Home | Community | Message Board



Please support our sponsors.

Mushrooms, Mycology and Psychedelics >> Mushroom Hunting and Identification

Welcome to the Shroomery Message Board! You are experiencing a small sample of what the site has to offer. Please login or register to post messages and view our exclusive members-only content. You'll gain access to additional forums, file attachments, board customizations, encrypted private messages, and much more!

Amazon Shop for: Cordyceps, Scales, Toilet Paper, pH Test Strips

Jump to first unread post. Pages: 1
OfflineJuke Adro
I love peach fluff
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/05/08
Posts: 6,939
Loc: Inside your head
Last seen: 11 months, 20 days
ID PLEASE amazing find
    #8380216 - 05/09/08 01:44 AM (6 years, 2 months ago)

I found a cordyceps groing at the bottom of a gum tree it is attached to what looks like a mealworm (not a catipillar) I would love to know what type of cordyceps it is, it has a really long stem which is white then as you follow the stem up it turns dark brown with a red cap/head

here is the pic ...its shitty but it was the best i could do at the time



--------------------
Someone said:  im actually not using ms, im using prints.
Trade List


Edited by Juke Adro (05/09/08 01:46 AM)


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineAlan RockefellerM
Mycologist
Male User Gallery


Registered: 03/10/07
Posts: 36,447
Last seen: 14 days, 6 hours
Trusted Identifier
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Juke Adro]
    #8380231 - 05/09/08 01:48 AM (6 years, 2 months ago)

How does Cordyceps militaris sound?


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineJuke Adro
I love peach fluff
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/05/08
Posts: 6,939
Loc: Inside your head
Last seen: 11 months, 20 days
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Alan Rockefeller]
    #8380242 - 05/09/08 01:51 AM (6 years, 2 months ago)

it sounds perfect thanks Alan :wink:


--------------------
Someone said:  im actually not using ms, im using prints.
Trade List


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
InvisibleShroomeup
Snipes
 User Gallery

Registered: 02/16/07
Posts: 1,091
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Juke Adro]
    #8380682 - 05/09/08 04:56 AM (6 years, 2 months ago)

Thats pretty cool juke. Didnt even know we had em here. Nice find.


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineJuke Adro
I love peach fluff
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/05/08
Posts: 6,939
Loc: Inside your head
Last seen: 11 months, 20 days
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Shroomeup]
    #8387964 - 05/11/08 03:53 AM (6 years, 2 months ago)

yeah its great man :P neither did I :confused: but i guess we do have them just very rare, I might start looking for more of them cause it seems some people will do anything to get them :smile:


--------------------
Someone said:  im actually not using ms, im using prints.
Trade List


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineDishez
Swamp Crawler

Registered: 09/25/07
Posts: 390
Last seen: 1 year, 11 months
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Juke Adro]
    #8388258 - 05/11/08 09:05 AM (6 years, 2 months ago)

why are cordyceps such a big deal (other than the fact that they have such a cool life cycle) ? Ive found several over the years and passed them up!


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineJuke Adro
I love peach fluff
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/05/08
Posts: 6,939
Loc: Inside your head
Last seen: 11 months, 20 days
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Dishez]
    #8388264 - 05/11/08 09:10 AM (6 years, 2 months ago)

Cause of there benefits to us, gives the body increased vitality and energy and has significant additional benefits. Cordyceps enhances blood flow and lowers cholesterol, also is a aphrodisiac and can fight off bacterial and viral diseases, enhances the natural anti-oxidant systems in the body


--------------------
Someone said:  im actually not using ms, im using prints.
Trade List


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
InvisibleQuantumReality
Entranced in a Fractal
 User Gallery Arcade Champion: Jason's Pong, Ratman Ralph, Roulette


Folding@home Statistics
Registered: 05/21/07
Posts: 2,876
Loc: In a Box Flag
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Juke Adro]
    #8388452 - 05/11/08 11:19 AM (6 years, 2 months ago)

yea the cordyceps are pretty damn cool!
ive never seen one for myself, though hope to one day


--------------------
I've eaten the Sun so my tongue has been burnt of the taste...


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
InvisibleCureCatM
Strangest
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/19/06
Posts: 14,057
Loc: clawing your furniture
Trusted Identifier
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Juke Adro]
    #8388629 - 05/11/08 12:49 PM (6 years, 2 months ago)

Quote:

Dishez said:
why are cordyceps such a big deal (other than the fact that they have such a cool life cycle) ?



Quote:

Juke Adro said:
Cause of there benefits to us, gives the body increased vitality and energy and has significant additional benefits. Cordyceps enhances blood flow and lowers cholesterol, also is a aphrodisiac and can fight off bacterial and viral diseases, enhances the natural anti-oxidant systems in the body



Juke, can you link me to a reference??

So far, I've only heard of the alleged health benefits, but come up empty handed when asking for or looking for a reliable source. One well respected mycologist at Berkeley said no studies have proven any benefits.

I'm not challenging you directly or anything; if anyone who alleges the benefits could point me the right direction, it will be appreciated!


--------------------


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineJuke Adro
I love peach fluff
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/05/08
Posts: 6,939
Loc: Inside your head
Last seen: 11 months, 20 days
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: CureCat]
    #8388707 - 05/11/08 01:22 PM (6 years, 2 months ago)

I have No proof ..... I'm not really sure if i would even take the tablets made from them, but all I know is that some people desperately want live cultures for studies from different parts of the world and that cordy got shipped off the within hours of posting a thread on who was interested in using it for study.

sorry I can not help you in your search for facts.

wiki says quote:

Some Cordyceps species are sources of biochemicals with interesting biological and pharmacological properties[3], like cordycepin; the anamorph of Cordyceps subsessilis (Tolypocladium inflatum) was the source of ciclosporin — a drug helpful in human organ transplants, as it suppresses the immune system (Immunosuppressive drug). [4]


--------------------
Someone said:  im actually not using ms, im using prints.
Trade List


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
InvisibleCureCatM
Strangest
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/19/06
Posts: 14,057
Loc: clawing your furniture
Trusted Identifier
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Juke Adro]
    #8388723 - 05/11/08 01:28 PM (6 years, 2 months ago)

Quote:


wiki says:

Some Cordyceps species are sources of biochemicals with interesting biological and pharmacological properties[3], like cordycepin; the anamorph of Cordyceps subsessilis (Tolypocladium inflatum) was the source of ciclosporin — a drug helpful in human organ transplants, as it suppresses the immune system (Immunosuppressive drug). [4]




Wait.........  suppressed immunity is a BAD thing for healthy individuals!!!!  :stars:


--------------------


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineJuke Adro
I love peach fluff
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/05/08
Posts: 6,939
Loc: Inside your head
Last seen: 11 months, 20 days
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: CureCat]
    #8388735 - 05/11/08 01:32 PM (6 years, 2 months ago)

