Home | Community | Message Board


Lil Shop Of Spores
Please support our sponsors.

Mushrooms, Mycology and Psychedelics >> The Ethnobotanical Garden

Welcome to the Shroomery Message Board! You are experiencing a small sample of what the site has to offer. Please login or register to post messages and view our exclusive members-only content. You'll gain access to additional forums, file attachments, board customizations, encrypted private messages, and much more!

Amazon Shop for: Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, Kratom, Morning Glory Seeds, Papaver Somniferum, Peat, Perlite, Peruvian Torch, Portable Greenhouse, Psychotria Viridis, Salvia, San Pedro, Scales, pH Test Strips

Jump to first unread post. Pages: 1 | 2 | Next >  [ show all ]
Offlineneuro
Phytophiliac
 User Gallery

Registered: 08/11/99
Posts: 6,612
Loc: Rigel 7
Last seen: 2 months, 2 days
The Ethnobotanical Gardens Encyclopedia * 14
    #1485948 - 04/23/03 01:58 PM (11 years, 5 months ago)



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
v1.2 beta 2010
Original Contributors: Entheomation, Neuro, Salvia England
Recent Contributors: Dr. uarewotueat, Cactusdan

this document is currently being updated.
if you feel that there is any information missing which you would like to be added or any errors with information contained within the Encyclopedia, please contact one of the ethnobotanical garden moderators.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

What is the difference between an Ethnobotanical and an Entheogen?

BOTANICAL TERMS.

PLANT HARDINESS ZONES.

FLOWER STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

MITRAGYNA SPECIOSA (KRATOM)

SALVIA DIVINORUM

ARGYREIA NERVOSA (HAWAIIAN BABY WOODROSE)

IPOMOEA SP.(MORNING GLORY)

PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM (OPIUM POPPY)

LOPHOPHORA WILLIAMSII (PEYOTE)

TRICHOCEREUS SP. (SAN PEDRO)

CACTI IN GENERAL

PHOTOPERIOD

SEED GERMINATION

NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA

PROPAGATION OF VINES

TAKING A CUTTING - TIPS

MYCORRHIZA

GRAFTING

SHIPPING PLANTS

WATERING YOUR HOUSEPLANTS WHILE AWAY

USEFUL, INFORMATIVE & INTERESTING POSTS/LINKS


Edited by Cactusdan (06/16/10 04:17 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
What is the difference between an Ethnobotanical and an Entheogen? (FAQ) [Re: neuro]
    #9790860 - 02/13/09 04:52 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

What is the difference between an Ethnobotanical and an Entheogen?

ETHNOBOTANICAL:

An Ethnobotanical by definition is a plant that is used by humans.

The word roots are:

Ethn, -o (G): A nation
Botan, = a (G): Pasture, grass, fodder

The roots don't spell out exactly what the words mean in English as say Philadelphia's roots do, but the word roots give one an idea why we're using these words. A nation: People, Pasture: plants, A nation of people using plants, or in more crude and blunt terms A nation of plants or a pasture nation.

ENTHEOGEN:

An Entheogen is by definition a plant that produces God-like states, or plants contain the gods; God engenderers.

The roots are:

En (G): In, into
theo (G): Run: a god
gen (G): Bear, produce

The roots provide a more straight forward clue as to the meaning of the word than Ethnobotnical's roots.

So all entheogens are ethnobotanicals, but not all ethnobotanicals are entheogens.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:40 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
BOTANICAL TERMS (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9790867 - 02/13/09 04:53 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

BOTANICAL TERMS:
Some basic plant terms one might come across in botanical communities, the forum, and in the literature.

Angiosperm: Meaning covered seed; Traditional name for flowering plants, a very large, diverse phylum of plants that form flowers for sexual reproduction and produce seeds enclosed in fruits; includes monocots and dicots.

Annual: A plant that completes its entire life cycle in one year or less

Anther: The part of the stamen in flowers that produces microspores and ultimate pollen grains.

Apical Dominance: Inhibition of the growth of lateral buds by the terminal bud of a plant shoot, a chemical hormonal influence

Biennial: A plant that takes two years to complete its life cycle

Caespitose: Growing in small dense clumps or tufts.

Calyx: The word calyx is used as a collective term for the sepals of a flower.

Carpel: The female reproductive unit of a flower; carpels bear ovules.

Chlorotic: When there is a nutrient deficiency that causes a plant to fail to produce chlorophyll, a yellowing of the plants tissue can occur, and the plant if referred to as being chlorotic.

Cotyledon: A leaf of the embryo of a seed plant, which upon germination either remains in the seed or emerges, enlarges, and becomes green. Also called seed leaf.

Cultigen: A plant not known to have a wild or uncultivated counterpart.

Cultivar: A cultivar results from the cross-breeding of plants, which results in a new subspecies, or cultivar (hybrid).

Dioecious: Having male and female reproductive flowers or cones each on different plants.

Etiolate: To cause a plant to develop without chlorophyll by preventing exposure to sunlight. To make weak by stunting the growth or development of a plant.

Filament: In flowering plants, the thin stalk of a stem; the filament bears the anther at the tip.

Gametes: Germ cells, called gametes, from the male and female plants fuse together during fertilization.

Genus: A genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the classification of living and fossil organisms. The taxonomic ranks are domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

Germ eye: The place on a seed where the root emerges from.

Gymnosperm: Meaning naked seed.Any of a group of seed plants in which the seeds are not enclosed in an ovary; gymnosperms frequently bear their seeds in cones.

Hybrid: The offspring resulting from cross-breeding of different plants or animals.

Internode: The spanning area between two nodes.

Lignin: A substance found in many plant cell walls that confers rigidity and strength, particularly in woody tissues.

Monoecious: Having male and female reproductive parts in separate flowers or cones on the same plant.

Node, Leaf Node: The point where the leaf connects to the stem.

Perennial: A woody or herbaceous plant that grows year after year, i.e. lives more than two years.

Petiole: In botany, a petiole is the stalk of a leaf, attaching the blade to the stem.

