to find a coprophilus mushroom in New Zealand that even remotely resembled Ps.Tasmaniana's characteristics.
Watling himself has twice attempted to assign lecho-types of eucalypta in australia with the microscopic characteristics of australiana, so if he cant get it right, no wonder no one else accepts his work here... :smile:
So to sum up - australiana doesnt exist and all reputable sources now accept this - even stamets - and Ps.tasmaniana as described by guzman and watling has never been demonstrated to have appeared anywhere in new zealand.


--------------------


Have: Agaricus bitorquis; Lepista saeva; Lepista nuda; SRA; Pioppino; Agaricus 'marzipan'

Looking for: Agaricus augustus, more SRAs and Torqs.


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OfflineOOISI
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: bluemeanie]
    #2523801 - 04/04/04 05:58 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

this was taken from the previous post

Distribution: Known only from New Zealand: Bay of Plenty, Westland, Otago Lakes, Dunedin.

And Aucklandiae

Psilocybe aucklandiae Guzm?n, C.C. King & Bandala
Article: Johnston, P.R.; Buchanan, P.K. (1995). The genus Psilocybe (Agaricales) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33(3): 379-388.
Article type: Description (NZ)
Description:

Pileus 15-55 mm diam., broad-conic, expanding to broadly umbonate to more or less flattened, with edges becoming slightly upturned and often splitting; dry; lacking veil remnants; dark brown to yellow-brown, striate to edge, hygrophanous, drying to pale yellow-brown to straw-coloured; staining greenish-blue with damage or age; flesh white. Gills adnate, greyish yellow-brown with conspicuous narrow pale margin. Stipe 35-100 x 1.5-5 mm, cylindric, finely pruinose toward top, silky-fibrillose toward base, whitish; staining greenish-blue with damage; flesh brownish. Veil cortinoid, poorly developed, disappearing as caps mature. Basidia 20-28 x 4.5-6 ?m, cylindric, 4-spored, clamped. Cheilocystidia 15-32 x 4-8 ?m, ventricose-rostrate, with long, tapering, flexuous and sometimes bifurcate neck up to 12?m long, hyaline, thin-walled. Pleurocystidia 13-19 x 4.5-6 ?m, scattered, similar in shape to cheilocystidia but with shorter neck, up to 4.5 ?m long. Spores (6.5-)7-9.5 x 4-5.5 x 3.5-4.5 ?m, average 8.1 x 4.9 x 4.3 ?m, in face view ovate, in side view elliptic-ovate; wall brown, smooth, about 0.5 ?m thick, with apical pore.

Habitat:

On soil and litter beneath Leptospermum and Dacrydium, and in pine plantations.

Collections examined:

New Zealand. AUCKLAND: Woodhill State Forest, on ground in litter of mixed Pinus-native forest, C. C. King, Jun 1989, PDD 57236 (holotype); Waitakere Ranges, Sharps Bush, in litter under Leptospermum and Dacrydium, P. R. Johnston, 11 Jun 1982, PDD 43043; Waitakere Ranges, Atkinson Park, Titirangi Beach, on soil under Leptospermum, G. M. Taylor, 9 May 1979, PDD 49789; Waitakere Ranges, Piha Valley, Quarry Track, on litter, B. P. Segedin 2219, 4 Apr 1989, PDD 58423; Orere, on ground, ./. M. Dingley, 23 May 1973, PDD 34593; Hunua Ranges, Mangatangi Valley, on rotten wood, J. M. Dingley & S. Haydon, 19 Jun 1974, PDD 34594.

Distribution:

New Zealand: Auckland.

Notes:

This species has been found only in the Auckland region, where it appears to be quite common on soil and litter in native forest and in pine plantations. As noted by Guzman et al. (1991), P. aucklandii is very similar to P. zapotecorum R. Heim emend. Guzman, which is common in Mexico and known from South America. The two species are barely distinguishable microscopically, although comparison with published descriptions (Guzman 1983) show that P. aucklandii may have slightly narrower pleurocystidia and slightly wider spores. Published illustrations of P. zapotecorum (Guzman 1983) appear to show that P. aucklandii is a less robust species.


