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OfflineLord_McLovin
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DARE to be Ineffective?
    #15732586 - 01/29/12 09:06 AM (2 years, 5 months ago)

Addiction & the Humanities, Vol. 8(1): DARE to be Ineffective? A look at Drug Education Programs in Schools
January 28, 2012 - basisonline.org

During 1983, Police Chief Daryl Gates created the Drug Abuse Resistance Education, or DARE program, which more than 80% of school districts in the United States use for educating students about resisting drug use. Every year, more than 26 million students participate in a DARE course (DARE, 2009). The DARE program utilizes uniformed police officers to teach students to make decisions to resist drug use (DARE, 2009). In addition to classes, DARE incorporates interactive education and activities like dances and socials and culminates in a graduation ceremony (DARE, 2009). DARE is very popular among students and parents. A Canadian study showed that 95% of students responded that they enjoyed the knowledge and presentation of the DARE program (RCMP, 2007). DARE is ubiquitous and popular, but is it effective?

Effectiveness of DARE

Ringwalt et al. (1991) showed that, although DARE increased students’ awareness and understanding of drugs, it only had a small, not statistically significant, effect on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use. Similarly, Clayton, et al. (1996) found no differences in the rates of alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use among DARE graduates one year after the program, or for alcohol, tobacco or marijuana trajectories between students who took DARE and controls at the five-year follow-up. Finally, a ten-year follow-up with the Clayton et al. (1996) sample found no relationship between DARE status and cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, or illicit substance use (Lynam, Zimmerman, Novak, Logan, Martin, Leukefeld & Clayton, 1999). Although proponents of DARE argue that DARE also helps to promote self-esteem and good decision making skills among graduates, Clayton et al. (1996), found only a modest effect on self-esteem and no effect on decision making immediately after course administration. At ten-year follow-up, Lynam et al. (1999) found no effect on self-esteem and a decrease in self-esteem among students who completed DARE.

Why is DARE still being taught?


DARE continues to be widely administered, despite the preponderance of evidence against the program. Why do school officials continue to offer DARE? Birkeland, Murphy-Graham and Weiss (2005) conducted more than 100 interviews with teachers, administrators, and police officers determining why DARE continues to be administered in the face of overwhelming negative evidence. Birkeland et al. (2005) found three main arguments for the continuation of DARE programs: popularity, unrealistic expectations, and secondary benefits.

    * DARE is a popular program among students and parents alike. Administrators cite this as a potential barrier to elimination.
    * Administrators point to unrealistic expectations on the part of researchers and the public when evaluating DARE programs. The idea that a one-semester class can reduce or eliminate drug use by itself is unrealistic. Many school administrators signed off on the program with this fact in mind, and therefore the preponderance of negative evidence is not particularly troublesome to them. Many view DARE as merely a fraction of the effort necessary to curb youth substance use.
    * Police officers and administrators cite the beneficial secondary effects of DARE as a reason DARE programs persist. Police officers and administrators feel that the presence of and interaction with uniformed police officers is important for children. Research studies and critics focusing on drug use as the primary outcome do not factor in this benefit when evaluating DARE programs.

The Future of DARE?

DARE has sought to change its curriculum and created new programs to address criticisms about its lack of efficacy. During 1999, for example, DARE received private funding to create a new program, Take Charge of Your Life. Sloboda et al. (2009) evaluated the effectiveness of this new program. The study found that students who participated in Take Charge reported higher 30-day alcohol and cigarette consumption, and binge drinking rates compared to those who did not.

Other authors have suggested replacing one-size-fits-all programs such as DARE with more targeted interventions. Midford (2009) noted that focusing limited resources on harm prevention for troubled students is more beneficial than focusing on prevention for all students.

DARE has survived for more than 30 years and remains popular, despite overwhelming evidence against its efficacy as a drug prevention program. Many teachers and administrators see merit in the program, citing unseen benefits. Whereas DARE might never be the solution to youth substance use, DARE will likely continue to be offered to students as a piece of the overall effort to reduce youth drug use. Should DARE continue in its present form? Please let us know your opinion.

-Daniel Tao

____________________

What do you think? Please use the comment link below to provide feedback on this article.