Phloem: The vascular tissue that conducts sugar and other organic compounds in plants.

Photoperiod: The duration of time that light is provided for photosynthetic use of a plant.

Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things.

Propagation: This is the act of reproducing, spreading or distributing plants.

Pistil: The female reproductive organ of a flower; consists of either a single carpel or two or more fused carpels.

Pollen: A fine to coarse powder consisting of microgametophytes (pollen grains), which produce the male gametes (sperm cells) of seed plants.

Species: A species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.

Stamen: The male reproductive part of a flower consisting of a filament and an anther

Stigma: The sticky sugary top of a style where pollen grains land during and before pollination.

Style: The neck connecting the stigma and the carpel.

Xylem: The vascular tissue that conducts water and dissolved minerals in plants.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 07:08 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
PLANT HARDINESS ZONES (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat] * 1
    #9790870 - 02/13/09 04:54 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

PLANT HARDINESS ZONES:
A hardiness zone is a geographically-defined zone in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by temperature hardiness, or ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone.

WORLD:


USA:


CANDA:


AUSTRALIA:


NEW ZEALAND:


EUROPE:


UK:


SOUTH AMERICA:


AFRICA:


CHINA:


JAPAN:


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/17/10 08:56 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
FLOWER STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9790873 - 02/13/09 04:55 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

FLOWER STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:

Flowering plants are the dominant type of plants on the earth today (there are about 250000 species). Flowers are therefore the most common plant organs for sexual reproduction. 
Flowers produce gametes (sex cells).
Flowers play a key role in pollination. Pollination is the transfer of pollen (containing the male gametes), from the anther of a flower, to the stigma (receptive surface of the female part of the flower) of the same or a different flower.

Parts of the Flower:


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:42 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
KRATOM (FAQ) [Re: neuro]
    #9790884 - 02/13/09 04:57 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

MITRAGYNA SPECIOSA (KRATOM)



---DESCRIPTION---

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a medicinal leaf harvested from a large tree in the Rubiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. It was first formally documented by the Dutch colonial botanist Pieter Korthals. It is botanically related to the Corynanthe, Cinchona  and Uncaria  genera and shares some similar biochemistry. It is in the same family as coffee and the psychoactive plant Psychotria viridis. Other species in the Mitragyna genus are used medicinally in Africa, and also used for their wood.

---CHEMISTRY---

Kratom contains many alkaloids including mitragynine  (once thought to be the primary active), mitraphylline, and 7-hydroxymitragynine  (which is currently the most likely candidate for the primary active chemical in the plant). Although 7-hydroxymitraygynie and mitragynine are structurally related to yohimbine  and other tryptamines, their pharmacology is quite different, acting primarily as mu-opioid receptor agonists. Other active chemicals in kratom include raubasine (best known from Rauwolfia serpentina) and some yohimbe alkaloids such as corynantheidine.

---COMMON KRATOM QUESTIONS---

Is Kratom legal?

- Kratom is a controlled substance in Thailand, Bhutan, Australia, Finland, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Malaysia and Myanmar (Burma). The United States Drug Enforcement Administration  has added Kratom to their list of drugs and chemicals of concern.

How do I germinate Kratom seeds?

- Kratom seeds will sprout surprisingly easy, though. Since you can expect a viability rate of about 20% from fresh Kratom seeds, and about 10% from ones that are not so fresh, you can plant between 5-10 seeds per pot. Planting is simple; you can simply drop them onto the top of the soil, and then sprinkle a very thin layer of soil on top, just enough to cover the seeds. In nature, the seeds are so light an so many, that they spread far and wide in the air, and only delicately land, like feathers, on the forest floor.

What conditions does Kratom like?

- Kratom prefers warm tropical swamp like conditions. This makes growing Kratom outdoors out of the question in most regions of the world. Green houses also are notorious for they're failure in sustaining Kratom trees. Kratom trees seem to have a high rate of failure for a number of reasons, but for many, they're interest alone is the reason for attempting cultivation. Kratom prefers humus rich, fertile, wet soils in a protected position, and is drought and frost tender. Seedlings need to be very well protected from sun and wind, but the maturing plant is quite hardy. The Kratom plant is a heavy feeder.

---LINKS---

http://www.erowid.org/plants/kratom/kratom_info1.shtml
http://www.kratom.net


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:43 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
SALVIA DIVINORUM (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9791355 - 02/13/09 06:31 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

SALVIA DIVINORUM:



It is also known as "la pastora" / "the shepherdess", "the leaves of the shepherdess", "diviner's mint" or "diviner's sage", and in context simply as "salvia".

---DESCRIPTION---

Salvia divinorum is a soft-leaved green plant, native to Southern Mexico, which contains a powerful psychoactive chemical known as Salvinorin. S. divinorum has been used traditionally in Mexico for healing and divination and has become popular in the underground psychedelic culture around the world starting in the early 1990's Erowid (http://www.erowid.org/plants/salvia/salvia_basics.shtml)

---CHEMISTRY---

Salvia Divinorum is a vision-inducing plant. Salvinorin A is the active chemical of Salvia Divinorum, it is not structurally similar to any other common psychoactives.

---THE MYSTERY---

Is salvia a plant mystery?

- Yes it is. There is some controversy as to whether Salvia is a true cultigen. There has been much study done.

“after observing the localities in which the Salvia grew, we believe the mint is collected in the highlands and planted in more accessible places, where it becomes naturalized. It is doubtful that the Salvia is a true cultigen.”