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OfflineSheepish
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: bluemeanie]
    #2526560 - 04/05/04 04:38 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

http://www.erowid.org/plants/show_image.php?i=mushrooms/images/archive/psilocybe_aucklandii1.jpg

This one picture looks exactly like Aucklandii. The clarity of the picture just isn't too great, so using that as a guide can be a bit hard.
I am working on getting a digital camera - I have the funds, just trying to find the best camera for this kind of photography.


And good luck for Aucklanders - a wet week is forecast, and today was slightly wet. Temperatures are dropping too, and this autumn is expected to be 2-3 degrees colder than average.


Edited by Sheepish (04/05/04 04:39 AM)


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Invisiblewinelover
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: Sheepish]
    #2526591 - 04/05/04 05:15 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

The weather is comming in in the south too with snow forcast down too 600 meters in the alps, shit  ah well it has a gold lining I guess :nut:


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Offlinefaslimy
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: Sheepish]
    #2528215 - 04/05/04 05:21 PM (10 years, 7 months ago)

I live in Auckland also and have been shrooming a couple of times with no luck, I know of a couple of popular places. It would be nice to meet up with some fellow mycophiles and go picking..


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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: OOISI]
    #2530621 - 04/06/04 07:32 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

so plagerism is ok? :smile:


--------------------


Have: Agaricus bitorquis; Lepista saeva; Lepista nuda; SRA; Pioppino; Agaricus 'marzipan'

Looking for: Agaricus augustus, more SRAs and Torqs.


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Invisiblebluemeanie
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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: Sheepish]
    #2530622 - 04/06/04 07:34 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

So its a mushroom similar to Anno's arcana and a variety of other mushrooms with a yellowish to blackish stem as it descends toward the base with the velvety mycelia towards the base. yum....


--------------------


Have: Agaricus bitorquis; Lepista saeva; Lepista nuda; SRA; Pioppino; Agaricus 'marzipan'

Looking for: Agaricus augustus, more SRAs and Torqs.


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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: bluemeanie]
    #2530686 - 04/06/04 08:25 AM (10 years, 7 months ago)

sorry but i didnt intend plagiarism,
those notes of my previous two posts
were taken from this site

http://nzfungi.landcareresearch.co.nz/ht...er=&TPage=7
nzmyc

oh yeah bm it says **Article: Johnston, P.R.; Buchanan, P.K.**
it has that on the posts but yeah i really should post the source next time. thanks for the reminder :wink:


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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: OOISI]
    #4367949 - 07/04/05 01:51 AM (9 years, 4 months ago)

i just spent a good few hours in WOODHILL Forrest near Kumeu with some mates. We are all first timers at shroom hunting. We found a whole heap of different mushrooms but wernt able to identify any of them except for the bright red Amanita Muscaria.

Anyone got some pictures that they could send my way to help me with identification. please email me bungel@gmail.com


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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: Bungel]
    #4368492 - 07/04/05 04:20 AM (9 years, 4 months ago)

Do a search under my posts for Aucklandii. There are at least 60 pics I have posted of the type you are looking for.


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Re: Mushrooms in New Zealand [Re: mjshroomer]
    #12568961 - 05/15/10 09:01 PM (4 years, 6 months ago)

Quote:

mjshroomer said:
PSILOCYBIAN MUSHROOMS IN NEW ZEALAND
Until the late 1970's, the fact that psilocybin containing mushrooms grew in New Zealand (NZ) was known to very few. The perception of those interested in psychedelic drugs was that `magic mushrooms' were an Australian phenomena, and that the only mushrooms of this nature to be found in NZ had arrived via the post. Indeed, all of the analyses performed by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) for the police at this time were upon P. cubensis which had been sent to NZ in the mail, and intercepted by customs. Not until the early l980's did a more general awareness appear, within the psychedelic drug-using subculture, that psilocybin containing mushrooms could be found in both islands of NZ. It is likely that persons experienced with the Australian situation recognized C. cyanescens and P. tasmaniana growing in the New Plymouth sand dunes, particularly at Khomenii beach which is popular with surfers. At about the same time, a botanist from the United Kingdom recognized P. semilanceata (liberty cap) growing on the Otago peninsula, near the city of Dunedin in the South Island. The botanist informed a circle of friends with an interest in psychedelics, and the knowledge spread rapidly by word of mouth.