:confused:


--------------------
Someone said:  im actually not using ms, im using prints.
Trade List


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Invisiblecactu
culture and magic
Male

Registered: 03/06/06
Posts: 3,913
Loc: mexicoelcentrodelconocimi...
Trusted Identifier
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Juke Adro]
    #8389197 - 05/11/08 03:52 PM (6 years, 2 months ago)

Cordyceps: Parasite or Symbiont? Although the spore is possibly an “infectious” agent that attacks the moth larvae as some authors have advanced, it is worth noting that the entomopathogency of the Cordyceps mushroom is disputed. A growing body of logical and empirical data is suggesting to many prominent researchers that Cordyceps sinensis actually has a symbiotic relationship with the host; that the connection is mutually beneficial, rather than pathogenic. This stands to logical reason, considering the remote and inhospitable environment in which the moth/Cordyceps pairing occurs. Nature tends to select against a parasite, in that a parasite usually results in the death of the host. A more logical explanation for the unique pairing between an insect and this fungus would be that it is a mutually beneficial symbiosis, whereby the moth perhaps gains an energy boost from the Cordyceps living in it’s body, as is known to occur when other animals consume Cordyceps (Jia et al 2004). In cultivation, Cordyceps often exhibits a single celled, yeast-like anamorph growth stage. Similar yeast-like symbionts of the genus Cordyceps have been found in other insects, most logically existing to some benefit of the host insect. (Suh et al 2001) If this is the case with the Cordyceps/moth pairing, then it may be the death of the insect host that is the stressor triggering the Cordyceps to produce its fruitbody. Once the host insect dies, the Cordyceps would have to go into a reproduce-or-die mode. In most fungi, the mycelium is the stable-state life form, rather than the more usually seen fruitbody. It is most common in the fungal kingdom that fruitbody formation does not happen unless and until some severe stressor occurs, forcing this defensive reproductive-phase response. In nature, these stressors are usually heat and cold, fire and flood, or the complete consumption of the food source and the resulting nutrient deficiency. In the laboratory it is very difficult to trigger Cordycepsto fruit, but when fruiting does occur, it is always in connection with one or more of these types of stressors. Edibility: Not usually considered an edible mushroom due to its small size and rarity as well as its tough texture. Traditionally, Cordyceps has been consumed with a variety of meats in the form of a medicinal soup, with the type of meat used based upon the target medical condition. (Zhou et al 1998) In the medical usage of today Cordyceps is often taken with some form of vitamin C, which has been found to aid the body in its digestion and absorption of the medicinal components of the mushroom.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 8
8History and Traditional UsesBoth resilient and rare, Chinese legends and myths of this revered healing mushroom and its chameleonic characteristics span the course of millennia. The first written record of the Cordyceps mushroom comes from China, in the year AD 620, at the time of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-AD 907), bringing substance to the once intangible allegorical narrative, which spoke of a magical creature, who's annual existence alluded to a miraculous transformation from animal to plant, in summer, and then again from plant to animal, in winter. Published works on the subject continued; Tibetan scholars wrote of the mysterious healing animal/plant through the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries, and in 1757, the earliest objective and scientifically reliable depiction of the Cordyceps mushroom was written by the author Wu-Yiluo in the Ben Cao Congxin ("New Compilation of Materia Medica"), during the Qing Dynasty. A member of the largest subdivision of true fungi: Ascomycotina, Cordyceps finds itself amongst the most famous medicinals of the modern age; Penicillium, from which, the antibiotic penicillin is derived, the most potent hallucino


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Invisiblecactu
culture and magic
Male

Registered: 03/06/06
Posts: 3,913
Loc: mexicoelcentrodelconocimi...
Trusted Identifier
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: Juke Adro]
    #8389212 - 05/11/08 03:59 PM (6 years, 2 months ago)

