CAP: 1.5-8 (10) cm broad, broadly conical or oval
or bell-shaped (often with an umbo ) when young, gradually expanding to
convex, broadly umbonate, or plane; surface smooth or with small
whitish veil remnants when young, viscid when moist, soon dry, color
variable: whitish with a brown to yellowish center, or entirely yellow
to yellowish-buff to yellow-brown, or sometimes cinnamon-brown when
young and sometimes dingy olive in old age; bruising and aging bluish;
margin sometimes hung with veil remnants. Flesh firm, white, staining
blue or blue-green when bruised.
GILLS: Close, adnate to
adnexed or seceding to free; pallid, soon becoming gray, then deep
purple-gray to nearly black; edges whitish.
STALK: 4-15 cm long, 0.4-1-5
cm thick, equal or more often thicker below, dry, white or sometimes
yellowish to yellow-brown, aging or bruising blue or blue-green;
VEIL: Membranous, white or
bluish-stained, usually forming a thin, fragile, superior ring on stalk
which is blackened by falling spores.
SPORE PRINT: Dark
purple-brown to blackish; spores 11-17x7-12 microns, elliptical,
smooth, thick-walled, with a large apical germ pore. Cystidia present
on faces of gills, but chrysocystidia absent.
HABITAT: Solitary or in
groups on dung and manure, especially in cattle pastures; widely
distributed in the tropics and subtropics-Colombian, Central America,
Mexico, etc-and in the Gulf Coast region of the United States.
: Hallucinogenic. Is not as powerful on a dry weight basis as Psilocybe cyanescens, but is larger.
Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose primary,
pharmacologically active constituents are psilocybin and psilocin. They
belong to the Strophariaceae family, are reddish-cinnamon brown to golden brown in color ,
and bruise bluish/greenish when crushed or dried. Their caps are planar
when fully mature, and their gills are andate (horizontally attached to
the stem) to andex (slightly indented at the attachment point)
depending on the subspecies. The gills are closely spaced and drop
dark-brown to blackish spores.
Psilocybe cubensis are coprophilic, and colonize the dung of large
herbivores, most notably cows and other grazing mammals. They prefer
humid grasslands and have been found in tropical and subtropical
environments in the Americas and Asia. In the US, they are sometimes
found growing wild in the south, generally below the 35th parallel.
They have been found in the highlands and river valleys of Colombia,
Ecuador and Peru in South America.
Psilocybe cubensis is used in spiritual and or healing rituals in
Mesoamerica, notably by the Chol and the Lacandon Maya people in
This species was identified as Stropharia cubensis by F.S. Earle in
Cuba in 1904 (hence the specific name). It was later identified
independently as Naematoloma caerulescens in Tonkin in 1907 by N.
Patouillard and as Stropharia cyanescens by W.A. Murrill in 1941 in
Florida novelty. These synonyms were later assigned to the species P.
cubensis. It was later found throughout U.S. Gulf Coast, Mexico,
Central America, South America, West Indies, Thailand, Cambodia, India,
Its psychoactive compounds are:
* Psilocybin (4-Phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine)
* Psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine)
* Baeocystin (4-Phosphoryloxy-N-methyltryptamine)
* Norbaeocystin (4-Phosphoryloxytryptamine)
Psilocin and psilocybin are substances isolated by Albert Hofmann in
1958 in a related species, P. mexicana. All four compounds are presumed
hallucinogenic, though it is suspected that baeocystin and
norbaeocystin are less psychoactive than psilocybin and psilocin.
Psychedelic mushrooms have rich and varied spiritual significance --
they have been used in religious ceremonies for centuries. The Aztecs
reserved them for their holiest ceremonies and called them Teonancatl
("divine flesh"). Lacandón priests take them in seclusion with
Please note that individual brain chemistry plays a significant role in
determining appropriate doses.
modest psychedelic effect, a minimum of one gram of dried
cubensis mushrooms is ingested orally. 0.25-1 gram is usually
sufficient to produce a mild effect, 1-2.5 grams usually provides a
moderate effect. 2.5 grams and higher usually produces strong
effects. For most people, 3.5 dried grams (1/8 oz) would be considered
a high dose and likely to produce a very intense
experience. Above this, the mushroom experience rapidly becomes
overwhelming. For a few rare people, doses as small as 0.25 grams
can produce full-blown effects normally associated with very high
doses. For most people, however, that dose level would result
in virtually no effects.
People taking MAOIs need to be very careful, as psilocybin and psilocin
are metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. An MAOI reduces the
body's ability to handle the mushrooms (roughly doubling their
potency), and can lead to an unpleasant, prolonged, or dangerously
While it's nearly impossible to overdose on magic mushrooms (one would
have to consume nearly their entire body weight in fresh mushrooms),
the effects of very high doses can be completely and dangerously
Depending on the particular strain, growth method, and age at harvest,
psilocybe cubensis mushrooms can come in rather different sizes. It is
recommended that one weighs the actual mushrooms, as opposed to simply
counting them. Fresh mushrooms have an average water content of about
90�so doses with fresh mushrooms are thus ten times larger than for
Effects usually start after approximately 20-60 minutes (depending on
method of ingestion and what else is in the stomach) and last from four
to five hours. Hallucinatory effects often occur, including walls that
seem to breathe, a vivid enhancement of colors and the animation of
organic shapes. At higher doses, experiences tend to be less social and
more entheogenic, often intense and spiritual in nature.
Although it is illegal in many nations to possess psilocybin containing
mushrooms or mycelium (both of which contain psychoactive substances),
it is legal in several places to own and sell spores. In the United
States only the psychoactive compounds (see above) are scheduled under
federal law. The spores do not contain either (but possession is
prohibited by state law in Ohio, Georgia, California, and Utah).
psilocybin mushrooms is not very difficult (in small quantities), and a
number of books and online guides have been written that discuss
And finally, The Ultimate Beginners Guide to Hunting Psilocybe Cubensis
, by GGreatOne234
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.