Thus, it was not until l982 that articles with titles such as `Magic Mushroom Danger Warning' (Unsigned l982) began to appear in the press, and occasional reports of prosecutions appeared. As in Australia, media reports were usually quite inaccurate in describing the effects of the mushrooms, while giving precise instructions as to where they could be found. For example, in the aforementioned `Danger warning' (Unsigned, l982), a New Plymouth-based alcohol and drug abuse officer is quoted as saying that "it (the mushroom effect) was like setting off a time bomb..... most common was an instant `high' which put stress on the respiratory and heart functions....." The article goes on to say: "They were very dangerous, he warned. People had died from them." At the same time, there were reports on national television showing mushrooms being picked in the New Plymouth paddocks. Consequently, there was a sudden and dramatic increase in popular knowledge of the mushrooms, resulting in large-scale autumnal pilgrimages to this area of the country.

As in the U.S.A., the New Zealand police were not vigorous in attempting to prosecute mushroom pickers, and tended to avoid involvement unless specifically called by a farmer. Attempts to prosecute cases were hampered by the wording of the Misuse of Drugs Act, l975, which declared Psilocybe mexicana Heim and P. cubensis, neither of which have ever been found growing in NZ (although the latter has been intercepted in the incoming mail), to be prohibited plants, while psilocybine and psilocine were class A substances. Most judges, with one notable exception (Unsigned l986) felt that a mushroom was not a substance (chemical) and thus prosecutions tended to fail. For this reason, an Amendment to the Act was passed in early l988 which declared that all members of the genera Psilocybe and Panaeolus were prohibited plants. This has not, however, led to a marked increase in prosecutions and sentences continue to be mild.

NZ is an isolated country with a prolific native flora. While the importation of cattle may have been responsible for introducing P. cyanescens to NZ, there are at least five indigenous species, four of which have yet to be described in detail and named (Johnson and Buchanan l988, D.S.I.R., Pers. Comm.). The fifth is Psilocybe novo zealandiae, which has been characterized by Guzm?n (l983). P. novo zealandiae is found primarily in the native forests of the southern South Island, and as such is unlikely to have played a significant role in human ingestion. This latter species is not psychoactive.

Copelandia cyanescens (`blue meanies') predominates in the New Plymouth region, an area of intensive dairy farming. The mushrooms appear in autumn, most commonly under lupine bushes in coastal paddocks. In the lower South Island, particularly the Otago area and Dunedin city, the species consumed by users is P. semilanceata (`liberty cap').

In so far as epithets are concerned, the most popular term is `magic mushrooms.' Neither the Australian term `gold tops' nor the English and American `liberty caps' has been widely adopted, although the term `blue meanies' is occasionally used to refer to P. cyanescens. In a study involving in depth interviews (and follow up questionnaires) of 150 people, carried out between l982 and l989 all over NZ (Jansen, Pers. Comm. l989) it was clear that many users knew that `gold tops' referred to an "Australian" mushroom (P. cubensis) which was different from those used in NZ.

In the study referred to above, the only case requiring emergency room treatment was a musician who, due to impaired coordination, had fallen and cut his head. The hospital staff were not told of his intoxication, he was sutured without difficulty, and departed the emergency room with his companions. All persons in the study were asked if they knew of anyone who had required acute medical treatment, and except for the case discussed above there were no other instances known to those in the sample. According to Dr. K. L. R. Jansen, there are no reported case histories in the NZ medical literature. However, 3 out of the 150 cases (Approximately 2%) suffered prolonged psychological difficulties following their mushroom experiences. Two of these cases involved the precipitation of a severe paranoid psychosis, eventually requiring psychiatric treatment which was still in progress at the time of the interview. In both cases there were obvious predisposing features, but there was clearly no pre-existing psychosis while following the mushroom experiences there was frank and prolonged psychosis. These cases illustrate the point which has often been made concerning psychedelic drugs: that there are certain persons who are psychologically at serious risk from these substances, and must be urged to avoid them.