Refer to: Studies of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae), an Hallucinogenic Mint from the Sierra Mazateca in Oaxaca, Central Mexico Economic Botany 41(2), 1987, pp. 283-291. L.J. VALD?S III,2,3 G.M. HATFIELD,2 M. KOREEDA,3 and A.G. PAUL2

"AGRONOMIC DATA: There exists agronomic controversy over the status of S.divinorum as a cultigen. The type specimen was a cultivar, and the botanical discoverer of the plant said it "seems to be a cultigen", noting: "We were on the watch for S.divinorum as we criss-crossed the Sierra Mazateca on horseback in September and October of 1962, but never once did we see it. The Indians choose some remote ravine for the planting of it .. whether it occurs in a wild state (except for plants that have been abandoned or have escaped) we do not know" (Wasson 1962). Vald?s, who made ethnographic and phytochemical study of this plant his thesis project, has challenged this, stating that his informant Don Alejandro "indicated that the plant grows wild in the fairly inaccessible highlands of the Sierra Mazateca" admitting, however, that all plants he saw were "apparently originally started by humans" (Vald?s 1994). Vald?s failed to cite Reisfield's thorough botanical and horticultural study of the plant, which concluded that the plant was a cultivar: "Hybridity is suggested, although intermediacy between two known species has not been recognized" (Reisfield 1993), while Epling & J?tiva-M. (1962) noted an affinity with Salvia cyanea Lamb. ex Benth. Although Vald?s had been able to obtain 4 seeds from 14 cross-pollinated flowers (28%), these were killed by overheating in a greenhouse, before viability could be assessed (Vald?s et al. 1987a). Vald?s also noted that D.J. Siebert had obtained viable seed from cultivated plants in Hawai'i (Vald?s 1994), but the seedlings were very weak and of dubious viability in wild conditions (Siebert 1993-94). Reisfield found more than 50% of the pollen grains examined from S.divinorum to be unviable. He obtained only 11 nutlets from 108 self-pollinations, each potentially yelding 4 fruits, or a success rate of 11/432 (2.5%); while in 190 cross-pollinations, only 24 fruits developed (24/760 or 3%), commenting "at no time was a legitimate pollinator observed visiting flowers", even in a nocturnal "stakeout", although mature seeds thus obtained produced some "vigorous seedlings [which] developed into plants indistinguishable .. from their parents". In his botanical description of the plant, Reisfield noted its habit of "trailing along rocky stream banks, sometimes in running water, rooting copiously at the nodes" (Reisfield 1993)."

---HISTORY---

http://www.erowid.org/plants/salvia/salvia_journal7.shtml


---COMMON SALVIA QUESTIONS---

Where can I get salvia seeds?

- Salvia rarely flowers, and rarely sets viable seeds. You must obtain some cuttings to grow this plant.


I got my salvia cutting now what?

- Salvia cuttings are best rooted in plain water or water with some rooting hormone in it. The lowest most leaf node should be exposed and if it isn’t, crack off the leaves on those nodes and scrape the node with your nail, submerge the cutting in the water up to and covering the leaf node. The roots will sprout from there.

After several days root buds should appear, after there is a sufficient amount of root mass, plant in your favorite aerated soil.


What conditions does my salvia like?

- Indirect sunlight

- High RH between 70 – 95% is optimal: Can be grown at lower humidity with acclimatization.

- Acidic or Neutral Soil.

- Miracid is a good feeder.

- Use large pots, with lots of space for the roots.


My Salvia is dying now what?

- Many common causes of Salvia problems stems from over-watering. Watering should only be done when the top layer of soil is dry to the touch.


My Salvia is getting black edges, what's wrong?

- That is rather normal; if your humidity is staying within optimal range and the brown/black edges don’t start consuming the entire leaf then there is nothing to worry about. Simply remove the black edges by tripping the leaf back a little.

Consistent high humidity prevents black edges.


When can a salvia plant be propagated?

- You can propagate Salvia at any time.

When taking a cutting use a clean sharp blade to make a cutting of either the main stalk or a branch. Be sure to leave the plant intact enough to recover, e.g. leave some leaves.

Once the cutting is made, a good thing to do is to take the plant to a pot of room temp water and submerge the cut end of the cutting and once again cut off about ? inch off the bottom where the original cut was made to separate from the host. After this is transfer quickly as possible, and preferably without ever leaving the water at all – if not no big deal just move quick, to the container in which the cutting is to root.

---LINKS---

http://www.erowid.org/plants/salvia/salvia.shtml
http://members.lycos.co.uk/salviaengland/
http://sagewisdom.org/
http://sagewisdom.org/usersguide.html *If you are going to use the plant.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:44 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
HAWAIIAN BABY WOODROSE (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9791387 - 02/13/09 06:37 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

ARGYREIA NERVOSA (HAWAIIAN BABY WOODROSE):
*Source of LSA

 

---DESCRIPTION---

Hawaiian Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa), not to be confused with the Hawaiian woodrose (Merremia tuberosa), is a perennial climbing vine, also known as Elephant Creeper and Woolly Morning Glory. Native to the Indian subcontinent and introduced to numerous areas worldwide, including Hawaii, Africa and the Caribbean, it can be invasive, although is often prized for its aesthetic value. There are two botanical varieties. Argyreia Nervosa var nervosa described here, and Argyrea nervosa var speciosa, as species used in ayurveda, but with little to no psychoactive value.

---CHEMISTRY---

The seeds contain 0.3% ergot alkaloids and are thus the most potent of all vine drugs. The ergot alkaloids aroclavine, ergine, isoergine (isolysergic acid amide), chanoclavine-I and -II, racemic chanoclabine-II, elymoclavine, festuclavine, lysergene, lysergol, isolysergol, molliclavine, penniclavine, stetoclavine, isosetoclavine, ergometrinine, lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide, isolysergic acid-hydroxyethylamide, and ergonovine (ergometrine) have been demonstrated to be present.

Chanoclavine-I is one of the principal constituents not just in Argyreia nervosa but also in most species of Argyria as well as in other representatives of the Family Convolvulaceae. The overall alkaloid composition is reminiscent of that of Turbina corymbosa. The related vine Stictocardia tiliafolia Hallier f. from Panama also contains large quantities of ergot alkaloids (ergine, chanoclavine-I, chanoclavine-II, festuclavine, lysergol, ergometrinine, lysergic acid-hydroxyethylamide, and ergonovine (ergometrine)

---COMMON HBWR QUESTIONS---

Is Hawaiian Baby Woodrose (HBWR) the same as Hawaiian Woodrose?:

- No it is not. Hawaian Woodrose, is Merremia tuberosa. It is in the Convolvulaceae family and contains lesser amounts of LSA than HBWR.