Cordyceps: Parasite or Symbiont? Although the spore is possibly an “infectious” agent that attacks the moth larvae as some authors have advanced, it is worth noting that the entomopathogency of the Cordyceps mushroom is disputed. A growing body of logical and empirical data is suggesting to many prominent researchers that Cordyceps sinensis actually has a symbiotic relationship with the host; that the connection is mutually beneficial, rather than pathogenic. This stands to logical reason, considering the remote and inhospitable environment in which the moth/Cordyceps pairing occurs. Nature tends to select against a parasite, in that a parasite usually results in the death of the host. A more logical explanation for the unique pairing between an insect and this fungus would be that it is a mutually beneficial symbiosis, whereby the moth perhaps gains an energy boost from the Cordyceps living in it’s body, as is known to occur when other animals consume Cordyceps (Jia et al 2004). In cultivation, Cordyceps often exhibits a single celled, yeast-like anamorph growth stage. Similar yeast-like symbionts of the genus Cordyceps have been found in other insects, most logically existing to some benefit of the host insect. (Suh et al 2001) If this is the case with the Cordyceps/moth pairing, then it may be the death of the insect host that is the stressor triggering the Cordyceps to produce its fruitbody. Once the host insect dies, the Cordyceps would have to go into a reproduce-or-die mode. In most fungi, the mycelium is the stable-state life form, rather than the more usually seen fruitbody. It is most common in the fungal kingdom that fruitbody formation does not happen unless and until some severe stressor occurs, forcing this defensive reproductive-phase response. In nature, these stressors are usually heat and cold, fire and flood, or the complete consumption of the food source and the resulting nutrient deficiency. In the laboratory it is very difficult to trigger Cordycepsto fruit, but when fruiting does occur, it is always in connection with one or more of these types of stressors. Edibility: Not usually considered an edible mushroom due to its small size and rarity as well as its tough texture. Traditionally, Cordyceps has been consumed with a variety of meats in the form of a medicinal soup, with the type of meat used based upon the target medical condition. (Zhou et al 1998) In the medical usage of today Cordyceps is often taken with some form of vitamin C, which has been found to aid the body in its digestion and absorption of the medicinal components of the mushroom.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 8
8History and Traditional UsesBoth resilient and rare, Chinese legends and myths of this revered healing mushroom and its chameleonic characteristics span the course of millennia. The first written record of the Cordyceps mushroom comes from China, in the year AD 620, at the time of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-AD 907), bringing substance to the once intangible allegorical narrative, which spoke of a magical creature, who's annual existence alluded to a miraculous transformation from animal to plant, in summer, and then again from plant to animal, in winter. Published works on the subject continued; Tibetan scholars wrote of the mysterious healing animal/plant through the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries, and in 1757, the earliest objective and scientifically reliable depiction of the Cordyceps mushroom was written by the author Wu-Yiluo in the Ben Cao Congxin ("New Compilation of Materia Medica"), during the Qing Dynasty. A member of the largest subdivision of true fungi: Ascomycotina, Cordyceps finds itself amongst the most famous medicinals of the modern age; Penicillium, from which, the antibiotic penicillin is derived, the most potent hallucinogen, L.S.D., derived from the plant-parasitic ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea), and the most highly prized and rare fungal delicacies (truffles and morels). To date, hundreds of species of Cordyceps have been identified on six continents, in a variety of habitats and with equally varied food sources. Discovered by yak herders in the Himalayas of ancient Tibet and Nepal, nature's disclosure of the Cordyceps organism was secondhand. Recognizing the ardent behavior of their animals after grazing on Cordyceps at high altitudes in the spring, these herdsmen sought the causal agent. The cap-less mushroomthey eventually found has been used in traditional Chinese medicine ever since, to treat kidney, lung, and heart ailments, male and female sexual dysfunction, fatigue, cancer, hiccups, and serious injury, to relieve pain, and the symptoms of tuberculosis and hemorrhoids, to restore general health and appetite, and to promote longevity. More potent than Ginseng and worth four times its weight in silver in ancient times. Due to its rarity, legend, and efficacy against a variety of health-related conditions, Cordyceps has held, and continues to hold, a highly esteemed position in the vast ranks of Chinese herbal remedies, which the
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 9
9West has only recently begun to incorporate into officially accepted medical practices. Western descriptions of the health benefits of the Cordyceps mushroom came as early as the eighteenth century. The first such publication came from a French Jesuit priest named Perennin Jean Baptiste du Halde, who recounted his experiences with the mythical healing agent while a guest at the Emperor's court in China. Shortly after its introduction to the French scientific community, “hia tsao tong tchong” as it was then known, began to intrigue men of science and medicine. Perennin's illustration of the never-before seen association between a mushroom and an insect sparked the first Western concept of and interest in biological pest control. However, it wasn't until 1843, that the Reverend Dr. M.J. Berkeley, having published his findings in the New York Journal of Medicine, officially defined the “root” of the Cordyceps organism, which at that time, had been taxonomized as Sphaeria sinensis. Berkley described this “root” as he called it, as that of a caterpillar, which "had been taken over almost entirely by the mushroom's mycelium". Sphaeria sinensis was not moved into the Cordyceps genus until 1878, by Pier Andrea Saccardo, who was at that time the Professor of Natural History at the University of Padua, Illinois. The evidence of its use as a medicinal by the Chinese-American community dates as far back as the earlyto mid-nineteenth century, when the Lloyd Brothers of Cincinnati, Ohio first marketed the mushroom in the United States. By the turn of the twentieth century, the Lloyd Bro’s company had become the largest producer of herbal remedies in the United States. Once a rather exclusive medicine, modern cultivation techniques have now made the mycelium of this caterpillar-borne fungus more readily available, lowering its cost on the world market and have allowed for more in-depth research into its healing potential.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 10
10Native Himalayan Habitat of Cordyceps sinensis. Elevation approx 5000 meters Related Species And Artificial Cultivation There are currently more than 680 documented species of Cordyceps. This number is subject to rapid change, as what we know of this genus and the life cycles of its constituents treads into unfamiliar territory. To date, species of the Cordyceps genus have been found on all six inhabited continents and in many climatic zones and habitats, and feeding off of a range of hosts, which include plants, insects and arachnids, and even other fungi (such as truffles). As studies of related species continues, it becomes increasingly obvious that the medicinal benefits of Cordyceps are not relegated to one species. Of these many different varieties of Cordyceps, those presently being cultivated for medicinal purposes and use in health supplements and pharmaceutical drugs worldwide include: Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sobolifera, Cordyceps subsessilus, Cordyceps ophioglossoides and others. Cultivation methods of the Cordyceps genus are varied. Its mycelium is grown on a multitude of mediums, commercially most notable being spent insect larvae (silkworm residue) and various cereal grains. This fungus has, after some initial difficulty, been fruited from both insect larvae and grain based substrates. For medicinal purposes this is less important than one may think, as the analytical profile of the mycelium is very similar to the wild fruitbody, so that fruiting is not necessary in order to achieve a quality medicinal product. (Holliday et al 2004)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