In terms of physical effects, no evidence was found to support the claims made in the `Danger Warning' that psilocybian mushrooms placed a major stress on the heart and respiratory systems, nor is there any evidence of any deaths occurring in NZ due to psilocybian mushroom ingestion. The potentially lethal practice of driving back to Auckland city from New Plymouth while intoxicated on mushrooms has not yet resulted in a serious accident. There were several descriptions of a very rapid start to the altered state which might be described as an `instant high', but nothing to indicate that this was a serious threat to health.

The major physical danger from ingesting psilocybin mushrooms in NZ arises from the use of fungicidal and other agricultural sprays (c.f., see Young et al l982), which have been used in both the North and the South Island by farmers and enforcement authorities. Karl L. R. Jansen, (a medical doctor from the University of Auckland) has attended a person at their home suffering from marked weakness of the respiratory muscles, with attendant shortness of breath, following ingestion of sprayed mushrooms. The signs and symptoms of poisoning continued for at least 18 hours after the return of a normal mental state, indicating that the muscle weakness was unlikely to have been due to psilocybin which may sometimes cause weakness acutely. Others ingesting the mushrooms from this paddock also suffered various forms of muscle weakness (e.g. lazy eyelid, which is extremely unlikely to have a `psychological' origin), extending in all cases for many hours beyond the end of the change in consciousness. In several cases, strong and robust men with extensive experience of psychedelic drugs collapsed while crossing the road due to severe muscle weakness - a potentially life-threatening situation. It is thus clear that spraying mushrooms represents a greater public health threat than the mushrooms themselves, and should be discontinued.

Finally, it was suggested by several persons in the study that the Maori (the indigenous race) may have used psilocybin mushrooms. This possibility was also mentioned by R.G. Wasson on a visit to NZ, in relation to the theory which holds that concepts of divinity may have arisen in primitive peoples out of psychedelic drug experiences. In fact, there is no evidence of any sort to support the use of these mushrooms by the pre-conquest Maori. The Maori are quite distinctive for having used no consciousness altering drugs of any kind, and were highly skilled at treating food to remove toxic substances. This conclusion was supported by all of NZ's Professors of Maori studies, and many other scholars of the Maori culture, in a series of consultations carried out in l988. It appears that the Maori culture represents at least one instance of a complex and rich theology and mythology, involving priests (tohunga's) and the frequent invocation of deities in daily life, which did not require the use of consciousness-altering chemicals.

Some New Zealand Psilocybian Mushrooms:

Copelandia cyanescens:
In New Zealand, this species is mainly found on the west coast of the North Island in the New Plymouth area especially in the paddocks near the airport and in the dunes at Khomenii Beach. Also at Whatipu beach near Auckland and some west coast beaches near Wellington (Otaki and Foxton). They tend to occur in the lupin covered zone between pasture and sand. The New Plymouth lupins have recently been decimated by disease and the effect upon fungal growth has yet to be determined.




P. aucklandii:
Documented Locations: In New Zealand, 25 km north of Auckland, Wood Hill State Park. Gregarious on brown clay soil partially covered with pine needles of Pinus radiata D. Don, in a mixed pine and dicotyledonous native tree forest.

P. australiana:
In New Zealand, 20 km West of Auckland near Oratia. Fruits in April. This species is very similar to P. cyanescens Wakefield.

mj  excerpted from Magic Mushrooms of Australia and new Zealand. The NZ portial was written by Allen, MErlin and jansen.  1990. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.

P. semilanceata:
In New Zealand, this species appears largely confined to the south of Cook Island, in particular the Otago Peninsula and Mount Cook in soil in high-altitude grasslands and has been observed in Mackenzie: vic. Mt. Cook, Otago Lakes and in the vicinity of Queenstown. Has been used recreationally since the early l980's. There is a specimen in the DSIR collection which was found on a suburban lawn in Auckland; also collected Southeast of Wakefield, Inangahua Junction.

P. subaeruginosa:
Johnston and In 1995, this species was reported from New Zealand at Auckland, Waikato, Bay of Plenty, Taranaki, Wanganui, Nelson, Buller, Southland as being common on small pieces of buried wood on rough coastal farmlands and pastures and especially on sandy soil, and in gardens, especially on mulches of Pinus radiata bark. The presence of psilocybine in this species in Australia was detected in 1970 and three years later, Dr. Malcomb Hall reported its use as a recreational drug.



I'll keep an eye near browns bay


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