I have seeds, how do I grow them?

- Seeds need to be nicked and then soaked in warm water until they swell or sprout, approximately twenty-four hours. Once they’re ready for planting, plant them in peat pots, once they’ve sprouted and are established replant them in a large pot with some structure for them to climb up as they grow. If you don’t live in the tropics you’ll have to take them in for the winter. It takes about two years to flower.


I have seeds, how do I use them?

- Typically five seeds are considered a good dose. It’s been said that one should scrape off the fuzz with a fingernail to reduce nausea, however this is unsubstantiated. What’s left can be ground up and eaten, or used in an extraction.

---LINKS---

http://www.erowid.org/plants/morning_glory/morning_glory_extraction1.shtml
http://www.erowid.org/plants/morning_glory/morning_glory_extraction2.shtml


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:44 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
MORNING GLORY (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9791392 - 02/13/09 06:38 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

IPOMOEA SP. (MORNING GLORY)
*Source of LSA



---DESCRIPTION---

Ipomoea tricolor is a species of morning glory native to the New World tropics, and widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere. It is a herbaceous annual or perennial twining liana growing to 2-4 m tall. The leaves are spirally arranged, 3-7 cm long with a 1.5-6 cm long petiole. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, 4-9 cm diameter, most commonly blue with a white to golden yellow center.

---CHEMISTRY---

The hallucinogenic properties of the seeds are usually attributed to ergine (also known as d-lysergic acid amide, or LSA), although the validity of the attribution remains disputed. While ergine is listed as a Schedule III substance in the United States, parts of the plant itself are not controlled, and seeds and plants are still sold by many nurseries and garden suppliers.

The seeds also contain glycosides, which may cause nausea if consumed.

---COMMON MORNING GLORY QUESTIONS---

I have seeds, how do I get them started?

- Your seeds can be scarred or nicked, however in experience with morning glory it’s not always necessary, but can be done anyway. They should be then soaked 24 hours in warm water, and can be left until they sprout. They should be planted sprout down in the soil.

What kind of soil should I use?

- Basically morning glories thrive in poor shitty sandy soil.

What should I consider when growing?

- Room to grow and climb. A lattice is a wonderful climbing medium for morning glories. They also like pretty direct sunlight.

When can I harvest seeds?

- The seeds will be left after the flower has died and fallen off, do not harvest yet. Allow the seed pods to dry naturally or tear down the vines at the end of the season and pick through the vines finding fat pods about the diameter of a dime or penny. Each pod should be allowed to dry naturally to a crusty brown. Each pod will be divided into 3 sections with 2 seeds per section.

---EXTRACTION---

http://www.erowid.org/plants/morning_glory/morning_glory_extraction1.shtml
http://www.erowid.org/plants/morning_glory/morning_glory_extraction2.shtml


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:45 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
POPPY (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9791401 - 02/13/09 06:39 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM (OPIUM POPPY):



---DESCRIPTION---

Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the species of plant from which opium  and poppy seeds are extracted. Opium is the source of many opiates, including morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine. The Latin botanical name means, loosely, the "sleep-bringing poppy", referring to the sedative properties of some of these opiates.

The poppy is the only species of Papaveraceae that is an agricultural crop grown on a large scale. Other species, Papaver rhoeas and Papaver argemone, are important agricultural weeds, and may be mistaken for the crop. The plant itself is also valuable for ornamental purposes, and has been known as the "common garden poppy", referencing all the group of poppy plants. Poppy seeds of Papaver somniferum are an important food item and the source of poppyseed oil, a healthy edible oil that has many uses. It is widely grown as an ornamental flower throughout Europe, North America, South America, and Asia.

---CHEMISTRY---

Isolated Chemicals:

    * Codeine - Codeine is the minor alkaloid compared to morphine, but most morphine in the "legitimate" opium business is converted to codeine synthetically.

    * Morphine - One of opium's active constituents and raw material from which heroin is obtained.

    * Papaverine

---COMMON POPPY QUESTIONS---

Which poppy do I want for opium?

- There are several species of poppy plant but the species that one wants for latex opium is Papaver Somniferum.

I heard poppies like cold temperatures is this true?

- It’s been said that poppy seeds germinate best in colder temperatures. Rule of thumb is it should be somewhat cool for the seedlings, once the plants develop into mature specimens warm weather is just fine. After all they grow them in Afghanistan!

When is the best time to plant my poppy seeds?

- Poppies should be directly sown in your garden or pot. Poppies can be sown in September; they will over-winter as a rosette and send up a shoot in the spring. It is also possible to spread seed at the end of winter to very early spring.

Can I really use seeds from the grocery store?

- Yes, they seem to be rather viable and are said to be Tasmanian strain. Other’s have said the grocery store poppies are bread to be contain a low amount of alkaloids called “Thompson Strain,” so far this has yet to be validated by any literature. To quote Hogshire from Opium for the Masses:

“On the plus side, grocery store poppy seeds, bought in the cute little glass bottles in the spice section, are probably from some of the worlds best opium cultivars. The seeds are a bit expensive (a bottle costs three or four dollars and contains the same amount of seed you can pour out of a half dozen good-sized heads!), but they probably came from the poppy fields of Tasmania.

Since 1970, two companies, Britain's Glaxo and America's Johnson & Johnson, have invested enormous energy into transforming the island into the world’s most effective poppy country. They have tirelessly experimented with the plant until Tasmania's poppies are said to have some of the highest yields in the world. The seeds from these poppies are a rich blue color and the flower they grow is white.”

I want to start my poppies in one place and transplant them to another, is this possible?

- Short answer no, long answer possibly. Poppies have rather fragile root systems and do ot hold up to being transplanted. However if started in peat pots one can simply plant the entire peat pot into its final growing place. The peat pot will eventually decompose and the plant will be just fine.

What kind of soil should I use?

- Seeds should be planted in loose fluffy soil, well drained soil.