24
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 25
25Chemo- and Radio-Preventive Effects The normal type of clinical trial conducted in America is the placebo-controlled trial, where only half of the patients get the test compound and the other half get a placebo, which is an inactive sugar pill. Because of the seriousness of cancer, it is very uncommon to see placebo-controlled clinical trials with human patients performed in the Orient where most Cordyceps research is done. Rather in most of the world, ethical considerations dictate that the very best standard of care is given to a sick patient, with the addition of the promising new drug or herbal medicine added to this treatment regimen. The results are then compared against patients receiving the same types of treatments without the additional drug or herb. There have been many trials of this nature done with Cordyceps. In fact, the knowledge of Cordyceps’ efficacy against cancer is so widespread in the Orient that by far the vast majority of cancer patients in Japan, Korea and China are already taking Cordyceps or some other mushroom derived immune modulator while undergoing conventional treatment. Because of this widespread usage, it is a well known fact that Cordyceps and other fungal derived polysaccharide immunomodulators (such as PSK, PSP, Lentinan, AHCC and arabinoxilanes [MGN3™]) will reduce the severity and duration of side effects associated with Chemo and Radiation therapy. (Wang et al 2001)(Xu et al 1988) Chemotherapy’s Limitation And How Cordyceps Can Help The single most limiting factor in the effectiveness of chemotherapy treatment for cancer is the toxic destruction of the patient’s immune system by the chemotherapy agents themselves. It is a little known fact outside the medical profession that many more patients die of opportunistic infections during chemotherapy than ever die of the cancer itself. The white blood cell count of the cancer patient is carefully monitored during chemotherapy and the dosage and/or the schedule of treatments is adjusted to maintain an adequate immune system. In fact, the pause between chemotherapy treatments is exactly for this reason, to let the immune system recover sufficiently so that the patient can withstand another dose of the toxic medication. The idea is to introduce a toxic compound into the body (the chemotherapy) and hopefully it will kill off the tumor cells quicker than it kills off the healthy cells. Unfortunately the white blood cells are rather sensitive to the chemotherapy compounds used. They tend to die off much quicker than other healthy tissue cells when under this chemotherapy barrage. This leaves the body in an immune-
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 26
26deficient state. Anything that can bolster the patient’s immune response means that the dosage of the chemotherapy can be increased, or the delay before which the follow-up treatments can be given is shortened, both of which will increase the effectiveness of the chemotherapy. This is one of the main mechanisms by which Cordyceps appears to increase the effectiveness of conventional cancer treatment. The reduction in chemotherapy and radiation side effects is most likely due to the maintenance of a stronger innate immune function when compared to patients who are receiving the same chemo- or radiation treatments without the addition of Cordyceps. Many other mushroom-derived polysaccharides appear to exert this same function in the body.Immunomodulating Effects There is an extensive body of research looking at the immune enhancement and immune suppression properties of various species of Cordyceps. This bi-directional regulation of immune function, which can be either up-regulated or down-regulated, is termed immunomodulation, and seems to come from the same mechanism in the body. When Cordyceps is given to a patient in an immune-deficient state, such as cancer, hepatitis or HIV infection, the number and activity of the white blood cells increase. Conversely,if the same Cordyceps is given to someone in a hyper-immune state such as is found in Lupus, Lymphoma or Rheumatoid arthritis, the number and activity of the white blood cells drop, while the red blood cells often increase in number. How can the same compound be both an immune stimulant in somepatients and yet act in other patients as an immune depressant? The mechanism appears to be in the differentiation phase of blood cell production. The blood cells are all produced in the bone marrow, primarily in the long bones of the legs. They leave the bone marrow as immature cells, and travel to other organs where they mature into specific types of blood cells such as red blood cells, T-cells, natural killer cells and others. It would appear that Cordyceps exerts some influence over the differentiation mechanismthat signals the body where to direct these immature cells for maturation. This mechanism is clearlyshown in studies looking at the way Cordyceps effects leukemia cells maturing. (Chen et al 1997) This immunomodulation-at-the-differentiation level is like nature’s smart bomb against disease. The body gets the signal it needs to mount an effective response to a disease state, whether the problem is too great an immune response or not enough.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 27
27Cordyceps And Human Organ Transplants In 1976 the soil of Norway yielded up an interesting filamentous fungi. It was noted that like manyfilamentous fungi living in the soil, this one, named Tolypocladium inflatum, produced some metabolic compounds with potent anti-fungal properties. In the research with this fungus to develop new anti-fungal drugs, it was found that the unique compounds produced by Tolypocladium had an even greater potential: Anti rejection drugs. In the transplantation of human organs, the problem has always been the tendency for the recipient body’s immune system to see the new tissue as a foreign invader and mount an aggressive immune response against it. That would nearly always mean the organ was rejected, resulting in a near certainty of the patient’s death. In trying the anti-fungal drug developed from Tolypocladiumcalled Cyclosporin on transplant patients, it was quickly realized that when this drug was used, the patients did not have as much of a tendency to reject their new organs. This appears to be a down-regulation of the immune system, or perhaps the cyclosporin is acting somehow as an anti-recognition factor. This is virtually the only use of cyclosporin today, as an anti-rejection drug for transplant patients. It was not until 1996, that it was discovered Tolypocladium inflatum was the asexual stage of another Cordyceps: Cordyceps subsessilus. (Segelken 2002) The same genus of fungus that has been used for centuries in providing immune stimulation to sick patients is now known to also provide an immune dampening for other sick patients. Cordyceps is the sole medicine that has made human organ transplants possible. Cordyceps subsessilus growing out of an insect buried in a log
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 28
28While the drug Cyclosporin has allowed some miraculous advances in medicine in that it makes it possible to transplant organs, there has been a drawback in its use. The toxicity of Cyclosporin is high and many patients suffer from serious kidney damage related to the use of Cyclosporin. In 1995, a study was undertaken in China, where 69 kidney transplant patients were given either Cyclosporin alone, or in conjunction with Cordyceps sinensis at 3 grams per day. After 15 days it was clearly evident that the group receiving Cordyceps sinensis in addition to the Cyclosporin had a much lower incidence of kidneydamage then the group receiving only the Cyclosporin, as measure by the levels of urinary NAG, serumcreatinine and blood urea nitrate. (Xu et al 1995) But Cordyceps is not by any means only an immune suppressant. It has also has been shown in manystudies to increase immune function as well as suppress it. A study was conducted using mice as models, to determine if Cordyceps would increase the activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system. This is a very important study since the intestinal immune response constitutes approximately70% of our overall immune protective response. The intestines are bombarded daily with all sorts of foreign invaders which would live in us and use us as a food source if they could. It is the intestinal immune system that is the first line of defense against such an invasion. In the mouse study, it was found that when the mice were given a hot water extract of Cordyceps sinensis the activation of macrophages was roughly doubled. Furthermore, the production of certain cytokines, such as GM-CSF and IL-6 also more than doubled. These cytokines are known to act on the systemic immune system, so it can be assumed that from these results that an overall intensification of the systemic immune system would also occur from the consumption of such a hot water extract of the Cordyceps. (Koh et al 2002) Many drugs used in the prevention or treatment of diseases and the amelioration of symptoms can suppress the immune system to a considerable extent. Some examples of these are the steroid drugs such as Prednisone, and many (if not all) of the chemotherapy agents used in combating cancer, such as Cyclophosphamide and 5-FU. In a study of Cordyceps on lymphomic mice to see if it would increase their life span, it was shown that the mice lived significantly longer with the addition of 50 mg/kg/dayorally of a hot water extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Furthermore, a group of mice in this test were being
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 29