References

Birkeland, S., Murphy-Graham, E., Weiss, C. (2005). Good reasons for ignoring good evaluation: The case of drug abuse resistance education (D.A.R.E.) program. Evaluation and Program Planning, 28, 247-256.

Clayton, R.R, Cattarello, A.M., Johnstone, B.M. (1996). The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (Project DARE): 5-year follow up results. Preventative Medicine, 25(3), 307-318.

DARE (2009). 2009 Annual Report. Retrieved Jan. 18, 2012 from http://dare.org/home/documents/0310DARE_AnnualReport_11WEB_000.pdf.

Ennett, S.T., Rosenbaum, D.P., Flewelling, R.L., Bieler, G.S., Ringwalt, C.L., Bailey, S.L. (1994). Long-term evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education. Addictive Behaviors, 19(2), 113-125.

Lynam, D.R., Milich, R., Zimmerman, R., Novak, S.P., Logan, T.K., Martin, C., Leukefeld, C., Clayton, R. (1999). Project DARE: No effects at 10-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(4),590-593.

Midford, R. (2009) Drug prevention programmes for young people: Where have we been and where should we be going? Addiction, 105(10), 1688-1695.

Ringwalt, C., Ennett, S.T., Holt, K.D. (1991). An outcome evaluation of Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education). Health Education Research, 6(3), 327-337.

RCMP. (2007). D.A.R.E. Drug Abuse Resistance Education, National Client Survey 2007. Retrieved Jan. 18, 2012 from http://dare.procon.org/sourcefiles/2007RCMP.pdf.

Sloboda, Z., Stephens, R.C., Stephens, P.C., Grey, S.F., Teasdale, B., Hawthorne, R.D., Williams, J., Marquette, J.F. (2009). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study: A randomized field trial of a universal substance abuse prevention program. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 102, 1-10.


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OfflineKing Klick
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: Lord_McLovin]
    #15732669 - 01/29/12 10:04 AM (2 years, 5 months ago)

Pigs like doing dare because it takes them off the street for a day. I remember dare, fuck that shit.


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The moment you refuse the human rights for just a few, what happens when that view includes you?-Chuck D.

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Offlinesiriusmushroom
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: King Klick]
    #15732706 - 01/29/12 10:20 AM (2 years, 5 months ago)

Very good article, wish all journalism would apply the same standards.

It clearly mentions the studies on which said things are based.

And I really think Midford is right with what he is saying. Better to focus limited resources on those obviously in need of help, then to try 'prevention' for all.

Even better would be if the money now flowing to maintain the 'war on drugs' would go to healthcare, or maybe we should demand a 'war on poverty'...hehe They could probably fill the country with decent free hospitals with that kind of money and end poverty in a second...


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OfflineR_Unit
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: siriusmushroom]
    #15732978 - 01/29/12 12:12 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

I failed DARE. Only one other kid and I failed out of all the children in school.  They wouldnt let me go to the graduation ceremony.  I failed because I forgot to do some homework, and their response was to isolate me from the group and stop giving me information about drugs.  What the hell kind of plan is that?  Really enepded up as a self fulfilling prophecy.


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OfflineKevin_X2
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: Lord_McLovin]
    #15733238 - 01/29/12 01:43 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

We learn about the ineffectiveness of the DARE program in applied social psychology. There are a host of issues with the program. and it has been proven ineffective as a deterrent against drug use.


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Invisiblegolfin_ernie
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: Kevin_X2]
    #15733385 - 01/29/12 02:14 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

It's funny that parents could opt out of DARE for their children.  Once the parent opted out, they were targeted by the school, police and social services...


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OfflineImmortal Corrupter
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: golfin_ernie]
    #15733538 - 01/29/12 02:48 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

I took DARE in elementary, if anything it left me pissed off when I found out that most of it was pure bullshit. Smoking weed and drinking weren't going to make you a bum and a burnout and well...look at the website we're all posting on lol :tongue:


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Offlinesonamdrukpa
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: Immortal Corrupter]
    #15734116 - 01/29/12 05:04 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

How many millions of dollars are spent on DARE?  Aren't there programs like band and sports that have been proven to do things like improve grades and attendance and reduce drug use? Why not spend the money there?