I heard something about not watering a poppy plant after a certain time, what does this mean?

- It is recommended that after the plant flowers and the petals drop that one stop watering the plant. If you’re growing several plants to one pot and the majority are matured and one or two is not then it’s recommended that one stop watering anyway as the later maturing pods will not produce very well anyway.

When can I harvest my plants?

- If one wants latex from their pods it is best to take it from an unripe poppy pod that has had it’s flowers drop off and water discontinued. Use a small pin or a knife and scrape into the flesh of the pod, but not significantly deep through to the inner space of the pod. The latex will ooze out, one can either let it dry and scrape it off or scrape it onto a knife still wet and allow to dry then. The scars will then heal over and in a few more days one can make another scraping.

One can also allow pods to complete their life cycle and use dried pods for tea, and also to harvest seeds for later grows.

For a plethora of information beyond the scope of this small section visit www.poppies.org


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:45 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
PEYOTE (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9791434 - 02/13/09 06:46 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

LOPHOPHORA WILLIAMSII (PEYOTE):



---DESCRIPTION---

Lophophora williamsii , is a small, spineless cactus. It is native to southwestern Texas and through central Mexico. It is found primarily in the Chihuahuan desert and in the states of Tamaulipas  and San Luis Potosi among scrub, especially where there is limestone.

---CHEMISTRY---

~30% Mescaline(3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzeneethanamine), ~17% Pellotine (1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6,7-dimethyoxy-1,2-dimethyl-8-isoquinolinol), ~14% Anhalonidine (1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-1-methyl-8-isoquinolinol)

---COMMON PEYOTE QUESTIONS---

What kind of soil do I need for Peyote?

- Peyote come from predominantly limestone-based area, so a coarse mineral-based soil will be best for drainage and longevity.

Are the other Lophophora species illegal in the US?

- In most states the other Lophophora species are not listed as illegal, however in California.

How often should I water my L. williamsii?

- This is all variant on soil type, humidity, temperature, and time of year. During the active growing season they can be watered every 1-2 weeks on average. During the winter they shouldn't be watered at all.

---LINKS---

http://lophophora.blogspot.com/

http://www.erowid.org/plants/peyote/peyote.shtml

Lophophora Growers Unite!

Plots of numbers of papers mentioning Lophophora williamsii, 1926 to 2006

Hydro test tube Lophophora grafts

Kaktusy Lophophora special 2005

Kaktusy fricii reprint with new pics

Lophophora - species and cultivars, Cactus World 24.4

Lophophora alberto-vojtechii article in Cactus Explorer 203

Lophophora alberto-vojtechii gallery @BCSS

Lophophora alberto-vojtechii - The Littlest Lophophora 2009_Snicer

Stalking the wild Lophophora, part 1

Stalking the wild Lophophora, part 2

Stalking the wild Lophophora, part 3

A tale of two cacti: studies in Astrophytum asterias and Lophophora williamsii

Peyote Regrowth Following Proper Harvesting Practices

Limitations to natural production of Lophophora williamsii I 2011

Limitations to natural production of Lophophora williamsii II 2012

Clinal Geographic variation in mescaline concentration among Texas populations of Lophophora williamsii

Peyote identification on the basis of differences in morphology, mescaline content, and trnL/trnF sequence between Lophophora williamsii and L. diffusa

Peyote Constituents: Chemistry, Biogenesis, and Biological Effects

Peyote - An Insidious Evil

Hallucinogenic Drugs: A Perspective with Special Reference to Peyote and Cannabis

Twenty years of peyote studies barre1960

A preliminary report of mescaline concentrations in small regrowth crowns vs. mature crowns of Lophophora williamsii

Cultivation of peyote: a logical and practical solution to the problem of decreased availability

Cactus and Alkalinity


Edited by Mostly_Harmless (11/06/13 07:53 AM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
SAN PEDRO (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9791440 - 02/13/09 06:47 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

TRICHOCEREUS SP. (SAN PEDRO)



---DESCRIPTION---

The San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi, syn. Trichocereus pachanoi) is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the Andes Mountains of Peru between 2000–3000 m in altitude. It is also found in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Ecuador, and it is cultivated in other parts of the world. Uses for it include traditional medicine and traditional veterinary medicine, and it is widely grown as an ornamental cactus. It has been used for healing and religious divination in the Andes Mountains region for over 3000 years. It is sometimes confused with its close relative, Echinopsis peruviana (Peruvian Torch Cactus).

---CHEMISTRY---

San Pedro contains a number of alkaloids, including the well-studied chemical mescaline  (0.21 - 1.8%), and also 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethylamine, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, anhalonidine, anhalinine, hordenine, tyramine, and 3-methoxytyramine.

Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic drug and entheogen, which is also found in some other species of genus Echinopsis (i.e. Echinopsis lageniformis, Echinopsis peruviana, and Echinopsis scopulicola) and the species Lophophora williamsii (peyote).

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the highest concentrations of active substances are found in the layer of green photosynthetic tissue just beneath the skin.


---COMMON SAN PEDRO QUESTIONS---

How do I root my cactus and when can I pot it?

- The cactus cutting should be allowed to dry, sun and airflow can speed this process up. You should wait until the cactus is fully calloused before potting it up(~1 month). Some people wait until root buds begin to form at the base, this tends to be very effective at preventing rot.

What kind of soil does my cactus need?

- San Pedro grow in mountainous parts of the Andes, and thus can handle water, cold, and organic soils better than most cacti. The soil should however be well draining. Supplementing soil with ~50% perlite allows good drainage and airflow to the roots.

What is a Backberg Clone or PC

- The Backberg Clone or Predominant Cultivar is a clone of Trichocereus pachanoi that is widely distributed throughout the world, but most commonly in North America. There is question on whether or not this clone is a hybrid Trichocereus as their flower and plant structure are different from South American T. pachanois. Also, the cultivar was never brought over by Backberg, a cactus collector.

How active is my cactus?