29treated with cyclophosphamide, which drastically suppressed their immune function. The group of mice receiving the Cordyceps along with the cyclophosphamide had no significant reduction in immune function, but rather their immune function return to normal as measured by the IgM and IgG response as well as macrophage activity. (Yamaguchi et al 1990) Cordyceps sinensis has been shown to be highly effective in treating mice with implanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, with a survival rate of 80% at 60 days following the tumor cell implantation. This is quite an amazing survival rate for such an aggressive form of cancer, yet when the same Cordyceps sinensisextract was tested in vitro against the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, no antitumor effect whatsoever was found. This would seem to indicate that the mechanism of action is not a direct cytotoxicity against the cancer cells, but rather it is some type of host-mediated immune response that allows the host’s immune system to effectively fight off the cancer’s invasion. (Yoshida et al 1989) Kidney Traditional views of the Cordyceps mushroom held that its consumption strengthened the kidneys. Given its vast array of uses, it is interesting to note that what is being discovered today is that kidney health, perhaps more than that of any other organ, is a virtual cornerstone of the body's health. When the kidneysfail, the effects are normally felt via other organs and systems consequently affected. In this way, taking into consideration only its effect on the kidneys, Cordyceps truly was a promoter of overall health and homeostasis. Many other traditional uses for this mushroom can be traced back to proper kidney health. Fatigue, impotence, joint and back pain, even ringing in the ears are all symptoms of degenerative kidneyhealth. It has been shown that much of Cordyceps kidney enhancing potential comes from its ability to increase 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid and 17-ketosteroid levels. (Zhou et al 1998) Chronic renal failure is a serious disease, one often affecting the elderly. In a study with 51 patients suffering Chronic Renal Failure, it was found that the administration of 3-5 grams per day of Cordyceps sinensis significantly improved both the kidney function and the overall immune function of the patients
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 30
30receiving Cordyceps, as compared to the control group who did not receive the Cordyceps. (Guan et al 1992) Patients with chronic renal failure or reduced kidney function often suffer from hypertension, proteinuria and anemia. In a study with such patients it was found that after one month on Cordyceps, a 15%reduction in blood pressure was observed. Urinary protein was also significantly reduced. Additionally, increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) were seen. This increase in SOD coupled to an observed decrease in serum lipoperoxide suggests an increase in the oxygen free radical scavenging capacity, which results in reduced oxidative cellular damage. (Jiang and Gao, 1995) In another human clinical study, 57 patients with gentamicin-induced kidney damage were either treated with 4.5 grams of Cordyceps per day or by other, more conventional methods. After six days, the group that received Cordyceps had recovered 89% of their normal kidney function; while the control group had recovered only 45% of normal kidney function. The time-to-recovery was also significantly shorter in the Cordyceps group when compared to the control group. Cordyceps minuta on beetle
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 31
31Represented here are just a few of the many tests conducted on kidney function with Cordyceps, both animal and human, showing Cordyceps to be of particular value in maintaining kidney health and in restoring function to diseased and damaged kidneys. It appears to be a low cost, low toxicity medicinal that is well tolerated and has real value for clinical application in this field.Hypoglycelmic Effect Another area where there has been a lot of research done is in the effect of Cordyceps on the blood glucose metabolism system. Diabetes is a serious problem, especially in countries with a Western diet. The present estimate of the number of type 2, or adult onset, diabetics in the United States alone is greater than 25 million, and it is one of the fastest growing health problems we face. Worldwide the number of diabetics is estimated at more than 350 million. Another disease that seems to be closely related to diabetes is alcoholism. Alcoholic tend to have a much higher rate of diabetes and hypoglycemia than is found in society as a whole. Whether the alcohol causes the blood sugar metabolism disorders, or if people with blood sugar metabolism disorders have a greater tendency to abuse alcohol is unclear. In either case, Cordyceps has been shown to help both diabetics and alcoholics. Traditionally Diabetes has been classified into two main types (Type 1 and Type 2). Type 1 diabetes causes the affected person to be dependant for life upon the use of insulin. It usually begins early in life and is caused when the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Type 1 Diabetes accounts for about 10% of all people who have the disease. Type 2, or adult onset diabetes, accounts for the other 90%. This type of diabetes usually begins later in life (adult onset) and is caused by the development of cellular resistance to the action of insulin (insulin desensitization). This appears to be caused by the consumption of too much sugar and refined carbohydrate over long periods of time. While this cause and effect relationship is still controversial, there is mounting evidence that the over-consumption of these refined carbohydrates will cause a state of chronic hyperinsulinemia in the body, and this in turn could be what causes the loss of insulin sensitivity at the cellular level. Whatever the cause or classification, diabetes is a very serious disease. It is the leading cause of blindness, end stage kidney disease and lower limb amputations. It also increases the risk of stroke, high blood pressure,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 32
32increases in blood cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes not only causes its own list of deleterious effects, but it also increases the likelihood and severity of many other diseases as well. Cordyceps has been tested in a number of animal and human trials for the potential as a blood sugar regulation agent, and it has performed very well in this roll indeed. In one randomized trial, 95% of the patients treated with 3 grams per day of Cordyceps saw improvement in their blood sugar profiles, while the control group showed only 54% improving with treatment by other methods. (Guo and Zhang 1995) In animal trials, it has been shown to improve blood glucose metabolism and increase insulin sensitivityin normal animals (Zhao et al 2002), to lower blood sugar levels in genetically diabetic animals (Kiho et al 2000) and to positively effect blood sugar metabolism in animals with chemically induced diabetes. (Tai-Hao and Hui-Chen, 2002). The common thread throughout all of these trials is the increase in insulin sensitivity and the increase in the livers’ output of the glucose regulating enzymes glucokinase and hexokinase. In short, it appears that whatever the cause or classification, Cordyceps can be useful in the control of the diabetic patient, either as a single agent or in conjunction with other drugs. In one unpublished trial conducted by this author on non-diabetic patients treated with 3 grams/day of Cordyceps, it was found that the normal blood sugar swings which occur throughout the day, that is the increase in blood glucose levels after eating and the dropping of glucose levels between meals, was significantly dampened in the Cordyceps group. The blood sugar did not go as high after eating, and it did not drop down as low between meals. This would indicate an increase in efficiency of the blood sugar regulation mechanism. Even more interesting was the finding in this study that the subjects who also happened to be alcoholics, all lost their desire for alcohol with 48 hrs of commencing the Cordycepsregimen. Subsequent studies have confirmed this observation in the alcohol-craving reduction potential of Cordyceps. Further research into this area is clearly indicated.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 33
33Lung Chinese medicine has characterized Cordyceps as a guardian of respiratory health for more than a thousand years. Much of its reputation for protecting the lungs is believed to come from its ability to promote enhanced oxygen utilization efficacy. In environments lacking sufficient oxygen levels, mice treated with Cordyceps were able to survive up to three times longer than those left untreated, demonstrating a more efficient utilization of the available oxygen. This is objective confirmation of Cordyceps long history of use in preventing and treating altitude sickness. (Zhu et al 1998) Such efficacyalludes to the use of Cordyceps as an effective treatment for Bronchitis, Asthma, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Extracts of Cordyceps sinensis have been shown to inhibit tracheal contractions, especially important for asthma patients in that it allows for increased airflow to the lungs. In addition, its anti-inflammatory properties bring further relief to asthma patients, whose airways becomeobstructed, due to an allergic reaction resulting in swelling of the bronchial pathways. In a clinical trial involving fifty asthma patients, efficacy against symptoms among the group treated with Cordyceps was 81.3%, within an average of five days; while among those treated with conventional antihistamines the rate was only 61.1%, and took an average of nine days for symptoms to subside (Halpern 1999). There has been very extensive trials in humans, using Cordyceps to treat all manner of respiratoryillnesses, including asthma, COPD, and bronchitis, either alone or as an adjunct to standard antibiotic therapy. It has proven useful for all of these conditions. (Zhu, et al 1998) What has been observed for centuries by thousands of TCM practitioners, that Cordycepsimproves respiratory function, is now a well-proven and well-accepted scientific fact. Cordyceps Myrmecophila
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 34