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Offlinecloset hippie
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: sonamdrukpa]
    #15734552 - 01/29/12 06:45 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

DARE is crap they tell you drugs will kill you and then you go home and your brother seems perfectly fine after he had a bowl.

They should educate teens on safe use and explain things like class types of drugs ie stimulants which include cocaine, caffeine depressants including cannabis not just saying Cocaine, cannabis, Ecstasy etc. What are the risks and effects of drugs ie. hallucinations and over use not you will become a drug addict if you use it and talk about using appropriately like not before school or work and not before driving using in a safe environment and having a host to keep an eye on you. They should explain dosages, how to identify uncontaminated pure products, the safest method of use (don't smoke it Vaporise), what age is the safest before experimenting.
It is about educating people on risks not trying to scare the sh!t out of them.
If it was legal and regulated this information would be widely available and almost common knowledge. And there would not be unsafe product. Drugs are only a problem when they are abused.


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OfflineBawks
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: closet hippie]
    #15735453 - 01/29/12 10:08 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

DARE should start teaching kids about proper drug usage, moderation, and the risks of consuming contaminated/impure drugs.


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InvisibleToiletDuk
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: Lord_McLovin]
    #15735492 - 01/29/12 10:18 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

They lie so much about drugs to the kids, then they wonder why it's so ineffective.


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OfflineKing Klick
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: Bawks]
    #15735511 - 01/29/12 10:22 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

Dancesafe.org man


--------------------
Your god is dead, and i killed him.

The moment you refuse the human rights for just a few, what happens when that view includes you?-Chuck D.

It's official, my pain is clear as crystal. The natural side of life is now seaming artificial.-Vinnie Paz


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InvisibleDebuteMachine

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Re: DARE to be Ineffective? [Re: King Klick]
    #15735537 - 01/29/12 10:31 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

DARE to be straight?
DARE to be normal?
DARE to smoke a blunt?

Okay.


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Offlinecloset hippie
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective [Re: King Klick]
    #15735792 - 01/29/12 11:23 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

Quote:

King Klick said:
Dancesafe.org man



That is a great site could you imagine what it could do with the Government investing money into it. This is a great resource of information. THIS is more what is needed and needs to be shown in schools not "just say no".[url=http://dancesafe.org/]
:like: http://dancesafe.org/[/url] :like:


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Offlinejvm
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective [Re: closet hippie]
    #15735828 - 01/29/12 11:32 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

An old friend once told me Drugs Are Very Excellent.

Looking back on the DARE program i have come to realize that it in no way will help adolescents make mature decisions upon the use of mind altering substances. It felt like an indoctrination program of trying to make children believe something they have no first hand experience with. Do they think children at the age of 10 have no reasoning or understanding? Clearly. They still use the DARE program to instill fear to stay away from the mind altering substances. They are better off removing DARE for their fear of making children curious to experience such things when they give very little evidence of these substances and their detrimental effects, if any.


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Offlinecloset hippie
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective [Re: jvm]
    #15735908 - 01/29/12 11:53 PM (2 years, 5 months ago)

Quote:

jvm said:
An old friend once told me Drugs Are Very Excellent.

Looking back on the DARE program i have come to realize that it in no way will help adolescents make mature decisions upon the use of mind altering substances. It felt like an indoctrination program of trying to make children believe something they have no first hand experience with. Do they think children at the age of 10 have no reasoning or understanding? Clearly. They still use the DARE program to instill fear to stay away from the mind altering substances. They are better off removing DARE for their fear of making children curious to experience such things when they give very little evidence of these substances and their detrimental effects, if any.



So true little impressionable minds *brainwash* or *social engineering*


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Invisiblevenetianblinds
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective [Re: closet hippie]
    #15736469 - 01/30/12 02:30 AM (2 years, 5 months ago)

i was in that program as a kid. in like 4th grade i got some medal for this essay i wrote...ahahaha good times


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OfflineLord_McLovin
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Re: DARE to be Ineffective [Re: venetianblinds]
    #15737014 - 01/30/12 07:57 AM (2 years, 5 months ago)

Quote:

venetianblinds said:
i was in that program as a kid. in like 4th grade i got some medal for this essay i wrote...ahahaha good times



:ifyoucanawe:


...


:winning:


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