- There is no way to truly tell unless the plant is bioassayed. There is speculation that if you lick the cutting and it tastes bitter, the more potent it will be, but this has not been proven. Another speculation is that potency can be increased by stress, however this is unproven as well.

---LINKS---

http://www.erowid.org/plants/cacti/cacti.shtml
http://largelyaccurateinformationmedia.com/pedro/pedro.html
On T. pachanoi, T. peruvianus, and T. macrogonus
Proper San Pedro Identification


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:46 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
CACTI (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9791446 - 02/13/09 06:48 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

CACTI IN GENERAL:



A cactus is (plural: cacti) a member of the plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas  (with one exception, Rhipsalis baccifera, which is native to parts of the Old World). They are often used as ornamental plants, and some are also crop plants for fodder, forage, fruits, cochineal, and other uses. Numerous species have been used since ancient times by indigenous peoples for their psychedelic  effects. Cacti are part of the plant order Caryophyllales, which also includes members like beets, gypsophila, spinach, amaranth, tumbleweeds, carnations, rhubarb, buckwheat, plumbago, bougainvillea, chickweed  and knotgrass.

Cacti are unusual and distinctive plants, which are adapted to extremely arid and/or semi-arid hot environments, as well as tropical environments as epiphytes or hemi-epiphytes. They show a wide range of anatomical and physiological features which conserve water. Their stems have adapted to become photosynthetic and succulent, while the leaves have become the spines for which cacti are well known.

Cacti come in a wide range of shapes and sizes. The tallest is Pachycereus pringlei, with a maximum recorded height of 19.2 m, and the smallest is Blossfeldia liliputiana, only about 1 cm diameter at maturity. Cactus flowers are large, and like the spines and branches arise from areoles.

Cacti are perennial and grow as trees, shrubs, or vines. Most species are terrestrial, but there are also many epiphytic species, especially in the tribes Rhipsalideae  and Hylocereeae. In most species, except for the sub-family Pereskioideae (see image), the leaves are greatly or entirely reduced. The leaves may also be tiny and deciduous  as can be seen on new shoots of Opuntia. Spines grown by the cacti are actually modified leaves; the stems (the green "pads" of many cacti) have also evolved to photosynthesize. The study of when spines grow and how they can be used to tell the cactus' age is called acanthochronology. The flowers, mostly radially symmetrical and bisexual, bloom either by day or by night, depending on the species. Their shape varies from tube-like through bell-like to wheel-shaped, and their size from 0.2 to 15–30 centimetres. Most of them have numerous sepals (from 5 to 50 or more), and change form from outside to inside, from bracts to petals. They have stamens in great numbers (from 50 to 1,500, rarely fewer). Nearly all species of cacti have a bitter mucilaginous sap contained within them. The berry-like fruits may contain few to many (3,000), seeds, which can be between 0.4 and 12 mm long.

The life of a cactus is seldom longer than 300 years, but may be as short as 25 years, (although these flower as early as their second year). The Saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) grows to a height of up to 15 metres (the record is 17 metres 67 cm), but in its first ten years, it grows only 10 centimeters. The "mother-in-law's cushion" (Echinocactus grusonii) reaches a height of 2.5 meters and a diameter of 1 metre and – at least on the Canaries – is already capable of flowering after 6 years. The diameter of cactus flowers ranges from 5 to 30 cm; the colors are often conspicuous and spectacular.

The cactus family is endemic to the Americas with one exception, Rhipsalis baccifera; this species has a pantropical distribution, occurring in the Old World tropical Africa, Madagascar and Sri Lanka as well as in tropical America. This plant is thought to be a relatively recent colonist in the Old World (within the last few thousand years), probably carried as seeds in the digestive tracts of migratory birds. Many other cacti have become naturalized to similar environments in other parts of the world after being introduced by people, e.g. Australia, Hawaii, and the Mediterranean region. The Tehuacán Valley of Mexico has one of the richest occurrences of cacti in the world. Species diversity decreases as one travels north; hundreds of species can be found in areas of Mexico, dozens of species are found in the Sonora and Mojave deserts of the southwestern U.S., and only several species are found in the eastern plains and dry valleys of Montana and Alberta.

Cacti are believed to have evolved in the last 30 to 40 million years. Long ago, the Americas were joined to the other continents, but separated due to continental drift. Unique species in the New World must have developed after the continents had moved apart or began developing just prior to the separation. Significant distance between the continents was only achieved in around the last 50 million years. This may explain why cacti are so rare in Africa as the continents had already separated when cacti evolved. Many succulent plants in both the Old and New World bear a striking resemblance to cacti, and are often called "cactus" in common usage.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 11:08 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
Re: Ethnobotanical Garden FAQ [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9791457 - 02/13/09 06:51 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

PHOTOPERIOD:

Is a twenty-four hour photoperiod good or beneficial?

- Despite successes with marijuana under a 24 hr photoperiod; a photoperiod of 24hrs is not recommended. A dark period is required for photosynthesis. Also for cacti once darkness comes cacti take up CO2 needed for photosynthesis at night to minimize water loss of taking it up during the day.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:25 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
SEED GERMINATION (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9791462 - 02/13/09 06:52 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

SEED GERMINATION:

SEED RULE

- If your seeds seem rather thin and delicate, and you're afraid to
sneeze, breath,  move to fast, or let a strong breeze come by for
fear of losing them:
Then these seeds generally require that they are planted VERY shallowly. Sprinkle them or order them and either push into the soil with a pencil tip, or cover lightly with soil.

To water, it is generally best to use a mister or atomizer
until seeds sprout and become established.

- If the seeds are larger:

They can be planted much deeper than the small tiny seeds
usually between ? and sometimes up 1 inch deep.

Some seeds sometimes require scarifying or nicking.

Nicking: Use a knife cut into the seed coat away from the
germ eye.

Scarifying: Place seeds in a bag with some sand and shake
vigorously.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:47 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA (FAQ) [Re: neuro]
    #9791468 - 02/13/09 06:53 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA:

What is a pea inoculant?