34Heart One of the more profound actions of Cordyceps, both traditionally and in modern practice is its ability to stabilize the heart beat and correct heart arrhythmias. This herb is one of the first line medications of choice for this serious condition in China today. While the exact reasons and mechanism for Cordycepsexcellent reputation in controlling arrhythmias are only partly understood, it is thought to be at least partially due to the presence of adenosine. (Pelleg et al 1990). Cordyceps often contains a significant quantity of adenosine, deoxyadenosine and related adenosine type nucleotides and nucleosides present. It has been shown that these compounds have a widespread effect on coronary and cerebral circulation. (Toda et al 1982) (Bern 1980) While no single drug or herb is equally effective in all patients, it is rare that a patient’s arrhythmia does not benefited from the addition of Cordyceps to the treatment regimen. Cordyceps is not known to adversely react with any other arrhythmia medication, and with its low toxicity, it seems to be an excellent choice for this condition. Cordyceps has been used traditionally for heart disease and stroke patients. In studies of patients suffering from chronic heart failure the long-term administration of Cordyceps in combination with conventional treatments: digoxin, hydrochlorothiaside, dopamine, and dobutamine, promoted an increase in the overall quality of life. This included general physical condition, mental health, sexual drive, and cardiac function, compared to the control group (Chen, 1995). Liver Another area where a considerable amount of research has been done is in the area of Cordyceps and liver function. It has been shown in nearly all such studies that Cordyceps increases the efficient functioning of this major organ. For example, in the Orient today, Cordyceps is commonly used as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C. In one study, Cordyceps extract was used in combination with several other medicinal mushroom extracts as an adjunct to lamivudine for the treatment of hepatitis B. Lamivudine is a common antiviral drug used in the treatment of hepatitis. In this study, the group receiving the Cordyceps and other medicinal mushroom extracts had a much better outcome in a shorter period of time than the control group who received only the lamivudine. (Wang et al 2002)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 35
35Liu et al (1986) reported on another study done with 22 patients who were diagnosed with post hepatic cirrhosis. After 3 months of consuming 6-9 grams of Cordyceps per day, all patients showed dramatic improvement in liver function tests. Another interesting study was done in 1994 in China, where 70 patients with chronic hepatitis B and post hepatic cirrhosis were treated either with Cordyceps or with another herbal combination of proven effectiveness against liver disease, whose main ingredient was the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma applanatum. In that study a significant clinical response was seen in 68% of the Cordyceps patients and in 57% of the Ganoderma patients. This shows that Cordyceps is a bit better at treating this type of liver disease than is the Ganoderma applanatum, which is a type of Reishi. (Yang et al 1994) Hypercholesterolemia While hypercholesterolemia is usually not considered a disease in its own right, it is certainly a clear indicator of dysfunction of the metabolism and an indicator of increased cardiovascular risk. The mechanism by which cholesterol, and indeed all blood lipids, becomes out of balance is only partlyunderstood. The liver is the main source of both cholesterol production and elimination; therefore it stands to reason that any disorders of the liver could affect the blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. It is also well known that diabetes can and usually does lead to hyperlipidemia. Dietary fats can influence the amount of lipids in the blood, but it is now known that dietary fat consumption is not as great a factor in hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia as was once thought. In both human and animal studies, administration of Cordyceps has been associated with cholesterol and triglyceride reduction and an increase in ratio of HDL to LDL cholesterol. Whether the causative mechanism for this lipid balancing effect is through blood sugar stabilization, or from enhancing liver function, or whether it is due to someother as yet unknown cause remains to be seen. The main importance though is that Cordyceps is well proven through many formal trials and clinical observations to act in a positive way with regards to maintaining healthy cholesterol and triglyceride levels. It is interesting to note other fungal-derived compounds that also have a profound effect on hypercholesterolemia: The statin drugs, which are the
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 36
36number one class of drugs used worldwide for lowering cholesterol, are produced by several types of fungi, particularly the oyster mushrooms of the genus Pleurotus. (Wasser, 2002) There is another compound found in the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) called eritadenine, which also has a major effect on hypercholesterolemia, although it acts through a different mechanism than that of the statins. While the statins interfere with the production of cholesterol in the liver by inhibiting certain enzymes, eritadenine appears to act by increasing the breakdown and elimination of cholesterol. The fungi as a group then have shown considerable potential in lowering excessive cholesterol and triglycerides, and perhaps the best approach to take would be to try a mixture of Cordyceps with other medicinal mushrooms such as oyster mushrooms and shiitakes for patients that have a problem with hypercholesterolemia. Cordyceps canadensis Uses Against Male/Female Sexual Dysfunction Cordyceps has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat male and female sexual dysfunction, such as hypolibidinism and impotence. Preclinical data on the effects of Cordyceps sinensison mice showed sex-steroid-like effects (Wan et. al., 1988). Human clinical trials have demonstrated similarly the effectiveness of Cordyceps in combating decreased sex-drive. The results of one such study(Yang et al., 1995) showed an increase in 24-hour urine 17-keto-steroid, compared to the control group.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 37
37“These results indicated that CS-4 might affect patients' sexual drive and functions, either via sex hormone systems or by directly acting on the sexual organs, in parallel with the effects on the hypothalomo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis." (Zhu, 1998) The presence of amino acids, vitamins, zinc, and other trace elements found in Cordyceps are hypothesized to account for increased sperm survival rates, as demonstrated in clinical and preclinical studies (Guo, 1986). In three separate studies done in China on a total of 756 patients who were reporting decreased sex drive (hypolibidinism); the patients were given either a placebo or Cordyceps sinensis at 3 grams per day for 40 days. By the completion of the 40-day study, 64.8% of the patients in the Cordyceps groups reported improvement in their sex drive, while only 23.8% showed improvement in the placebo group. In these three related studies alone, 492 patients with a noted lack of sex drive found relief from this condition by using Cordyceps. In another study on both elderly men and women with complaints of decreased libido, impotence and other sexual malfunctions, Cordyceps was given at 3 grams per day for 40 days, and several measurements were taken to determine the degree of improvement. Increased sperm survival time, increased sperm count and decreased number of malformed sperm were noted in the majority of male subjects, as well as more than double the number of patients reporting reversal of their impotence. Improvements in hypoleukorrhagia, menoxenia and sex drive were noted in the majority of women subjects. (Zhu et al 1998) Cordyceps is clearly indicated as a therapeutic agent in treating hypolibidenism and other sexual malfunction in both men and women. Dosage Because clinical data on Cordyceps is relatively new, recommended dosage requirements may vary, depending on the source. In general, the clinical trials have been conducted on 3 – 4.5 grams of Cordyceps per day, except in cases of severe liver disease, when the dosage used has usually been higher, in the range of 6-9 grams per day. There are some practitioners known to this author that keep their cancer patients on 30-50 grams of Cordyceps per day. While this may seem a bit excessive, the clinical results seen with this treatment regimen are excellent, and no Cordyceps related toxicity has been reported. It has been traditionally taken in tea or eaten whole, either by itself or cooked with a variety of meats. Today, in addition to the established traditional means of consumption, powdered mycelium and mycelial extracts
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 38
38are also available in capsulated and non-capsulated form. At present there are no reliable standards bywhich to compare different brands of Cordyceps, but generally Cordyceps quality is improving. As more clinical trials are reported on, the dosages for particular conditions will become more standardized. Considering the excellent quality of cultivated Cordyceps on the market today and the risk of lead exposure as well as the cost of the wild Cordyceps, use of the natural Cordyceps rather than the cultivated type makes little sense. Buying Cordyceps from a reliable supplier with complete analytical data provided is the best and most cost effective way to get this once rare herbal medicine. Safety Profile Contraindications. None known. Caution should be used in insulin dependent diabetics as hypoglycemia can occur in diabetics taking insulin or other oral anti-diabetes drugs due to Cordyceps increasing the insulin receptivity of the cells. Drug Interactions There is some observational evidence that alteration of the body’s blood glucose metabolism in patients consuming Cordyceps often results in reduction of oral or injected antidiabetic medications. It is also posited that the naturally occurring antiretroviral compounds found in Cordyceps (2’3’dideoxyadenosine for example) could result in increased effectiveness or decreased dosage requirements for patients undergoing concurrent therapy with other antiretroviral drugs. Caution should be exercised in these patients, especially considering the newer, more potent hybrid strains of Cordyceps being developed, and the targeted medicinal compounds they are being selectively cultivated for. Many of the antiretroviral drugs currently on the market have quite considerable toxicity, and it is hoped that the incorporation of Cordyceps into the treatment regimen of those patients undergoing such therapy might result in a reduction of some of these more toxic synthetic drugs, while sacrificing none of the efficacy. While no detrimental drug interactions have yet been noted in the scientific literature, caution should be advised, as both the fields of pharmaceutical discovery and Cordyceps cultivation are both rapidly expanding. With any substance of such considerable bioactivity as Cordyceps has proven to be, some drug interaction is always a possibility.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 39
39Side Effects Very few toxic side effects have been demonstrated with Cordyceps use, although a very small number of people may experience dry mouth, nausea or diarrhea. Increased libido is the most common side effect reported by people under treatment with Cordyceps, however few people will complain about that. Manypeople find that when they first take Cordyceps, they will experience a feeling of mental clarity, sometimes bordering on the state induced in the early stages of LSD intoxication, where the colors all seem brighter and everything seems to stand out with crystal clarity. These effects usually clear up within a couple of days of Cordyceps use. There have been reported very occasional allergic reactions to Cordyceps, but this type of reaction is not common. There is little published data on the use of Cordycepsin pregnant or lactating women, or in very young children, so normal appropriate precautions should be taken with these types of patients. Toxicity Cordyceps has proven to be a very non-toxic herbal substance for something with the obviously wide-ranging physical effects on the body. While no human toxicity has been reported, animal models have found an LD50 of 27 g/kg when injected i.p. in mice. Given by mouth to rabbits for 3 months at 80 grams/day, no abnormalities were seen from blood tests or in kidney or liver function. (Huang et al 1987). Cordyceps is thought to be a very safe substance with a minimal potential of toxicity.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 40
40Commercially available wild Cordyceps sinensis General Nutritional Components Of Cordyceps Cordyceps contains a wide range of compounds considered nutritional. It contains all of the essential amino acids, vitamins B1, B2, B12, E, and K, a wide range of sugars including mono-, di- and oligiosaccharides and many different polysaccharides (some of amazing and unique complexity), proteins, sterols, nucleosides, and a wide range of trace elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pi, Se, Al, Si, Ni, Sr, Ti, Cr, Ga, V, and Zr.).Major Bioactive Constituents Cordycepin [3'-deoxyadenosine] and cordycepic acid [d-mannitol] were the initial bioactive compounds first isolated from the Cordyceps militaris species (Cunningham et al., 1951). A study by Chen and Chu (1996), announced the characterization of cordycepin [3’ deoxyadenosine] and 2'-deoxyadenosine, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) in an extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Other components found included various saccharides, and polysaccharides of varied and amazing complexities (including cyclofurans - cyclic rings of five-carbon sugars of unknown function), beta-glucans, beta-mannans, cross-linked beta-mannan polymers, and complex polysaccharides consisting of
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 41
41both 5 and 6 carbon sugars joined together in branching chains comprising both alpha- and beta- bonds. Many nucleosides have been found in Cordyceps, including uridine, several distinct structures of deoxyuridines, adenosine, 2’,3’dideoxyadenosine (which is marketed worldwide as a primaryantiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infections under the names Didanosine™, Videx™ and others) hydroxyethyladenosine, cordycepin [3’deoxyadenosine], cordycepin triphosphate, guanidine, deoxyguanidine, and a variety of other very unique altered and deoxygenated nucleosides that are found no where else in nature. (see illustration on page 23) Of particular note are various immunosuppressive compounds found in Cordyceps, including cyclosporin, which is the main anti-rejection drug used for human organ transplants and which comes from the species Cordyceps subsessilis. [anamorph: Tolypocladium infalatum](Segelken 1996) Other immunosupressant compounds have been found in a species closely related to Cordyceps, named Isaria sinclairii (Mizuno 1999). See illustration on next page. Another Cordyceps sp. which infects honeybees
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 42
42Non-Cyclosporin immunosuppressive compounds found in Cordyceps Polysaccharides In the fungal kingdom, and particularly in Cordyceps, the polysaccharides are perhaps the best known and understood of the medicinally active compounds. (Ukai et al 1983) (Wasser, 2002) A number of polysaccharides and other sugar derivatives such as cordycepic acid [d-mannitol] have been identified and their pharmacological activity has been reported. Research has shown these polysaccharides to be effective in regulating blood sugar (Kiho et al 1996) to have anti-metastatic effect (Nakamura et al 1999) and antitumor effect. (Bok et al 1999) Proteins And Nitragenous CompoundsCordyceps contains proteins, peptides, all the essential amino acids, and several polyamines. In addition to all the essential amino acids, Cordyceps contains some uncommon cyclic dipeptides including cyclo-[Gly-Pro], cyclo-[Leu-Pro], cyclo-[Val-Pro], cyclo-[Ala-Leu], cyclo-[Ala-Val], and cyclo-[Thr-Leu].Small amounts of polyamines, including 1,3-diamino propane, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, and putrescine, have been identified. Sterols A number of sterol type compounds have been found in Cordyceps. Some of these are ergosterol, Delta-3 ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide, 3-sitosterol, daucosterol, and campasterol. (Zhou et al 1998)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 43
43Other Constituents Twenty-eight saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives have been isolated from C. sinensis. Polar compounds of Cordyceps extracts include many compounds of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and aldehydes. (Zhou et al 1998) Particularly interesting are the range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) produced by Cordyceps sinensis as secondary metabolites. These PAH compounds react with the polypropylene used in common mushroom culture bags, resulting in the production of byproducts toxic to the Cordyceps that stunts the growth as the growing time progresses. Eventually, these polypropelene/PAH byproduct will kill the organism, making the cultivation of C. sinensis in this type of bag impractical. For extended periods of growth, C. sinensis must be grown in glass or metal containers. (Holliday et al 2004). These PAH compounds are present in the living culture, but are highlyvolatile compounds and are lost upon drying. Cultivation Details And Growth Parameters There are two methods used today in the cultivation of Cordyceps. The method primarily used in China is known as Liquid Culture or Fermentation, in which a small bit of Cordyceps tissue is inoculated into a sterilized liquid medium. It grows in this liquid environment very rapidly and is usually ready for harvest in about 5 days. The Cordyceps mycelium is harvested by filtering out from the liquid broth, after which it is dried and ground to a fine powder. After it is dried, it can be used as is, or further processed byextracting it with hot water or some other solvent, and the resulting extract either supplied as a liquid or again dried and powdered. The majority of Cordyceps available on the market is liquid cultured in this way. This results in a fairly good product, since this is a very economical method for large-scale production and the ease of controlling the growth parameters in large sealed tanks of liquid results in a very consistent product with very little variation in quality from batch to batch. However there is a major drawback to the fermented Cordyceps; which is the loss of the extra-cellular compounds which Cordyceps produces. When the mycelium is filtered out of the culture broth and the residual liquid discarded, all of the bioactive extra-cellular compounds produced throughout the growth process are lost. These are many of the unique secondary metabolites produced by Cordyceps that have
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 44
44some of the most potent medicinal effects. Consider for a moment: In the fungal kingdom nearlyeverything of biological importance happens outside of the cell wall. This has to be so, since the fungi have no mouths. In order for it to feed, the mycelium grows up alongside a food source and exudes out through the cell - wall compounds to digest that food. Then it exudes other compounds that act as transport molecules, ones that bring the nutrients back across the cell wall and into the cell for use. And all the while it is exuding antimicrobial compounds to keep other organisms from competing with it for the food (these are the compounds we refer to as antibiotics). And other compounds which act in significant ways such as adjusting the pH of its surrounding environment. Probably as much as 90% of the bioactive compounds of interest that are produced by the Cordyceps are in the liquid that is discarded after the mycelium is harvested. In the wild collected Cordyceps, the caterpillar body, which is harvested along with the fruitbody, is fully mummified with the Cordyceps mycelium. But more importantly, it acts as a natural reservoir for all of those exuded extra-cellular compound that were produced. The compounds, which were exuded outside of the mycelium, still remain in the caterpillar body. That is probably the main reason why wild collected Cordyceps is thought to be more potent than cultivated Cordyceps. It is the presence of these bioactive extra-cellular compounds, which were lost in the harvesting process of the liquid-cultivated type. There is a second method of Cordyceps cultivation practiced, called the solid-substrate method or biomass method. In this type of cultivation, the Cordyceps is inoculated onto some type of sterilized solid nutrient source, usually a cereal grain or mixture of grains. It grows much more slowly on solid material than it does in liquid, but eventually the growth of the mycelium consumes most or all of the substrate and is ready for harvest. At this point, the entire contents of the growing container is harvested and dried; the mycelium, the residual substrate and the entire compliment of all the extra-cellular compounds which were produced throughout the entire growth process. In this way it is possible to capture these unique compounds, which are naturally lost when cultivated by fermentation technique. The quality potential would seem to be much greater when cultivated under solid substrate method verses liquid fermentation method. However, it is not always that simple as to say Cordyceps produced by one