- Pea inoculants are peas or beans that have nitrogen fixing bacteria in the seed and when they germinate they inoculate the soil with the bacteria helping the tree get nitrogen from the soil. To prevent the pea from growing after it's sprouted, just cut off the stalk of the pea at the soil level once it sprouts through the soil.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:47 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
PROPAGATION OF VINES (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9795052 - 02/14/09 01:02 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

PROPAGATION OF VINES:

Ground Layering: This is a method of rooting shoots while they are still attached to the parent plant. It is often used with plants whose cuttings refuse to root. Select a low-growing branch that can be bent to the ground. Make a slanting cut halfway through the branch a at a point about 12 inches from the end, and just below a joint. Then wedge is open with a pebble. Bury the cut in about 4 inches of soil and anchor it with a stone. Stake up the end of the branch so that it extends above the soil lien. Keep the soil moist, and carefully dig down to the cut every few months to check if rooting has taken place. Once rooted, the branch should be severed from the parent plant and grown like an ordinary cutting.


Air Layering: This is similar to ground layering but may be done with any branch. Select a branch from pencil size up to one inch thinck. Make a slanting cut halfway through the branch. Wedge the cut open with a matchstick and dust the cut lightly with rooting hormone. With thick branches, a ring of bark should be removed instead of cutting the branch. Surround it with a handlful of damp peat moss and enclose it with plastic wrap. Tie the wrap at both ends with wire tape. The peat moss should be kept damp. Check it frequently during the summer. In a month or two roots will form and the branch may be severed and treated like an ordinary cutting.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:48 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
TAKING CUTTINGS (FAQ) [Re: Dr. uarewotueat]
    #9795057 - 02/14/09 01:03 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

TAKING A CUTTING - TIPS:

Do not butcher the plant, leave enough of the mother plant so it can continue to photosynthesize, e.g. IT'S BEST NOT TO STRIP IT BARE OF LEAVES.  Cuttings can be taken commonly from the main stem, this is sometimes called topping and also from lateral branches/shoots.
The cutting should contain several sets of leaves, usually 3 sets are fine but 4 are best. The bottom set of leaves can be picked off exposing the leaf node. Scrape the node lightly with your finger nail,

Method 1:

The cutting should then be taken to a pot of room temperature water and submerged enough to cover the bottom of the cutting. Now make another cut under the water about ? of an inch from the bottom of the cutting. Once the cut is made transfer it quickly to your cup of water in which the cutting will root. This allows water to be sucked up into the xylem and provides a continuous water column in the xylem. This is good for your plant as it prevents wilting and conduction of water up to the leaves while it's trying to root. Once cut under the water transfer to another cup with water containing plain water or water with some rooting hormone. Where that leaf node scraped before is submerged.

Method 2:

Instead of cutting underwater and rooting in water, place the
cutting in sterilized soil wetted to field capacity and placed under a
humidity tent. Allow to root for approximately 2 weeks, venting the bag daily and blowing up with air.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:49 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
MYCORRHIZA (FAQ) [Re: neuro]
    #9795081 - 02/14/09 01:08 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

MYCORRHIZA:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Quote:

Mycorrhiza

A mycorrhiza (Greek for fungus roots coined by Frank, 1885; typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic (occasionally weakly pathogenic) association between a fungus and the roots of a plant. In a mycorrhizal association the fungus may colonize the roots of a host plant either intracellularly or extracellularly. It is an important part of soil life.

This mutualistic association provides the fungus with relatively constant and direct access to mono- or dimeric carbohydrates, such as glucose and sucrose produced by the plant in photosynthesis. The carbohydrates are translocated from their source location (usually leaves) to the root tissues and then to the fungal partners. In return, the plant gains the use of the mycelium's very large surface area to absorb water and mineral nutrients from the soil, thus improving the mineral absorption capabilities of the plant roots. Plant roots alone may be incapable of taking up phosphate ions that are immobilized, for example, in soils with a basic pH. The mycelium of the mycorrhizal fungus can however access these phosphorus sources, and make them available to the plants they colonize. The mechanisms of increased absorption are both physical and chemical. Mycorrhizal mycelia are much smaller in diameter than the smallest root, and can explore a greater volume of soil, providing a larger surface area for absorption. Also, the cell membrane chemistry of fungi is different from that of plants. Mycorrhizae are especially beneficial for the plant partner in nutrient-poor soils.

Mycorrhizal plants are often more resistant to diseases, such as those caused by microbial soil-borne pathogens, and are also more resistant to the effects of drought. These effects are perhaps due to the improved water and mineral uptake in mycorrhizal plants.

Mycorrhizae form a mutualistic relationship with the roots of most plant species (and while only a small proportion of all species has been examined, 95% of these plant families are predominantly mycorrhizal).

Plants grown in sterile soils and growth media often perform poorly without the addition of spores or hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi to colonise the plant roots and aid in the uptake of soil mineral nutrients. The absence of mycorrhizal fungi can also slow plant growth in early succession or on degraded landscapes.




--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/11/10 06:49 PM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDr. uarewotueat
Peyote Farmer
Male User Gallery

Registered: 09/02/06
Posts: 16,545
Loc: Uk / Philippines
Last seen: 1 year, 2 months
GRAFTING (FAQ) [Re: neuro]
    #9796312 - 02/14/09 05:22 PM (5 years, 8 months ago)

GRAFTING

Grafting is a method of asexual plant propagation widely used in agriculture  and horticulture where the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another. It is most commonly used for the propagation of trees and shrubs grown commercially.

In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots, and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other plant is selected for its stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits and is called the scion. The scion contains the desired genes to be duplicated in future production by the stock/scion plant.

In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type. In another common form called budding, a dormant side bud is grafted on the stem of another stock plant, and when it has fused successfully, it is encouraged to grow by cutting out the stem above the new bud.

For successful grafting to take place, the vascular cambium tissues of the stock and scion plants must be placed in contact with each other. Both tissues must be kept alive until the graft has taken, usually a period of a few weeks. Successful grafting only requires that a vascular connection take place between the two tissues. A physical weak point often still occurs at the graft, because the structural tissue of the two distinct plants, such as wood, may not fuse.

Cactus and Succulent Grafting:
  • Seedling - There is one main way for grafting cactus seedlings and that is joining it to a faster growing mature scion. Usually this is a cactus in the genus Pereskiopsis, Hylocereus, Selenicereus, or Acanthocereus.

    First the mature cactus is cut in the fresh new growth.

    Then the seedling is cut in half and aligned as well as possible so that the scion's vascular ring and the stocks vascular ring are touching.

    The graft is then placed, unweighted, in a shady humid spot to sit and heal.

    After 2 or 3 weeks it should be apparent if the graft has taken.

  • Mature - The grafting of mature cacti is usually done to a member of the genus Trichocereus, Myrtillocactus, Stenocereus, Harrisia, or Pilosocereus.

    First the stock is cut in a wedged manner to a dull point.

    Then the scion is cut so the bottom can continue to grow.

    The point of the stock is then cut flat and the scion is aligned so that the vascular rings are touching.

    The scion is then weighted down using rubber bands, electrical tape, or other contraptions.

    After the graft has been placed in the shade and the weight successfully removed the graft should be oined and show signs of taking.

Tree and Plant Grafting:
  • Cleft - The most common form of grafting is cleft grafting. This is best done in the spring and is useful for joining a thin scion about 1 cm (0.39 in) diameter to a thicker branch or stock. It is best if the latter is 2–7 cm (0.79–2.8 in) in diameter and has 3-5 buds. The branch or stock should be split carefully down the middle to form a cleft about 3 cm (1.2 in) deep. If it is a branch that is not vertical then the cleft should be cut horizontally. The end of the scion should be cut cleanly to a long shallow wedge, preferably with a single cut for each wedge surface, and not whittled. A third cut may be made across the end of the wedge to make it straight across.

    Slide the wedge into the cleft so that it is at the edge of the stock and the centre of the wedge faces are against the cambium layer between the bark and the wood. It is preferable if a second scion is inserted in a similar way into the other side of the cleft. This helps to seal off the cleft. Tape around the top of the stock to hold the scion/s in place and cover with grafting wax or sealing compound. This stops the cambium layers drying out and also prevents the ingress of water into the cleft.

  • Budding - Grafting with a single eye or bud. Normally performed at the height of the growing season by inserting a dormant bud into a shallow slice under the rind of the tree. The bud is sealed from drying and bound in place. There are many styles of budding depending on the cutting and fitting methods, the most popular being shield budding.

    Other budding styles include the inverted T, patch budding, double shield, flute budding and chip budding.

  • Whip - Also known as the whip and tongue graft, this is considered the most difficult to master but has the highest rate of success as it offers the most cambium contact between the 2 species. It is the most common graft used in top-dressing commercial fruit trees. It is generally used with stock less than 1⁄2 in (1.3 cm) diameter, with the ideal diameter closer to 3⁄8 in (0.95 cm) and the scion should be of roughly the same diameter as the stock.

    The stock is cut through on one side only at a shallow angle with a sharp knife. (If the stock is a branch and not the main trunk of the rootstock then the cut surface should face outward from the centre of the tree.) The scion is similarly sliced through at an equal angle starting just below a bud, so that the bud is at the top of the cut and on the other side than the cut face.

    A notch is cut downwards into the sliced face of the stock and a similar cut upwards into the face of the scion cut. These act as the tongues and it requires some skill to make the cuts so that the scion and the stock marry up neatly. The join is then taped around and treated with tree sealing compound or grafting wax.

    The elongated "Z" shape adds strength, removing the need for a companion rod in the first season.

  • Approach - Approach grafts are done by growing plants close to one another so that they join and begin to grow together. This happens naturally every so often in nature.


--------------------
View My Gallery


Edited by Cactusdan (06/14/10 12:18 AM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Jump to top. Pages: 1 | 2 | Next >  [ show all ]

Amazon Shop for: Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, Kratom, Morning Glory Seeds, Papaver Somniferum, Peat, Perlite, Peruvian Torch, Portable Greenhouse, Psychotria Viridis, Salvia, San Pedro, Scales, pH Test Strips

Mushrooms, Mycology and Psychedelics >> The Ethnobotanical Garden

Similar ThreadsPosterViewsRepliesLast post
* I Need Help Updating The Ethnobotanical Garden FAQ's.
( 1 2 3 all )
Dr. uarewotueat 1,808 41 02/19/09 11:55 AM
by Big L
* Garden FAQs ytse 1,163 16 07/06/05 07:14 AM
by ytse
* Any advice for starting an Ethnobotanical garden? MushyMay 1,432 6 03/30/02 11:17 AM
by Pynchon
* Your ethnobotanical garden?
( 1 2 3 all )
recalcitrant 3,879 55 03/09/11 07:27 PM
by GGTBod
* Ethnobotanical Gardens
( 1 2 3 all )
Teotzlcoatl 3,655 46 08/16/07 04:46 PM
by Teotzlcoatl
* Our Ethnobotanical Garden. cdchriscd 866 2 06/07/03 04:42 PM
by gdman
* Help me build an ethnobotanical garden!
( 1 2 all )
Revelation 1,785 26 09/18/14 04:26 PM
by theMallacht
* Ryan's Pepper garden
( 1 2 3 4 5 6 all )
Kerr 6,191 111 06/06/06 02:00 PM
by Kerr

Inbound Links
Drug Gardening
top scoring links : druggardening
Sold as peyote to me last summer; phoenix arizona. + trip report? Please help me identify what this is? : druggardening

Extra information
You cannot start new topics / You cannot reply to topics
HTML is disabled / BBCode is enabled
Moderator: Magash, karode13, naum, Mostly_Harmless
97,675 topic views. 3 members, 14 guests and 0 web crawlers are browsing this forum.
[ Toggle Favorite | Print Topic | Stats ]
Search this thread:
World Seed Supply
Please support our sponsors.

Copyright 1997-2014 Mind Media. Some rights reserved.

Generated in 0.039 seconds spending 0.004 seconds on 42 queries.