http://www.google.com.mx/search?q=cordyceps+compounds&hl=es


--------------------

cuando una rafaga del pensamiento nos pasa  al lado se puede sentir  que valio  la pena  haber vivido, y cuando ese pensamiento se  convierte en sueño no paramos de soñar hasta realizarlo


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
InvisibleCureCatM
Strangest
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/19/06
Posts: 14,057
Loc: clawing your furniture
Trusted Identifier
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: cactu]
    #8389546 - 05/11/08 05:47 PM (6 years, 2 months ago)

Here's the link:
http://www.alohamedicinals.com/cordyceps.pdf

But anyway, I was looking for a peer reviewed journal article, as opposed to a study done by Aloha Medicinals- a company which sells Cordyceps...
Because the success of their business may be effected by the positive or negative results of their study, they cannot be considered an unbiased source.

But I'll give it a read, and see what sorts of tests and results they describe.


--------------------


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
OfflineJuke Adro
I love peach fluff
 User Gallery

Registered: 04/05/08
Posts: 6,939
Loc: Inside your head
Last seen: 11 months, 20 days
Re: ID PLEASE amazing find [Re: CureCat]
    #8391740 - 05/12/08 08:49 AM (6 years, 2 months ago)

lol


--------------------
Someone said:  im actually not using ms, im using prints.
Trade List


Post Extras: Print Post  Remind Me! Notify Moderator
Jump to top. Pages: 1

Amazon Shop for: Cordyceps, Scales, Toilet Paper, pH Test Strips

Mushrooms, Mycology and Psychedelics >> Mushroom Hunting and Identification

Similar ThreadsPosterViewsRepliesLast post
* bruising id request MEaShrooma 388 3 10/07/08 12:55 PM
by Alan Rockefeller
* Amazing start to a hopefully amazing season! Psilo_Subliminal 426 5 06/30/08 04:05 PM
by shroomgatherer
* Few Cent FL ID- plz tiptop 1,368 11 04/02/09 06:04 PM
by CptnGarden
* Today's photos & updated ID requests zuropak 1,312 9 11/09/06 11:13 AM
by zuropak
* found help id james23 847 13 03/16/05 10:15 PM
by Rebirtha
* ID fun jack843 616 10 02/07/09 04:36 PM
by jack843
* Cross Sound mushroom hunt (pix & ID req-cyans) Roger_Barrett 1,225 11 12/05/02 12:05 PM
by Roger_Barrett
* ID Request - Small bluing mushrooms
( 1 2 all )
Alan RockefellerM 1,745 24 07/23/07 05:07 PM
by SCleROTiUM_LICK

Extra information
You cannot start new topics / You cannot reply to topics
HTML is disabled / BBCode is enabled
Moderator: ToxicMan, karode13, CureCat, Alan Rockefeller, TimmiT, Gravija
1,877 topic views. 3 members, 63 guests and 1 web crawlers are browsing this forum.
[ Toggle Favorite | Print Topic | Stats ]
Search this thread:
Sporeworks
Please support our sponsors.

Copyright 1997-2014 Mind Media. Some rights reserved.

Generated in 0.266 seconds spending 0.003 seconds on 18 queries.